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POL 201 Semester Notes

by: Stephanie Sheehan

POL 201 Semester Notes POL 201

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Stephanie Sheehan


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These are a set of notes from the whole class
Intro to American Government
Professor Thompson
history, Government, political science
75 ?




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Date Created: 01/28/16
Defining Government 01/15/2014 ▯ Political System = the way society has organized to make decisions for the  group ▯ Political Ideology = A set of beliefs and values about human nature, society,  science, history, religion, etc. which leads to a preferred political system ▯ What is government?  Entity that can legitimately use force  Purpose = social order ▯ Social Order  Safety for group of people o Laws o Police o Relations with other groups o Military  Convenience o Public goods and services ▯ Social Contract Theory  Came from enlightenment theory from Thomas Hobbes  17  century  if not satisfactory, people have a right to overthrow the government   Locke defined human rights  Hobbes said humans are born in sin, selfish, violence prone  Locke said people were born with a clean slate and mostly turned out good  Rousseau argued for social contract theory ▯ Natural Theory  Aristotle  People like social interactions and want community and are willing to give  rights for social ▯ All Force theory  Stronger will be in charge  Anarchy  Positive view about human nature  Can achieve social order without government ▯ ▯ Antiquity 500 BC – 500 AD  Athens Greece o Direct rule  Rome o Indirect rule  “representative democracy” ▯ Middle Ages 500 AD – 1500 AD ▯ Modern Ages 1500 - today  Enlightenment 1600’s – 1700’s o Classical liberal philosophers o ▯ Nation – identify as a group ▯ State- political term ▯ Nationalism – feeling of/set of ideas; feeling love an loyalty to their group ▯ Nation-state – people who identify as a group have their own government; break away from empire; promoted by Rousseau ▯  195 today  Kurds, Catalonians, Palestinians all want all states ▯ Democratic Ideology: believe that democracy s the best political system of a set of beliefs and values; emerge from the enlightenment  Freedom House o Non-partisan group that tracks the progress of democracy o Look at:  How much power does the population have over the government and decisions?  How much freedom do the people have from the government o In 1900:  0 free states  25 partially free states  80 not free ▯ Liberal Democracy: very democratic political system ▯ Representative Democracy: choose people to represent us to make decisions for the group ▯ ▯ In a representative democracy, there will be elections for government officials. However, some political systems that have elections are not representative democracy(like Germany in the 1930’s and 1940’s which was a totalitarian dictatorship.  Things that affect democracy of elections: o Government rigging elections o Threat to vote o Threat to run o Unable to be educated about candidates o Poll taxes/tests o Having term limits o Location of poll booths  Direct elections is when people vote  Indirect elections is when representatives vote on behalf of people o E.g. federal court judges, party presidential candidates  More popular is go with representative indirect democracy Sovereign state = a country that has a right to be independent from others Popular sovereignty = people have a right to be independent from the government absolute rule ▯ Why settle/explore?  Natural resources  More land, more people, more power  Passage to China and silk road ▯ British America  1607 Jamestown Colony o business colony  1620 Plymouth Colony o religious colony  1750’s o socioeconomic hierarchy develops o 13 colonies with 2.5 million people  10% not great Britain/outer great Britain region o England had constitutional monarchy  Most stable in world at time  Considered most advanced enlightenment gov.  Monarchy started to change from Magna Carta when king’s council formed  Gentry forms in addition to nobility  House of Lords and House of Commons  British Parliament with Prime Minister o Problems in colonies  Raised taxes  no taxation without representation  Wanted members in house of commons  Boston Tea Party, 1773  closed Boston Harbor, closed colonial legislature of Massachusetts, made Boston reimburse East India Trade Company, sent more British troops  First Continental Congress 1774 55 men called on by disbanded Mass. Colonial legislature to discuss problems with English  wrote letter to Parliament  closed harbors to trade  creation of colonial militias more British troops  Revolutionary War o Battle of Lexington and Concord April 19 , 1775  British general wanted to confiscate weapons and sent out warrants for Sam Adams and John Hancock  Militia came out and attacked o Second Continental Congress 1775  Goal to get cease fire and negotiate with English government  45-65 men came  sent letters and papers for a year  chose John Hancock to be presiding officer  chose Charles Thompson to oversee business organization  chose George Washington to organize militias and create continental army as a defensive military just in case  John Adams and Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin and Richard Henry Lee interested in independence  Richard Henry Lee, pushed by people of Virginia, brings up independence idea at 2 nd meeting  John Adams (MA) head of independence committee debate with Jefferson (VA), Franklin (PA), Livingston (PA), and Sherman (CT)  Problems with independence:  Nationalism feelings  Liked the enlightened English government  Unattainable battle  Challenge of setting up structure  Rich didn’t want risk of losing money  All 13 state delegations had to agree  Adams had Jefferson write it because:  Jefferson better writer  Jefferson from VA, not MA nd  Everyone at 2 CC loved Jefferson, disliked Adams  Franklin we are not exactly English anymore; we’re a new nation, deserve a new state influenced by Rousseau  Some members had nothing left to loose due to previous crimes against English government o Declaration of Independence  Why they have a right to be their own sate  Written by Jefferson; influenced by enlightenment philosophy, particularly John Locke’s social contract theory  “we hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal”  rest is a list of complaints  by the time it was released, most public opinion felt the same way as the 2 ndcontinental congress  estimated 20% of colonists were pro-British o 1 Constitution- “Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union”  Explains relationship between people an government  Changed name from British America to United States of America  Not many countries had constitutions, but England did  Approved by 1781  John Adams “Mouth of Revolution”, George Washington “Sword of Revolution” , Jefferson “Pen of Revolution”  Fighting stops in 1782  Peace Treaty 1783  Base Constitution off ideas of enlightenment and Athenian democracy  Confederation lasted from 1782-1787  U.S. government was not sovereign because of state governments  In order to work, government needs to:  Make laws  Carry out laws  Interprets laws  U.S. Congress had 13 delegations, each state had to figure out how to send people each year  Voted by majority rule 7/13 to propose new law  9/13 states to approve law; hard to pass laws o Shay’s Rebellion  Started due to farmers debt as an unsolvable problem  Mass. Militia put riot down, but had lasting fear and mistrust of Confederation  Confederation goes broke in first five years after the war  Couldn’t deal with foreign policy  No trading agreements made states compete against each other and hinder economic growth  no common currency  no national defense  states passed stay acts  like tax holidays for a year; loosened mortgage payments and debt payments  some people thought there was too much democracy o Constitutional Convention 1787  Alexander Hamilton and James Madison suggested to Congress to change the laws, but impossible to amend the constitution without all states agreeing  Worked on rewriting it in secret; helped by Ben Franklin ▯ U.S. Constitution  Montesquieu wrote about separation of powers  Article I o Legislative branch  U.S. Congress  U.S. House + U.S. Senate o Direct election of U.S. House- 2 years o Indirect election of Senate- 6 years  Article II o Executive Branch  President  Indirect election  Electoral college votes for pres, state legislature chose state electors  Article III o Judicial Branch  Judges  indirect election  nominated by president, senate approves  Compromises o Large population and small population states o Northern and southern states o National government more powerful but not too powerful o Democracy, but not too much democracy  Slavery o Slave trade compromise  Not possible for revision until after 1808  Whoever a state will allow to enter, can enter  Article IV o Non slave states have to return run away slaves (“people held in service”)  Developed Federation = two or more governments sharing power over the same people  Unitary system = strong single national government; would’ve killed the 13 states  Constitution is silent on many things o Political parties not part of it o Abortion o Death penalty o Marijuana use o City/county governments  Allows interpretation changes  National government regulates interstate and international commerce; whatever laws are “necessary and proper” to do so o Responsible for EPA laws o Non-discrimination in workplace laws  7 Articles Total ▯ 27 Amendments  Article 5 explains directions for making amendments  2 ways to propose amendment o 2/3 U.S. House and 2/3/ Senate o 2/3 state governments ask for constitutional convention, where the constitutional convention decides  2 ways to ratify o ¾ state legislatures o ¾ state congress ratifying convention o ▯ U.S. Constitution  7 articles  27 amendments o 1-10 amendments  Bill of Rights  Freedom from government  Civil liberties  Amendment II o Right to state militias o Right to people to bear arms  Amendment VI o 6 things in terms of trials:  impartial jury in place crime was committed  must be held in public  speedy trial  reason for being contained  right to confront witnesses against you  right to defense attorney and subpoena people to testify for you  Amendment VII o If argument exceeds damages of $20 in civil case, then you have right to a jury trial  When no money compensation is involved, decision is made by judge o If decision is made by jury on facts, case cant be overturned  Amendment VIII o No excessive bail  **sometimes bail not allowed if money will never be enough, or if death penalty is considered o no excessive fines (decided by judge) o No cruel and unusual punishments  1833 Supreme court said that Bill of Rights cannot protect against State government laws o property case in Maryland  1868 Amendment XIV o section I  state cannot take away life, liberty, or property without due process of law  1897 company had property taken away for public use without just compensation o court creates substantive due process of law in addition to the traditional procedural due process o if government recognizes something as a fundamental human right (right to control your own property), they will not treat case with procedural due process o state cannot take away fundamental human right without th violating 14 amendment o state must compensate for property  1927 Fisk v. Kansas o government included freedom of speech into due process o state governments can’t take away freedom th free speech because they are violating your 14 amendment right to due process o ▯ only 13% of states have federation  India, Canada, Mexico, Russia ▯ reasons to form federation:  large population  large territory  solves differences (different religions or language) ▯ unitary systems:  japan  smaller, easier authority ▯ reasons US has federalism:  unitary system would not be accepted  too diverse in everything: lifestyle, culture, economy  easier to manage social order than with confederation ▯ Problems:  When states and national government disagree on subjects and make different laws: o Medicinal/recreational marijuana use  No rules on education: uneven opportunity  Funding o State gov take sales taxes o Local gov takes property tax ▯ Gentlemen’s Agreement  Madison promised states that they would make Bill of Rights after the Constitution was ratified ▯ Federalism in the Constitution  Powers of national government defined in Article 1, section 8  National government can (enumerated powers): o 30 powers they have:  Raise and maintain army and navy  Borrow money  Make post office  Set up infrastructure  Regulate interstate commerce  Can establish naturalization of citizens laws  Copyright laws  Bankruptcy laws  Can declare war  Coin money  Make all laws necessary and proper to carry out their powers (elastic clause)  Powers National Government can’t do listed in Article 1 section 9 o 10 powers they don’t have  ex-facto laws  cant suspend habeas corpus   Powers National Government must do for States listed in Article 4 section 4 o 3 things:  protect states from invasion  has to guarantee states representative democracy form of government  internally keep peace  state governments must do things for other state governments for people of those states listed in Article 4 sections 1 & 2 o give full faith and credit to other states to other states public acts, records, and judicial seeings  example: recognition of marriage license between states  1996 DOMA (Defense of Marriage Act) stated that other states don’t have to recognize it if the state doesn’t want to o if someone commits a crime in a state and flees to another, the state must send back person upon request  Powers state government can’t do listed in Article 1 section 10 o 10 things:  can’t make treaties with foreign countries  can’t coin their own money  can’t have confederation among states  collect taxes on imports or exports  go to war  can’t keep troops in time of peace  can’t entitle nobilities  can’t make ex-post facto laws  can’t pass bill of attainder o about 6 amendments to revise o also add iththe first ten amendments  13 Amendment states can’t have slavery  can’t stop African American, women, 18 year olds from voting or use poll taxes  cant take away privileges and immunities and give equal protection to citizens when making laws  14 Amendment due process of law o state officials must take oath to follow constitution article 6 Implied Powers in the Constitution  a.k.a. the elastic clause  McCulloch (National government) v. Maryland (1819) o Supported implied powers; supreme court upheld verdict o E.g. Equal Pay Act of 1963 o Civil Rights Act of 1964  Great Depression o Extended the basis of federalism ▯ Affordable Health Care Act of 2010  All based on commerce clause (article 1 section 8), and done through elastic clause o Insurance companies have to keep children on health insurance plan until 26 years old if the parents decide to o Insurance companies cannot charge women more than men o If you have a preexisting health condition (cancer), insurance company can’t turn you down o Company can’t kick you off plan if while they are on the plan, they become sick o Every individual must have health insurance; taxed if not ▯ Income Tax  Taxes individual and corporate income o Gov. can’t tax individually, only tax states by census population th  Passed 16 amendment in 1913 to make income tax possible  States have recently added state income tax  Government started giving grant money to states during 1930’s o Gov. can manipulate states to do something national government wants to do but can’t do constitutionally but that states can  Federal Highway Act of 1956  national government gave highway money to states to better name highways and plan better  in 1984 national government gave highway money to states in order to have states raise drinking age  speed limit at 55 on highways to solve fuel shortage problem o known as block grants ▯ Judicial Review  Can review laws passed by government and decide constitutionality  Not stated directly, but implied in the power of courts to review cases about constitution  First time was in 1803 for federal government  1810 state violated constitution; states thought they had the right to interpret constitution o solidified after civil war  Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) th o Claimed that segregation of schools by states violated the 14 amendment  Article 6 supremacy clause o “judges of every state will be bound thereby the constitution” o U.S. constitution and national level laws and treaties are supreme law of the land, even if they contradict a state law o National laws preempt state laws  National government has federal minimum wage ($7.25) done through commerce clause plus elastic th clause o 10 amendment (1791) gives all laws that are not delegated to national government to the states/people  supreme court considered enumerated and implied powers as national powers, not just written powers ▯ National Crisis  People in modern times have become more accepting of an expanding national government  National government is pushed by people to do more o Economic, structural  Great Depression 1929-1941 o Huge growth of national government o Social Security Act of 1935 done through commerce clause plus elastic clause  7.5% you, 7.5% company  grew to include disabled workers and dependents of dead workers in 1960’s o Aid to Families with dependent children  Welfare program that gave money to children of widows  National government had to manipulate states to do so  Civil War 1861-1865 o 11 states leave US and create Confederate States of America o president Jefferson Davis o Fort Sumter North Carolina south attacked northern army base o 30 million people in U.S.  4 million fought in civil war  750,000 died o fought over issues of slavery, federalism, nationalism o General Robert E. Lee for Confederacy o Outlawed slavery through amendments after civil war started because the southern states were not present in Congress o Amendments  13 in 1865  14 in 1868 th  15 in 1870 o sent to all 36 state governments, states forced to ratify amendments in order to rejoin US after war o ▯ political party = group of people with same political ideas running members to try to get them into government positions left  right ▯ radical – liberal – moderate – conservative – reactionary ▯ ▯ emergence of political parties  Federalist Party 1791  classical conservatives o Alexander Hamilton and John Adams o Strong central government, loved tradition o Though it was okay for government to encourage religion o Government should be involved in personal lives and in economy o Liked the applied powers idea o Supporters were merchants, higher education, more wealth, generally northern  Democratic Republican Party 1792  classical liberals o Formed by Jefferson and Madison o Fought for Bill of Rights o Southern white party, okay with slavery o Beats out Federalists  Whig Party 1834  classical conservatives o Northern, more elite party o Similar ideas to Federalists o Eventually fall apart  Republican Party 1854  classical conservatives o Abe Lincoln o Strong national government o Openly opposed slavery  Democratic Party 1828  classical liberals o Same party as Democratic Republicans o Over time they changed their mind about ▯ Great Depression 1932  Hoover (R)  FDR (D) o Changed course of democratic policy o Made social security o Government regulation of stock market o Federal Reserve o Keynesian policy  This election makes Democrats, who were states rights, and Republican, who were strong national government rights, switch advocacies  Now are called “modern”  African Americans stopped voting majority for republicans and started voting for democrats  Animal symbols created by Thomas Nast  Colors didn’t start until about 2000 election  Liberals believe in social engineering  73 congress (in 113 now) 82 year span o U.S. House has been dominated by Democratic party for 63 years o U.S. Senate has been dominated by Democrats for 62 years o Now republicans have control of Senate and Democrats control of House ▯ ▯ Today  Republicans are less flexible of 2 nd and 10 amendments  31% Democrats  25% Republicans  42% Independent o usually split evenly in votes o usually vote consistently with certain party  2% third party  Article 1 of constitution says that states will hold elections for US. House o 17 Amendment (1913) states will hold U.S. Senate elections  Article 2 says states will choose state electors to choose president ▯ Primary Party Elections  Some states have closed political primaries, only can vote if in the at political party  Primaries started in 1842 in Texas ▯ Third Parties  Green Party of the United States o Liberal o Interested in environmental protection, anti-nuclear weapons  Libertarian o Classical democrats o Believe in civil rights like dems but also less government regulation on business like republicans ▯ ▯ ▯ Plurality = means candidate got the most votes, but not necessarily the majority ▯ Voting Districts  Single Member Voting Districts o Examples, Florida has 27 U.S. house members, making 27 voting districts o Whoever gets most votes in district, gets the seat o Not a majority election  Multiple member voting districts o Examples: in other countries, when voting, you can get a member for every 10% of the vote they get  Duverger’s Law o Explains how single member districts create a two party system ▯ Ballot  Each state has different laws for getting parties on a ballot  Can require % of vote last election  Can require % registered voters  Can require # of petitions signed  ▯ Why does US have lower voter turnout?  Voting is on a Tuesday o Now have early voting period ▯ Running for Positions  U.S. House o Defined in Article I o Have to be citizen for at least 7 years o At least 25 years old o Reside in state you’re running for o Can serve as many terms as you want  U.S. Senate o Defined in Article I o Have to be citizen for 9 years o At least 30 years old o Reside in state you’re running for o Can serve as many terms as you want  U.S. Pres/V.P. o Article II, section 1 o At least 35 years old o Can only serve 2 terms (1951 22 ndamendment) *house and senate have no term limit so they don’t have to spend time campaigning and also so that there is “experienced” members in government o Each state has same number of electors as the amount of people they have in the U.S. house and senate (always 2 people) **anyone who works for government cannot be an elector nor anyone in house or senate o Each elector chooses two ballots with different candidates, with at least one not from their state o Senate counts votes, runner-up was VP**  12 amendment changed the VP rule in 1804  now each elector chooses ballots for president and VP  23 amendment set in place amount of electoral votes per state o majority wins, 270+ else o states eventually passed laws to have people vote to choose the president, meaning that state chooses electors based on what people of state vote for; happened over time by the end of civil war o now, presidential candidates choose their electors o “faithless electors” are less than 1% throughout history because their candidate, Horace Greenly, died, others have left them blank and others switch pres and vp as a “protest vote” o some presidents win popular vote while the other wins electoral vote, has only happened 3 times since civil war ▯ Primaries and Caucuses  Incumbents usually win o 91% of incumbents for house and senate won again in 2012  candidates used to be chosen by their states political party  later began holding conventions  primary elections decide party candidates; third parties don’t have primaries  in closed primary states, registered reps can vote in rep primary and registered dems can vote dem primary  causes can be open or closed; is a meeting rather than a vote like a primary  primary presidential votes send candidate-supporters as delegates to national convention, where they then choose the official presidential candidate of that party  New Hampshire has first primary, Iowa first caucus  50 years ago, primary candidates were asked who they wanted to run with as VP  to get on ballot, you have to follow states rules o e.x. Florida you need to have 5% of registered FL voters support or 1% or registered voters to sign petition  in 2012, 12 different parties got onto ballots in FL  unaffiliated people can get on ballot too  first Monday after the second Wednesday in December states choose electors and send them to DC  national law is that on January 6 , constitutions says house and senate meet together to count ballots and announce pres and VP o if tie, house chooses president and senate chooses vp, which has the potential to split the pres and vp to two different parties in office at the same time  there have been 700 amendment proposals to change winner take all rule and change to popular vote wins  ▯ Article I in constitution  Longest article on constitution, about half of whole document  Bicameral legislature o U.S. House  435 members  originally 1 house member for each 1,000 people but constitution allows law to change that  1910 hey decided to just keep number at 435 and readjust every ten years according to census  now, each house member represents about 700,000 people  if state has less than 700,000 population like Wyoming, they have at least one house member no matter what  once the census assigns the amount of representatives for each state, it is up to the states to draw the voting districts  some supreme court cases have ruled it unconstitutional of 14 amendment section 1 (states provides equal protection in laws) that voting districts need to have about the same population  gerrymandering = drawing districts to the benefit of your party; started to stop African Americans from getting elected  in reaction to gerrymandering, in 1970’s some compassionate states created majority/minority districts; also faced supreme court cases  now, it is an issue of drawing districts to get certain party members into office; supreme court said its not unconstitutional to draw lines based on political party preference  put initiatives on ballots; if people vote for it on ballot, then the group can start a petition to take initiative  some states will not redraw voting districts to give advantage to incumbents  2 year terms  always direct election from people; election held by state  national law that every state must hold the election the first Tuesday after the first Monday of November every even numbered year  benefits large states o U.S. Senate  100 members  6 year terms  17 amendment (1913) direct election of senators by people, not by state legislatures as originally defined  always one senate seat up per election; there will never be both seats up at one time  benefits small states o represents the House of Commons and House of Lords in English Parliament o having two houses slows down the process of anything in order to stop risky actions; even if both house and senate pass a bill it still has to go through the president o 26 smallest states = 52 senators = 17.8% of U.S. population o 24 largest states = 48 senators = 82.2% of U.S. population ▯ Enumerated Powers of Congress  Article I section 8 30 altogether o Can declare war o Make money o Create post office o Regulate interstate commerce o Can tax o Necessary and proper clause ▯ How to pass laws  US House: Intro agriculture standing committee  dairy farming standing subcommittee  agriculture standing committee  rules committee  US House debate & vote o Bill is considered introduced when it is put into box called the hopper o Over 90% of bills are killed in committee before it goes to house o About 12,000 suggested bills per session o Rules committee makes time limits for bill debate o Bills cannot be reworded once it passes to rules committee  US Senate: Intro  adgriculture/nutrition & Forrestry standing committee  dairy farming standing subcommittee  agriculture/nutrition & forestry standing committee  majority leader  US Senate debate & vote o Bill is introduced when someone talks about it on the floor o Bill can be changed/reworded at any time during the senate process  If bill is passed in house, and then changed and passed in senate, it goes to conference committee who sends it back to house o Bill goes to president after it is passed by both o Filibuster is when the minority party doesn’t stop talking in debate about a bill before majority party can vote on a bill; talking doesn’t have to be on topic of bill  Can be stopped if 3/5 of US senate vote for cloture (60 people today)  More filibusters in last few congresses than in all American history  Cannot filibuster federal court judge appointment o Both house and senate must pass bill for it to be a law o Special rights of house  Revenue bills can only start in house since it is directly elected  House can also impeach high ranking officials for:  Treason  High crimes (felonies)  Bribery  Misdemeanors  Choose president if no majority o Special rights of senate  Choose vice president if no majority  Senate signs treaties that president creates; must be at least 2/3 of senate  President nominates supreme court judges and house says yes or no o Congress is usually comprised of lawyers and business owners  Senate is 20% women  51% of population  Senate is 2% African American  13% of population  Senate is 3% Hispanic American  16% of population o 20 amendment (1933) defines that congress starts at noon January 3 in odd number year to noon January 3 in oddd number year (so it is two years) o elections take place in November of even number years o Constitution says they Congress only has to meet once a year o currently in 113 Congress o Washington D.C. is not in any state, but actually domestic territory; named after Washington o All members of Congress get $174,000 a year plus money to run their office in DC and in their home state but cannot use it to campaign; but they usually make more money from their previous businesses so money is not their motivation o Senate is more formal and less aggressively confrontational in comparison to house o Each part of congress makes ethical standards and can kick out a member is they violate the ethical standards o Article I says that to fill a vacancy in house or senate during a term, its up to the state to hold special election else they lose a vote or state can make law to let governor to fill empty senate seat until state holds election; so senate rarely has empty seats compared to house o Usually about 12,000 bills per congressional session; not all bills can be studied so most of them are filtered by House Standing Committees  Committees are decided by house leaders at meeting before congress meets for the first time; decide how many committees, how many members from each party on each committee;  Which ever party is majority in house gets more than half chairs in committees  Senate has done the same since 1920’s; usually everyone does 3 standing committees and 5 sub- committees  Can only be a chairmen of committee for 6 years o Only members in house can propose bill in the house; ideas can come from president, non-government people, companies, interest groups  Interest groups have to incorporate as a non-profit organization  Laws get sent to US Code after they are passed  Bills called H1 or S1 when introduced  Constitutional amendments called H Con. Res. 1 or S Con. Res. 1  Pocket veto is when a bill goes to the president to sign and there are less than 10 days in congress to pass it, president can leave bill to expire at end of congress ▯ PACs  Is created by an interest group of company that collects money from investors and advocates of business/group but only $5,000 from each individual  2010 Citizens United case said PACs are allowed independent expenditures to donate to candidates running for federal office; like independent advertising ▯  23 Amendment gives DC electors  ▯ Budgeting  President makes proposed budget by February and sends it Congress  Fed makes 43% of income from personal income tax  Also gets tariff money and sin taxes (alcohol, cigarettes, gas)  States use property and sales taxes  Payroll taxes go into social security and medicare o SS- employer pays 6.2% and you pay 6.2% o Medicare - employer pays 1.45% and you pay 1.45%  2015 Budget o $3.9 trillion o $564 billion deficit  US Debt is a total amount owed, currently $17.5 trillion o power to borrow money is an enumerated power  US GDP is $16.7 trillion ▯ War  Only 5 declared wars  Over 200 military adventures  WWII was last declared war 1941-1945 declared war on Japan  Cold War 1945-1991  Vietnam War 1955-1975  War Powers Act of 1973 o Passed by dems in congress o Vetoed by Nixon, but overridden by congress o Suggests the president confer with head of house and senate before sending troops o Required to send a letter to head of house and senate within 48 hours of sending troops into combat and the plan for it o Required to bring troops home within 60 days unless congress declares war ▯ Vice President  12 Amendment disconnected tie between president and VP during elections; creating separate elections  Article I VP cannot vote on bills unless to break a tie  Article II says he succeeds the president  VP’s weren’t used until 1950’s when Harry Truman became president in 1945 because FDR died; Truman was totally unaware of any presidential matters  In 1950’s presidents started choosing VPs to run on their ticket at party nomination convention  Succesion is President  VP  speaker of the house president protem secretary of state  secretary of defense  25 Amendment states succession roles and also that president can nominate and congress can appoint new VP is VP resigns o Nixon administration had VP Agnew who was charged for many crimes  hired Ford, Nixon resigns  VP Ford becomes president and elects Rockefelller to become VP  VP devolves to president if he: o Dies o Resigns o Removed o Cannot fulfill presidential powers and duties  Wilson had stroke; caused problem in what to do  Decided after JFK to have VP as “Acting present” to temporarily take place of president until he gets better  VP and majority of cabinet members can decide if he is disabled and VP becomes acting president or VP and majority of some group put together by Congress can decide president if disabled  President can disagree and send letter to speaker of house, in which congress has 21 days to decide the outcome ▯ Bureacrats  Employed or appointed by government  Hired for job  Article II, section 2 president can nominate ambassadors, public ministers, counsels and other offices with senate’s approval  Inferior officers, president can choose them or courts can choose or department heads can choose  Made department of state, of defense, of treasury made by congressional law  President nominates heads and congress approves  President just hires inferior positions  spoils system o Became a big deal when in 1891 President Garfield got shot by someone who didn’t get a job for helping him out o Led to creation of Civil Service System called Pendelton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 which states that someone cannot be hired/fired for political reasons, only by merit  Today 50,000 people in state department  Today 720,000 people in defense department  President usually hires about 3,000 new people upon inauguration  With approval of Senate, President can appoint about 1,000 people ▯ ▯ Breakdown of Executive Office  Executive office of President  Executive Departments (15)  Independent executive agencies (about 40)  Independent regulatory commissions o Have terms in office o Appointed by President, approved by senate  Government corporations, quasi-government corporations & foundations (16) ▯ ▯ U.S. Code is where laws go when passed ▯ Federal Register is the daily work of the executive branch ▯ Code of Federal Regulations is the permanent account of executive orders and rules  Obama has made 163 executive orders so far  FDR had 3,466 Eos ▯ Executive Orders are made by President, a specific way to carry out a law  can reflect presidents constitutional powers or as commander in chief o e.g. FDR EO #9066 set up Japanese internment camps o Bush eliminated funding for stem cell research  Rules- can be made by bureaucrats or presidents as extension of a law ▯


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