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Philosophy 2010; Week 1-3

by: Natalie Neugebauer

Philosophy 2010; Week 1-3 Phil 2010 016

Natalie Neugebauer

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About this Document

In class notes from week 1 through 3
Introduction to Philosophy
Calvin H. Warner
philosophy, Utilitarianism
75 ?




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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Natalie Neugebauer on Friday January 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Phil 2010 016 at Georgia State University taught by Calvin H. Warner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
01/25/2016 See Philosophy Notes on Benedict document 01/27/2016  What is a fact? What are examples of facts? - Something that can be validated - Statements - Widely accepted - Irrefutable - Based on evidence  What kind of facts are there? - Scientific, mathematical, personal - Logical - Historical  Give examples: - Example: It is a fact that Sam is sad That Sam is sad is a fact That 2 + 2 = 4 is a fact  What is a fact? Facts are fats in virtue of their correspondence to the way the world actually is. Facts are true independent from our own attitudes and values, and true regardless of what anyone thinks about them. And, they cam be confirmed or at least some reason can be given for believing them. A sentence is true if it corresponds to a fact.  If we can’t confirm something, or if we cant give a good reason for believing in it, then we should assume it is not the case until new evidence comes along.  What are Mackie’s two arguments against believing in moral facts? Formal Version of Mackies’s Agrument for Skepticism Premise 1: The existence of objective morality depends on the existence of moral facts Premise 2_ We do not have good reasons to think oral facts exists Conclusion: Therefore, we do not have good reason to think moral facts exists.  Argument from Relativity  Argument from Queerness Introduction to Philosophy Benedict- A Defense of Moral Relativism 2016-01-25 Conformity Benedict claims that people tend to conform to the moral values of their culture. Benedict claims that “The vast majority of individuals in any group are shaped to the fashion of that culture. In other words, most people are plastic to the molding force of the society into which they are born.” “The small proportion of the number of deviants in any culture is not a function of the sure instinct with which that society has built itself upon the fundamental sanities, but of the universal fact that, happily, the majority of mankind quite readily takes any shape that is presented to them.” Societies are not built upon a preexisting sanity, but create normality. Normality/Abnormality, value, Disenfranchisement, and Individuals Normal and abnormal categories: “One of the most striking facts” that emerges from the study of other cultures is that what we take to be abnormal often is not considered abnormal in other cultures - often what we consider to be abnormal is privileged behavior. Benedict is saying that 1. We conflate moral goodness (e.g. the statement “it is morally good”) with preferences and habits (e.g. the stamen “it is habitual”) 2. We imagine universal moral principles because we conflate the idea of universal moral goodness (e.g. the statement “it is morally good” with preferences and habits (the statement “it is habitual”). 3. If we did not make this conflation, we would recognize that universal moral values are a fiction. Objections: Same values, but recognized in different ways (piety, respect for elders, etc.) In other words, the differences between cultures are exaggerated, and focus on outliers. Relativism treats cultures as ideologically unified, in opposition only with other cultures. The reality is that there is tremendous internal disagreement in any given culture. Moral reform is impossible and moral reformers are always wrong. Societies can never be self-critical, since there is no external moral truth, only the internal truth of what the society already does.


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