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BISC208 Exam 3

by: Rachel Schmuckler

BISC208 Exam 3 BISC208

Rachel Schmuckler

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Notes for the lectures covered in Exam 3 of BISC208
Introduction to Biology II
Dr. Michael Moore
Biology, Bio, premed, prevet, internal transport, Blood, animals, Respiration, homeostasis
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This 25 page Bundle was uploaded by Rachel Schmuckler on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BISC208 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Michael Moore in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology II in Biology at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Thursday, November 12, 2015 Internal Transport in Animals Internal Transport - Large animals must transport LONG distances - Cannot use only diffusion and a active transport - Have to evolve circulatory systems to move substances around the body by bulk transport - Respiratory surface - gas exchange (lungs, gills) (2 way) - Small intestine - nutrient (one way in) - Body tissues - waste, water, gases, nutrients (2 way) - Kidney - waste, water (one way out) Components of Circulatory System - Pump - heart • Muscle that applies pressure to fluid to move it by bulk transport - Fluid (blood, hemolymph) - Tubes (blood vessels) Open Circulatory System - All small invertebrates (i.e. Daphnia) - Hemolymph pumped by heart tissue (no blood) • Interstitial fluid with blood components • Contains dissolved respiratory pigments for O2 transportation - No tubes or open tubes distribute hemolymph around the body - No blood, no blood vessels, no blood cells 1 Thursday, November 12, 2015 Closed Circulatory System - Closed tubes - Blood is contained inside closed tubes and recirculated • Respiratory pigment (hemoglobin) contains din red blood cells to transport O2 - Many invertebrates and all vertebrates - Advantage - greater control of delivery Types of Blood Vessels - Arteries - carries blood away from the heart, less superficial, thick, carry blood under high pressure, “thick expandable rubber hoses”, elastic walls, blood carried under high speed, no values needed because the heart is applying force to keep the blood moving in one direction, no exchange with tissues • Pulmonary Artery - exception! because it carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs - Capillaries - site of oxygen/nutrient transfer between the blood and body tissues, one flat cell thick, exchange site, low blood velocity - Veins - carries blood away from the capillary usually back to the heart (except the hepatic portal vein), low pressure, more superficial, high velocity, thinner walls and valves to insure the blood moves in one direction, no exchange with tissues Evolution of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems (3 types) - Start with ONE circuit • Heart > gills/lungs > body • Progressively evolutionary separation of: - Blood that goes to capillaries in respiratory surface (lungs/gills) - Blood that goes to capillaries in the res too the body - This culminates in evolution of TWO circuits • Pulmonary circuit (to lungs/gills) 2 Thursday, November 12, 2015 • Systemic circuit (to body) • Heart > gills/lungs > heart > body Fish Circulatory System - Two chambered heart • Atrium - priming pump • Ventricle - main pump that moves the blood around the circuit - Single circle for both gills and body - Blood pressure • Between ventricle and gills - high pressure, deoxygenated Gills (capillaries) - high resistance, changing pressure • Gills to aorta - low pressure, oxygenated, vein • • Systemic capillaries to atrium - low pressure, vein, deoxygenated • Alright for fish with no gravity to overcome (buoyancy) - we would pass out due to the low consistent blood pressure Amphibians and Most Reptiles Circulatory System - 3 chambered heart - Partially separated s systemic and pulmonary circulation - High pressure delivery of blood to systemic capillaries (unlike fish with low pressure) - Two arteries (systemic and circulatory circuits) hooked to a single ventricle - problem! because the two pressures must be the same - lungs limit how much pressure were can be - Limiting mix of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood in ventricle (only about 10% mixes) - minor problem Crocodiles, Birds, and Human Circulatory System - True 4 chambered hearts 3 Thursday, November 12, 2015 - Completely separate pulmonary and systemic circuits - Advantages • Separate circuits have different pressures (higher pressures for systemic circuit) - Right ventricle thicker than left ventricle • Oxygenated and oxygenated blood cannot mix at all - Separate pumps on each side - Left pump - systemic, powerful, his pressure to overcome gravity - Right - pulmonary, weaker, lower pressure to serve lungs Heartbeat - Cardiac Cycle - Cardiac cycle = one heartbeat - Relaxed heart fills with blood and contracts to pump blood into parties (both sides contract together) - Heart valves • One-way valves that prevent back flow Atrioventricular valves - between atria and ventricles, prevent back flow into atria • when ventricles contract • Semilunar valves - between ventricle and artery, prevent back flow from the major arteries into the ventricles - Diastole • 2/3 of actual heartbeat • Filling with blood - Blood enters relaxed heart from the vein - Blood fills the ventricle and then the atrium - Atrium contracts - Valves in vein prevent back flow - Blood forced through A/V vale into ventricle 4 Thursday, November 12, 2015 - Systole • Pumping blood - Ventricles contract - Back pressure forces A/V value to shut (LUB) - Pressure forces semilunar valves open and blood forced into artery - Ventricles relax - Elastic recoil of artery causes back pressure which closes semilunar valve (DUB) Regulation of the Heartbeat - What causes the heart muscle to contract? Skeletal muscle - neurogenic contractions (the brain) • Heart muscle - myogenic contractions (originates within the muscle) • - What coordinates the heartbeat? • Both atria contact in unison, then both ventricles contract in unison • Heart muscle cells are connected by gap junctions - Contraction stimulus (action potential) flows from one cell to another - Intact heart acts as one large cell because the connected cells function as one • Conducting System - specialized muscle fibers carry contraction stimulus throughout heart • No nerves!! - Since heart cells are interconnected, the fasted beating component drives there eat of the heart (= pacemaker) - Components of Conducting System • Pacemaker - patch of cells in right atrium, first set of cells to contract • A/V Node - small bundle of fibers that connects the atria and ventricles (only connection in conducting system between atria and ventricles), slow fibers (slows the stimulus) 5 Thursday, November 12, 2015 • Bundle of His and Purkinje Fibers - spread contraction stimulus quickly from A/V node throughout the ventricles - Heartbeat is myogenic - pacemaker spontaneously depolarizes, generating contractions stimulus - Role of nervous system Pathway of Contraction Stimulus - Pacemaker initiates contractions stimulus Isolated atria cells beat at 60bpm, isolated ventricle cells beat at 40bpm, isolated • pacemaker beats at 72bpm • Pacemaker makes everything beat at 72bpm - Atrium Muscle cells - contraction stimulus spreads through gap junctions of normal atrial muscle cells to both atria and they contract together - AV node - delays contraction of ventricles to allow the atria to finish contracting - Bundle of His spreads contraction stimulus quickly from AV node to the rest of the ventricles (both ventricles contract simultaneously) Pumping of Blood in Veins - Veins • Pressure in veins is very low • High resistance of capillaries completely dissipates pressure from heart • No pressure from hear to move blood • What applies pressure in veins to move blood? - skeletal muscles contract, breathing (expanding and contracting chest cavity acts as a pump) 6 Thursday, December 3, 2015 Animal Digestion Digestive System - Nutrient needs are met by the digestive system - Heterotrophs - Food macromolecules must be broken down (digested) • Carbs into sugar • Proteins into amino acids (nitrogen!) • Fats into free fatty acids and glycerol Nutrient Requirements - Why are food macromolecules digested outside of the body? • We prevent self-digestion — enzymes must distinguish between self and food - Compartmentalize it - Must protect the stomach with a mucus lining that is about an inch thick because the stomach contents are really damaging to tissue • Macromolecules are not readily absorbed Immune system has to distinguish self from food • - Food macromolecules can be recognized as not self so it could be attacked - Small molecules do not react with the immune system Phases of Digestion - Ingestion - food is taken into a body cavity (gut lumen) - Digestion - food is broken down (outside the body) • Physical: prepare food for chemical digestion - Water is added to food - Food is broken down into small particles to expose more surface area 1 Thursday, December 3, 2015 • Chemical: food macromolecules chemically broken down into subunits by enzymes in the gut (carbohydrates, proteins, fats into sugars, amino acids, fatty acids) - Absorption - subunits are absorbed into the body Digestion - Most animals have tubular guts - mouth that takes in food, anus for waste excretion - One-way processing of food because the food is processed sequentially and each part is specialized for different parts of the sequence (nutrients would be lost and/or not absorbed) - All regions inside the tubular gut are outside the body of the animal • Only by crossing the cell membrane lining the gut do nutrients enter the body - Generalized Digestive System Buccal cavity (mouth) — ingestion, physical digestion (chewing) • • Stomachs, crops and gizzards — storage chambers, physical digestion • Midgut or intestine — chemical digestion, absorption • Hindgut — recovers water and ions, stores undigested material (feces), endosymbiotic bacteria live in the hind guts of many animals (probiotics!) - These bacteria obtain nutrients from food, contribute to the digestive process of the host, digest cellulose in some herbivores Mouth - Physical digestion • Chewing • Saliva — adds water to food - Chemical digestion • Salivary Amylase - enzyme, breaks down carbs into sugars, begins process during normal chewing • Salivary Lipase - enzyme, only two in the body, partially digests fat 2 Thursday, December 3, 2015 Esophagus - Bulk transport food from mouth to stomach - Peristalsis - sequential contraction of circular muscles lining gut to move food downward, one mechanisms to insure one-way bulk transport Stomach - Physical digestion • Food is churned for hours • Water added • HCl added — dissolves food, helps sterilize food, physically digests food even though it is a chemical - Chemical digestion • Pepsin - enzyme that partially digests protein - As organisms get larger, they need more surface area in their midgut to increase their ability to exchange with their environment Small Intestine - Organism-environment interface of digestive system - Very large surface area - Where food enters the body - Physical digestion • Bile from liver (stored in gallbladder) breaks up fat droplets - Acid neutralization Bicarbonate from pancreas neutralizes stomach acid • - Chemical digestion • Many enzymes from wall of small intestine and from pancreas complete chemical digestion of carbs, fats, and proteins 3 Thursday, December 3, 2015 - Duodenum - beginning of small intestine - Human Small Intestine • Absorption - large surface area to maximize absorption, wall is richly folded into villi (6000 sq ft) - Individual cell membranes have folds called microvilli - Villi and microvilli present enormous surface area of absorption (300,000 sq ft) - Absorption only occurs in the small intestine (not stomach!) • Fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, ions, water are absorbed across the wall of the small intestine into the body • Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport • Nutrients are carried in blood to liver and then to the rest of the body Large Intestine, Colon - Absorb water and ions - Produce semisolid feces from indigestible material - Constipation if too much water absorption takes place - Diarrhea if too litter water absorption takes place — due to a pathogen - Hydration is important in the functioning of large intestine and production of feces - Intestinal bateria • Produce gases such as methane and hydrogen sulfide as by-products of anaerobic metabolism • Synthesize a tiny amount of vitamin K which is absorbed in the body - Fecal matter — mostly dead cells from lining of gut and bacteria • Feces do not contain metabolic waste produced in the body - Exception: bilirubin (broken down hemoglobin) added to bile - Blocked bile duct = feces not brown 4 Thursday, November 19, 2015 Gas Transport in Blood Blood Transport of Respiratory Gases - Internal Transport of Gas • CO2 - Water soluble, transported in blood plasma - CO2 + H2O > H2CO3 > HCO3- + H+ - Dissolved CO2 makes blood more acidic • O2 - Weakly soluble in water - Hemoglobin (Hb) • Respiratory pigment (red) • Contained in red blood cells • 60X increase in the capacity of plasma to transport O2 • Large protein • 4 polypeptide units - Each has a heme (iron-containing) group - 4 iron atoms in each molecule of Hb - O2 reversibly binds to the heme group • Hb + O2 > HbO2 • Oxygen uptake and delivery is regulated by the local concentration of oxygen - changes equilibrium point - Le Chatelier’s Principle (Law of Mass Action) - Hb concentration in blood is constant • High O2 - reaction to the right - O2 binds Low O2 - reaction to the left - O2 released • 1 Thursday, November 19, 2015 - About 50% of blood is RBC, so about 50% of blood is hemoglobin Cooperativity - Fine tuning of O2 delivery to match demand - Gas exchange occurs in only two places - capillaries in lungs (full saturation of O2), capillaries in tissues (less O2) - All four O2 molecules do not bind to Hb with the same affinity • Binding of the first molecule of O2 makes the second binding easier, bind of the second makes the binding of the third easier, etc • Binding decreases as saturation reached - no available binding sites - Spreads out O2 binding of Hb over greater range of O2 concentrations • Allows fine tuning of O2 delivery to meet tissue demands - Shifting the equilibrium causes O2 to either bind or be released - Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve • Indicates amount of O2 bond to Hb at given O2 concentration • Does not represent changes in the body, but allows us to determine those changes - Without cooperativity, Hb saturates at very low O2 concentrations - At rest, O2 concentration still fairly high in tissue, only about 20% of O2 is released - During activity, O2 concentration is lower in tissue due to activity using up O2 in cellular respiration, more O2 is released because of change in equilibrium point - Hemoglobin always fully loads itself with O2 because it doesn't know where it is going, so it is always prepared for long distance trips in the body 2 Monday, November 9, 2015 Water Balance and Nitrogen Excretion Excretory System - Functions: • Excrete metabolic waste - Carbohydrate - CO2 and water - Fat - CO2 and water - Protein - CO2, water, ammonia (wasted nitrogen) • Tissue fluid and water balance • Excrete toxins - Ammonia • Highly toxic waste product • Aquatic animals can deal with ammonia because it is very soluble in water - Diffuses rapidly across gill membranes down concentration gradient - Excrete ammonia immediately at the gil • Terrestrial Animals - Very toxic! • Cannot build up anywhere in the body • Must be very dilute • Would cost lots of water to excrete directly - Solution: convert ammonia to less toxic molecules • Urea - Mammals and some amphibians - Moderately toxic, can be concentrated for excretion to save water - Moderate ATP cost • Uric Acid 1 Monday, November 9, 2015 - Birds, reptiles, some amphibians, insects - High ATP cost - Nontoxic, excreted as a solid to save water - Water Balance Problems • Aquatic - osmosis at gills - Freshwater Environment is hypo-osmotic (more dilute) • • Constantly gaining water through gills - Saltwater • Environment is hyper-osmotic (more concentrated) • Constantly losing water through gills • Terrestrial • Solutions - Osmoconformers • Allow body fluids to be at equilibrium with environment - Small marine invertebrates tolerate wide range of osmolality - Sharks and rays • Allow urea to build up in blood until solute concentration of blood equals sea water • No osmotic gradient = no water loss • Aquatic - Freshwater organisms: too much water gained through gills No drinking • • Constantly producing large quantities of dilute urine - Osmoregulatory • Actively regulate water intake and loss to maintain water homeostasis 2 Monday, November 9, 2015 • Aquatic - Saltwater organisms: dehydrating environment (similar to a desert) • Produce concentrated urine • Drink constantly • Excrete excess salt with special cells in gills - Why about seabirds and whales that have no access to freshwater to drink? Humans have weak kidneys • - To excrete the salt in 1L of seawater, we have to produce 1.2L of urine - We die of dehydration if we drink seawater • Solutions - Marine mammals have strong kidneys that produce more concentrated urine - Seabirds have special glands for excreting salt 3 Thursday, December 3, 2015 Synapses Synapse - Action potential propagates down axon - One way flow of information - Arrives at synaptic terminal - Communicates with other neurons at the synapse - Parts • Synaptic terminal - Contain vesicles filled with neurotransmitters (chemical signals to adjacent cells at synapse) • Acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine, etc. • 70% of all meds either simulate or block neurotransmitters • All recreational drugs mimic one of these neurotransmitters • Synaptic cleft • Postsynaptic membrane - Membrane of receiving cell - Contains receptors for neurotransmitters - Function • Arrival of action potential at synapse causes - Voltage gates Ca++ channels to open - Ca++ enters the cell due to charge gradient - Ca++ causes vesicles to fuse with outside membrane of synaptic terminal • Neurotransmitter released into synaptic cleft by exocytosis • Neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft • Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on postsynaptic membrane 1 Thursday, December 3, 2015 • Most receptors are ion channels that open to cause voltage changes in membrane of postsynaptic cell - Resting potential = -60mV - Treshold voltage = -50mV - Trigger voltage must be +10mV or greater - Purkinje Cell Integration - Each nerve cell receives thousands of synaptic input simultaneously - Different synapse can cause positive or negatives changes in voltage (depolarizing or hyperpolarizing) - The cell integrates (sums up) all the voltages - If voltage reaches threshold (=-50mV), an action potential is produced • Sums all arriving action potentials into one • Each neuron continuously asks: Are summed voltages strong enough to trigger the voltage aged na+ channels to open? - Integration of synaptic input voltages occurs billions of times per second constantly in our brains 2 Monday, November 30, 2015 Nervous System: Neurons and Action Potentials Neurons - What are neurons? • Specialized cells of the nervous system • Receive, integrate, and transmit information - What is the nerve impulse? • How information is transmitted • Electricity - negatively charged electrons, has resistance as the electricity moves down a wire causing it to degrade • Nerve impulses - positively charged ions, signal does not degrade with distance as it does with electricity, slow because of the slow movement of ions (not electrons) - Parts of the Neuron • Dendrites: receive information from other neurons or sense organs, post-synaptic receptors • Cell Body: integrates information from dendrites • Axon: transmits nerve impulse, long distances • Synaptic terminals: release chemicals called neurotransmitters • Synapse: point of communication between nerve cells Resting Potential - Properties of a neuron at rest (no nerve impulse) • Cell membrane has lots of active Na+/K+ pumps - Turns ATP to ADP and uses the energy to pump 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in • Eventually, the inside of the cell will be more negative than the outside of the cell (high Na+ concentration outside, high K+ concentration inside) • Because of diffusion, K+ will move outside the cell and Na+ will stay outside the cell 1 Monday, November 30, 2015 - As K+ leaves the cell, the voltage on the inside of the cell becomes more negative and the outside becomes more positive • This leads to more diffusion of K+ back inside the cell - Not regulated, constantly running • Cell membrane at rest is impermeable to Na+ ions • Cell membrane at rest is permeable to K+ ions - Through leak channels (permanently open channels through the membrane) - Resting Potential = Voltage = Charge Difference - Origins of Resting Potential • Concentration gradients - Na/K pump uses ATP and produces concentration gradients by pumping Na outside against concentration gradient (high Na+ outside) and K+ inside against concentration gradient (high K+ inside) • Charge gradient - Na+ does not move because membrane is impermeable to Na+ - K+ diffuses out of the cell because of high concentrate of K+ inside - Cell interior becomes negative due to loss of K+ - K+ moves into cell attracted by negative charge • Two opposing currents = movement of charge - Outward K current due to concentration gradient - Inward K current due to charge gradient - Resting potential (charge difference) — when these two currents balance the cell is at its resting potential (steady state) • About -60mV = steady state Nerve Impulse - Sudden change in membrane voltage 2 Monday, November 30, 2015 - First, suddenly more positive - Then, suddenly more negative - Change in voltage = action potential Comparison with electricity - Both movements of charge - Electrical signals degrade with distance, nerve impulses do not - Electrical signals vary in strength, nerve impulses do not (all-or-none) Voltage Gates Ion Channels - Open and close in response to voltage - Unlike leak channels - Located in cell membranes of neuron and muscle cells - Voltage-gates Na+ channeles • Open and close quickly - Voltage-gates K+ channels • Open and close slowly - Arrival of Action potential • Arrival of information from a sense organ or another nerve changes the membrane voltage of a nerve cell • Two changes - Depolarizing (towards zero) - Hyper polarizing (away from zero - more negative) - Step 1: Rising Phase • Depolarizing voltage triggers action potential causing voltage Na+ channels to open and K+ to close • Na+ and K+ open, Na+ in 3 Monday, November 30, 2015 - Step 2: Falling Phase • Na+ channels rapidly close • Now positive interior of cell no longer holds + inside • Rapid movement of K+ outside the cell - Concentration gradient - high K+ inside - Charge gradient - negative exterior attracts positive ions - Open voltage gated K+ channels speeds this process • Sudden negative charge in membrane potential as K+ leaves the cell • Na+ closed, K+ open, K+ out - Step 3: Re-establishing Resting Phase • Departure of K+ to get negative charge on inside of cell • Cell enters the same steady state it was in before the action potential • Pump works to restore ion distribution across membrane • K+ voltage channels close, but membrane is still permeable to K+ because leak channels Propagation of Nerve Impulse - A stimulus causes depolarization of one part of the membrane - Voltage-gates Na+ channels open (action potential!) - Na+ flows into the cell - Na+ diffuses to adjacent parts of the membrane and causes depolarization - More voltage-gates Na+ channels open - Repeated down the axon - Voltage gated ion channels open sequentially in a wave from one end of the axon to the other - Charge appears to move from one end to the other • All or none, not decrease in strength 4 Monday, November 9, 2015 Kidney Function Water Balance - Kidney: produces concentrated urine so metabolic water and toxins can be extorted with less water • Challenges - Filter blood by separating the “good” from the “bad” • Excrete the bad (metabolic wastes and toxins), retain the good (sugars, amino acids, etc) - How do you produce concentrated urine? — osmosis! • Need to save water • Must move water against a concentration gradient through osmosis • Filter more water than excreted • Types of Kidneys - Simple Secretion Kidney • One step: kidney removes bad from blood directly • Good stays in the bloodstream Rely on diffusion • - Filtration Reabsorption Kidney • Two steps - 1 Both good and bad removed from blood - 2 Good reabsorbed, leaving the bad to be excreted • All large organisms have this type - Deals with novel toxins and poisons • Secretion kidney - left in blood Filtration-Reabsorption kidney - excreted • 1 Monday, November 9, 2015 • All toxins excreted - Basically, anything not recognized as good is excreted (even medicines!) Kidney Nephron - Functional unit of the vertebrate kidney - Human kidney has a million nephrons each - Large surface area = organism-environment interface - Invagination on the kidney surface - Functions: • Filtration Reabsorption = excretion of wastes and toxins (bad) • Production of concentrated urine • - Parts of the nephron • Glomerulus (blood vessel, arteriole that is full of holes) • Glomerular, Nephric, Browman’s Capsule (part of the kidney nephron) • Convoluted Tubules • Loop of Henle • Collecting Ducts - Glomerulus - Blowman’s Capsule • Site of filtration • Blood pressure faces liquid portion of blood into glomerular capsule • Everything except good cells and proteins filtered Non-selective — everything filtered • - Remove urea and toxins, sugar, amino acids, fatty acids, triglycerides, etc (everything in bloodstream) • Fluid collected = “filtrate” 2 Monday, November 9, 2015 - Filtrate becomes urine as it goes down nephron - Convoluted Tubules • Reabsorption • Water, ions, amino acids, sugars, etc returned to blood • Selective and unregulated • Basically purified the blood at this point - Bad left in filtrate, good reabsorbed • Reabsorption requires active transport - Example: glucose concentrate reduced to zero in filtrate (diabetes is when this doesn't happen) Secretion: minor secretion of K+ ions from blood to filtrate • - Loop of Henle • Complex counter current exchanger • Net effect creates high concentration of solutes (mostly NaCl) in tissues surrounding collecting ducts Creates osmotic gradient used in concentrate urine • • Zone of high solute concentration - Collecting Duct • Final adjustment of urine concentration - Depends on whether you are dehydrated, hydrated, or overhydrated - Dehydrated • Cells of collecting duct are permeable to water • Water is removed from urine by osmosis • Concentrate urine produced • Thirst doesn't kick in until you are significantly dehydrated - Hydrated 3 Monday, November 9, 2015 • Cells of collecting duct are impermeable to water • Water stays in the urine • Dilute urine is produced Bladder - Storage organ for urine - In mammals • NO processing of urine takes place in the bladder • NOTHING is absorbed from the bladder 4


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