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BISC208 Exam 1

by: Rachel Schmuckler

BISC208 Exam 1 BISC208

Rachel Schmuckler

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Notes for the lectures covered in Exam 1 of BISC208 with Dr. Moore.
Introduction to Biology II
Dr. Michael Moore
Biology, Bio, premed, prevet, Ecology, phenotype, genotype, Macroevolution, microevolution, evolution
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This 23 page Bundle was uploaded by Rachel Schmuckler on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BISC208 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Michael Moore in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology II in Biology at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Monday, September 21, 2015 Mechanisms of Microevolution Natural Selection: Darwin’s View - Populations are variable - Variations are, at least in part, heritable - Heritable variations affect survival and reproductive success - If the above is true, then Darwin believed that populations will change over generational time (evolve) Natural Selection - Occurs when alleles differ in the fitness they confer to the organism • Fitness - Increased survival or reproductive success - Probability that an individual possessing an allele will contribute that allele to the gene pool of the next generation • As compared with individuals having alternative alleles • If the dominant allele is present, that allele is more likely to contribute to the next generation as opposed to a recessive allele - Measure of reproductive success - Survival of the fittest? — ironically not used by Darwin - Balance between survival to reproduce and the ability to reproduce - Evolution due to differences in fitness of alleles • Less fit alleles decrease, more fit alleles increase Result: increase in average fitness in the population over generational time • (adaptation) - Adaptation: fit between an organism and its environment, how well it survives and reproduces - NOT RANDOM! 1 Monday, September 21, 2015 • The production of new genetic variation/alleles is random, but natural selection definitely is not random • Predicting the outcome is not possible because we cannot predict which alleles will occur, but the process of natural selection is not random - Steps in Natural Selection: • Production of genetic variation in populations • Changes in allele frequencies as a consequence of differential fitness Hypothetical Example - Fable of the White Bear • Black bear that is genetically mutated to have white fur (not albino) • Black bears were confined in the forest, but every once in a while, a genetic mutation occurs creating a white bear • White bears in the wild is a disadvantage, so their survival is very low • In the tundra, being a white bear is an advantage because it can camouflage better - Just by accident, a white bears occurred amongst a bear population living closer to the tundra - The white bear created a new allele, which increased the fitness of that species in the tundra, reproduced, and then more white bears were produced Trait Distribution - Most phenotypic traits are controlled by many genes (NOT like blue eyes and brown eyes) - These traits show a continuously variable distribution - Usual a normal distribution (i.e. heights of middle aged American men) — bell curve graph Long Term Studies of Natural Selection in Galapagos Finches - Studied the effects of drought induced changed in seed size on beak size 2 Monday, September 21, 2015 • Plants produce larger seeds during drought • How does this affect the beak sizes of finches in the Galapagos Islands? - 1 year drought, larger seeds, general increase in beak size, example of natural selection Natural Selection for Large Phenotypes — Example - Survival of Cliff Swallows after a freezing night - Large individuals survive freezing cold better than the smaller ones - One single cold night shifted the trait distribution in the population Summary: Modern Description of Natural Selection - Within a population, allelic variation arises from random mutations that cause differences in DNA sequences - Some alleles encode proteins that enhance an individual’s survival/reproductive capability as compared to other individuals - Individuals with those beneficial alleles are more likely to survive and contribute to the gene pools of other generations - Over the course of many generations, the allele frequencies may change, significantly altering the characteristics of a population Summary - Evolution is a change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next • Two causes: genetic drift (random) and natural selection (not random) • Fitness leads to adaption - Referring back to why microevolution (gradual changes within a single species over generational time) occurs Natural Selection Patterns - Differ in their effects on trait distribution 3 Monday, September 21, 2015 - Directional Selection • individuals at one extreme of a phenotypic range have greater reproductive success • Initiators: - New allele with higher fitness introduced - Prolonged environmental change (global warming?) • i.e. Galapagos Finches beak size changes • i.e. Population of mice in a dimly lit forest will go from more light mice to more mice with darker fur - Stabilizing Selection • Favors the survival of individuals with intermediate phenotypes • Extreme values of a straight are selected against (lower fitness) • i.e. clutch size on birds - Too many eggs — parents cant feed all the offspring - Too few eggs — reproductive success is too low Over the course of evolution, traits go from broad to exactly the same • - Disruptive/Diversifying Selection • Favors the survival of two or more extreme phenotypes (opposite of stabilizing selection) Likely to occur in populations that occupy heterogeneous environments • • Members of the populations can freely interbreed — not separate species • Example - Metal contaminated soil — favors slow growing metal resistant mutants - Uncontaminated soil — faster growing, mental sensitive parental type plants - Being half-way doesn't do any good, so survival for the intermediate plants is low • i.e. hypothetical bear example - Whites for the tundra, blacks in the forest 4 Monday, September 21, 2015 - Doesn't do them any good to be half and half Darwin’s Critics - How does natural selection explain traits like the peacock’s tail or the elk’s giant antlers? - Darwin in his original book did not have an answer for his critics - Darwin figured it out and wrote his second book, saying that it is sexual selection Sexual Selection - How are males and females different? • Males - Produce microgametes called sperm - Sperm are very simple — some DNA, mitochondria, enzymes, tail - Very small — contribute very little except half of the genetic material to the fertilized egg • Females - Produce macrogametes called eggs or ova(ovum) - Very large, complex, energy rich cells - Contribute everything else the fertilized egg needs addition to half the genetic material - More energy to produce eggs than sperm • Differ in reproductive investment - Males • Low investment in reproductive • One male can fertilize many, many females • Will compete for mating opportunities - Females 5 Monday, September 21, 2015 • High investment in reproduction • Can only make a few eggs or fetuses • Will be choosy about mates because they need to invest their few eggs wisely - Fitness • Likelihood of an individual contributing alleles to the next generation • Attributed to two categories of traits - Natural Selection: traits that make organisms better adapted to their environment - Sexual Selection: traits associated with the ability to reproduce (ability to find, compete for, and attract a mate) • These two categories can oppose each other by each preferring different traits (i.e. peacock tail and elk’s antlers) Intrasexual Selection - Competition amongst males - Leads to exaggerated weapons of competition • Elk’s antlers • Crabs’ claws - Competition rather than an issue survival Intersexual Selection - Female choice - Leads to showy, exaggerated characters for males — their reproductive success is a result of them showing off to the females - Surviving for the male does not matter if the females do not choose you • Peacock’s colorful tail • A bird’s colorful feathers • A special lizard has a colorful bone that only becomes prominent during the process of mating attraction 6 Monday, September 21, 2015 • Spring Peeper Frog — large sound produced from the frog that is one inch big Guppies - Sexual Selection: explains traits that decrease survival but increase reproductive success - Example: male guppy that is very brightly colored - Brightly colored males are: • Healthier, stronger, and more disease resistant • Preferred by females • but, more likely to be noticed and eaten by predators - Observations: • In some streams, brightly colored males dominate — less predators • In other streams, dull colored males dominate — more predators • Why - Few predators = stronger sexual selection - More predators = stronger natural selection • Balance between natural and sexual selection Are human populations currently evolving? - What traits would be favored to increase by natural selection? - Are humans in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? 7 Monday, September 14, 2015 Phenotypic vs. Genetic Variation What is a species? - Organisms that share a distinctive form (look alike) - Interbreed to produce fertile offspring - Population: members of the same species that are likely to encounter each other and have the opportunity to interbreed What is evolution? - Heritable change in characteristics of a population form one generation to the next • Heritable change = genetic change - Considering Mendel’s laws at the level of a population rather than at a level of an individual - Microevolution • Gradual changes within a single species over time - Start with one species, end with one species - How do species change over time? - Macroevolution • One species diversifies into many • How do multiple new species arise? Darwin’s finches • Genetic Variation - Genetic differences among individuals within a species - Necessary precursor for evolution - If a human population consisted of 100% blue eyed individuals, would different eye colors ever evolve? — NO 1 Monday, September 14, 2015 • Low genetic variation = pow potential for evolution • High genetic variation = high potential for evolution • No genetic variation = no evolution - Genetic variation is often much greater than phenotypic variation - Humans are on the lower end of genetic variation - How can we tell how much genetic variation there actually is? Looking at phenotype variation • • One approach is to look at artificial selective breeding - If genetic variation is low, you cannot produce new types by selective breeding • Selective breeding reveals that genetic variation is much greater than phenotypic variation - Example 1: grey wolf vs. domestic dog • Very little genetic differences — same species (“Canus Lupis”) • Hypothesis that wolves gave rise to modern dog breeds by selective breeding - Example 2: vegetables come from other vegetables • Brussel sprouts came from broccoli which came from kale, etc. • While mustard plants look like sunflowers (phenotypes), when actually the genetic variation between the two plants are much different - There is enough existing genetic variation in populations to make some evolutionary change possible, however there are limits • i.e. no matter how hard we try, we probably cannot breed whales from hippos • There is not enough exist genetic variation in populations to account for evolution of new species - i.e. not enough variation in hippo population to create a whale’s tail Phenotypic Variation - Appears very high in human populations 2 Monday, September 14, 2015 - Easy to see that there are lots of underlying genetic variation (eye, skin, hair color, etc) - Finding the differences between humans versus geese • Easier to see the difference in humans than geese because human brain uses faces to determine differences • Harder to see hard material for evolution between animals than with humans - Trying to connect phenotype variation and genetic variation • Darwin assumed that both are the same • Phenotypes can be disconnected from genetics (i.e. dying your hair to a different color changes the phenotypes, not the genotypes) • There can be much more genetic variation than what is visible by phenotypes - In natural populations appears very low - Does low phenotypic variation (low genetic variation) lead to no possibility for evolution? — takes up the majority of Darwin’s book - Phenotypic variation is not the same as genetic variation • Example: recessive alleles can be present that are not expressed in the phenotype Mutations - 100% random changes in DNA - Source of new genetic variations within populations - Because they are random, they can be neutral, harmful, or beneficial (very rare) • Changes of an individual beneficial mutation are vanishingly small (about one in a million) • The one beneficial mutation is what makes mutations significant — takes a very long time for mutations to occur amongst species Long time + low probability = near certainty • - “Given enough time, anything possible becomes probable.” 3 Monday, September 14, 2015 Process of Evolution - Step 1: production of genetic (heritable) variation by random mutation (good, bad, neutral) - Step 2: new genetic variations/mutations replace existing ones in populations 4 Thursday, September 24, 2015 Macroevolution and Speciation Macroevolution - Divergence: one species becomes many - Depicted through cladograms (i.e. tree of life — determined by nucleotide sequence analyses) - How do we get this divergence? What are species? - Different species • Gene pools that are reproductively isolated • Gene pools that are isolated evolve independently - Reproductive Isolation • No gene flow • No sharing of new alleles that arise by mutation • One gene pool: humans…another gene pool: chimpanzee…etc. - Humans and chimps evolve separately - Millions of years ago, these were one gene pool — what caused that gene pool to split into two? • Species evolve independently - 1% of gene flow locks gene pools together — = not separate gene pools, = not separate species, = not evolving independently, = interbreeding occurring Independent Evolution — Character Divergence - Organisms become different (physically, actions, etc.) - Random mutation establishes different alleles in isolated gene pools • Isolated gene pools follow different evolutionary paths 1 Thursday, September 24, 2015 • The gene pools diverge and eventually become separated species - Speciation • Two requirements - Character divergence: different phenotypes and adaptations - Reproductive isolation: no interbreeding = independent evolution • Hypothesis 1: Character divergence comes first - Microevolution is so strong that it creates so much character divergence that interbreeding no longer occurs - Produces disruptive selection • Selection for extremes within a gene pool, causing character divergence Never strong enough to result in reproductive isolation • • Hypothesis 2: Reproductive isolation comes first - Geographical isolation — geological barrier (i.e. mountains, continental drift) or migration to isolated area (i.e. island) • Allopatric speciation — gene pools become geographically isolated first before divergence - Steps: • Reproductive isolation by spatial (geographical) separation of two gene pools • Random genetic differences established Differential evolution causes divergence in each gene pool • • Divergence comes after isolation - Adaptations evolve after secondary contact hybridization - Take many forms: behavior, physiology, anatomy, etc. • Accidental reproductive isolation is followed by divergence Secondary Contact - Two previously separated populations come back into contact 2 Thursday, September 24, 2015 - Outcome 1: If populations have diverged a lot, no interbreeding can occur (if it does, then infertile hybrids occur) so they remain separate species • i.e. mules — hybrid of horses and donkeys, infertile animals - If populations have diverged less, interbreeding occurs and fertile hybrids are produced • Gene flow is re-established, creating a hybrid zone - Outcome 2: Two gene pools merge back into one species • No adaptions are compatible • No fitness cost to hybridization - Outcome 3: Hybridization eventually stops, stopping gene flow, maintaining two separate species in one area • New adaptations are incompatible • Reduced fitness in the hybrids; therefore, organisms that avoid hybridization have increased fitness • Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms: avoidance traits increase • Keeps gene pools separate leaving two separate species which continue to diverge • i.e. Liger (Tiger and Lion hybrid) - fertile animals, not found in the wild - Ligers have lower fitness - Some lines and tigers possess alleles that make them more aggressive toward the other species and less likely to hybridize - These individuals have higher fitness and their alleles increase by natural selection - Interspecific aggression evolves and reestablishes gene pool isolation 3 Monday, September 14, 2015 Mechanisms of Microevolution Population Genetics - Study of genetics at the population level - Focuses on genetic variations in populations and how it changes - Recall Genetics in BISC207: • Every diploid individual has one maternal and one paternal chromosome - Each chromosome has a location called a “locus” for one form of a gene - Two loci for every gene, one on each chromosome • Each locus can have different alleles (forms of a gene) • Genotype: combination of alleles at a locus (AA or Aa) • Phenotype: outward appearance of a trait (eye color) - Blue eyes = recessive (b) — bb - Brown eyes = dominant (B) — BB or Bb Gene Pool - All of the alleles for every gene in a population - Characterize the gene pool in 3 ways • Phenotype frequency: percentage of a specific phenotype in the population (brown eyes or blue eyes) • Genotype frequency: percentage of a specific genotype in the population (BB or Bb or bb) • Allele frequency: percentage of all loci occupied by a specific allele in the population (B or b) - Allele frequency = #copies particular allele (i.e. B)/ #loci (i.e. 2 x #individuals in diploids) - Unlike the other three in the fact that they were not studied by Mendel 1 Monday, September 14, 2015 - Look at the entire population, not the individual • If there are 50 diploid people in the population, there are 100 loci to be studied — How many out of the 100 loci have B and how many have b? - Genetic variation = multiple alleles at a given locus in a population • No genetic variation if the alleles are 100% similar at a given locus - Example 1: Consider a population of blue and brown-eyed humans. There are 50 BB individuals and 50 bb individuals. What are the phenotype, genotype, and allele frequencies in this population? Phenotypes: 50% brown, 50% blue • • Genotype: 50% BB, 0% Bb, 50% bb • Allele: 50% B, 50% b - 100 diploid individuals = 200 loci - 50 people x 2 loci = B - 50 people x 2 loci = b - Example 2: If the population is 50 Bb individuals and 50 bb individuals, what are the phenotype, genotype, and allele frequencies? • Phenotype: 50% brown, 50% blue • Genotype: 0% BB, 50% Bb, 50% bb • Allele: 75% B, 25% b - 100 diploid individuals = 200 loci - 50 people x 1 loci = B - 50 people x 1 loci = b - 50 people x 2 loci = b Evolution - Heritable change in one or more characteristics of a population or species from one generation to the next 2 Monday, September 14, 2015 - Population Genetics: Change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next (more precise definition of evolution) • No evolution = no change in allele frequencies at any loci • Evolution can occur even if the phenotypes do not change • Just because the phenotypes change does not mean that evolution changes - If there are 50% B in the form of 100% Bb and it changes to 50% B with 50% BB and 50% bb, there is no evolution Hardy-Weinberg Law (1908) - 1859: Darwin publishes “Origin of Species” where he defines evolution by natural selection • Struggled with the idea of inheritance • Theory did not agree with the idea of “blended inheritance” - 1903: “Rediscovery” of Mendel’s law regarding inheritance • Not considered the salvation of Darwin’s theory, but rather a tremendous blow to Darwin’s theory • Problem: could Mendel’s laws cause changes in allele frequency? - Would disrupt the slow gradual changes in evolution that were established by Darwin - Were Darwin and Mendel’s ideas compatible? — Hardy and Weinberg answers this question as yes - Hardy: mathematician, algebraic proof, published his paper in the American Journal called “Science,” article was a half page paper (first half is a condescending apology, second half is the algebraic proof) - Weinberg: geneticist, idolized Mendel, breaded thousands of plants in a population over the course of several years, published a 200 page book detailing all his results and coming to the conclusion that no, Mendel’s laws do not cause changes in allele frequencies - Proves that allele frequencies do NOT change simply as a result of Mendelian inheritance 3 Monday, September 14, 2015 • Mendel does not change Darwin’s theory • Confirms that allele frequencies remain stable at “baseline conditions” in a Mendelian population - Allele frequency in generation one = allele frequencies in generation two • Begins the unification of Darwinian evolution and Mendelian inheritance • Provides the key to understanding the mechanisms of evolution - No change in allele frequencies (i.e. no evolution) will occur when all of the following are present • A population that meets these criteria is said to be in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and will not evolve - 1.No new mutations occur - 2.All alleles have neutral mutations (same effect on survival and reproductive rates) - 3.Population is so large that allele frequencies do not change due to random chance effects — effects will average out in a large population - 4.Only random migration occurs between different populations (gene flow) - 5.Random mating Mechanisms of Evolution - Changes in allele frequencies within populations are caused by four mechanisms (=violations of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium) • New mutation • Nonrandom gene flow/migration • Random genetic drift - Random change in allele frequencies that occurs when populations are small (i.e. island populations) - One of the most important factors in natural populations • Natural selection 4 Monday, September 14, 2015 - Occurs when mutations are not 100% neutral - Result of nonrandom mating - One of many mechanisms of evolution (not the same thing as evolution) - One of the most important factors in natural populations - Non-Directional Evolution • Random or chance effects Variants of genetic drift (none of the following are natural selection) • - 1. Genetic Drift • Changes in allele frequencies due to random change alone • Just by accident, one allele is passed on more than another - Unrelated to adaption • Effects depend on population size - Very large population — no genetic drift because random effects are averaged out - Medium populations — weak genetic drift due to some random fluctuation in allele frequencies (most common situation) - Small populations — drift is very strong that natural selection can be override, alleles often go extinct by accident • An allele becomes fixed by chance, an allele goes extinct by change - 2. Founder Effect • Small group of individuals establishes a new colony • Just by chance, some alleles are represented more than others • Allele frequencies different from original population — unrelated to adaption • Common that islands have different genotypes than the mainland - 3. Evolutionary Bottleneck • Population reduced dramatically and then rebuilds • Some genotypes randomly eliminated when population shrinks 5 Monday, September 14, 2015 • New population likely to have less genetic variation (= fewer alleles) than the previous population • Which alleles survive versus which become extinct are random/by chance • i.e. Cheetahs - Almost extinct about 12,000 years ago - All cheetahs today descended from a small pool of survivors — not a lot of current day genetic diversity - Genetic defects similar to inbreeding (i.e. weak immune systems) • Endangered Species Recovery - Black-footed Ferret (18), Whooping Crane (21), California Condor (22) - Populations of all three example species today are around 500 individuals, but at the cost of about $20-40 million per species - Endangered Species Recover y Act - Ivory-billed Woodpecker (1?) - Directional Evolution • Results in increased adaptation - 1. Natural Selection - 2. Sexual Selection • Type of natural selection Topic of Darwin’s second book (1872) — “Sexual Selection in the Descent of • Man” 6 Monday, September 28, 2015 Population Ecology Ecology - Study of the interactions of organisms with their environment (= Biology) - Environmentalism: activism to preserve the natural state of the environment and its ability to sustain life, including humans (= Politics) - Ecology informs environmentalism, but should not be confused by it - Levels of Analysis • Behavioral Ecology: individual organism (i.e. sexual selection) • Population Ecology: single species interacting with its environment • Community Ecology: multiple species interacting with the environment • Ecosystem Ecology: Living and nonliving systems Population Ecology - Populations change over time due to births, deaths, immigration, and emigration - Population is stable when: • Births = deaths Immigration = emigration • - Populations are rarely stable in nature - In an unlimited environment, all biological populations exponentially grow (growth rate increases as population grows) - Exponential growth • Potentially powerful force • i.e. a single pair of house flies could produce trillions of offspring in 1 year (7 generations) • Not sustainable forever, competition will occur 1 Thursday, September 10, 2015 Introduction to Evolution Paradigm Shift - A paradigm is one’s personal view of reality - A paradigm shift is when their views change - Examples: • Declaration of Independence — “All men were created equal” • First Commandment — “Thou shalt not kill” • Newton (1967) — F=ma, gravity, natural not supernatural laws • Copernicus (1543) — Earth (man) is not the center of the universe • Darwin (1859) — evolution, anthropocentrism, “The Origin of Species” • Lyell (1830) — discovered the age of the Earth, introducing the idea of change to the natural world, Earth constantly changes What is Science? - Attempt to explain as much as possible of the world around us using only natural forces - Why restrict ourselves to only using natural forces? • Supernatural hypotheses cannot be tested and proved • Example: falling object (gravity vs. key fairy — evolution vs. creationism) Science excludes supernatural explanations, not because they are false, but • because they are untestable by scientific methods - Not about right or wrong, but rather how much we can explain using natural forces - There is a conflict between religion and science • When science causes paradigm shifts, religious beliefs are also shifted • Science has no answers for religious questions 1 Thursday, September 10, 2015 What is Evolution? - Heritable change in characteristics of a population from one generation to the next - Charles Darwin - Natural Selection: mechanism of evolution that produces a specific type of heritable change - Focus on the process of evolution, rather than the evidence Microevolution - Gradual change within a single species over time • Start with one species, end with the same species (brain size in humans, primitive hippos changing to the current day whale) • How do species change over time? Macroevolution - One species diversifies into many - How do multiple new species arise? - Darwin’s study of the finches that led him to the theory of evolution 2


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