Human Sexuality FINAL Study Guide
Human Sexuality FINAL Study Guide
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Final Study Guide Ch 7 Sexual Relationships What demographic factors affect sexual attitudes Be able to explain how sex age education region raceethnicity and religion affect sexual attitudes Sex Women are more likely than men to have traditional perspective disapproving of casual nonmarital and extramarital sex Take a more relationship oriented view of sex Age Older people are more likely than younger people to have a traditional perspective Older people grew up in a more conservative era and are more likely to be married and have children Education Increasing educational level is associated with relatively permissive attitudes People who have completed at least 4 years of college are more accepting of non marita sex homosexual relationships and abortion Region People in Northeast of West coast are less likely to have a traditional perspective more likely to have a recreational perspective than other regions Southerners tend to be more traditional thane easterners Raceethnicity Is not strongly predictive of sexual attitudes but african americans and hispanics tend to be less approving of homosexuality and abortion than whites How have Americans attitudes changed over time How do Americans view sex before marriage extramarital sex and homosexual sex There has been a decline in the percentage of the population who consider sex before marriage as always wrong and a rise in the percent who consider it not wrong at all Opinions about sex between 14 16 are far more negative and have not changed significantly Public opinion in regards to extramarital sex has become more negative Gay sex Disapproval of homosexual behavior was at a high 80 when AIDS concern at height in 805 By 2010 less than half of us pop believed it was wrong Rate of change is so fast that individual Americans must be changing their mind on the topic Be able to describe how attitudes in other countries differ from those in the US Nearly half of american though it was wrong for a couple to have a child out of wedlock placing us in middle of spectrum of world opinion One in five americans think non marital sex is always wrong and four in five thing extramarital sex is always wrong British study came up with similar findings but also that cohabitational and non cohabitational sexual relationships were viewed as morally protected although not to the same degree as marriage Most interviewees felt that people in such relationships should not engage in sex outside relationship Most people place high moral value on lasting sexual relationships and see sexual monogamy as important factor in preserving them True or false Casual sex appeals more to women than men FALSE What is the BUG Read box 72 and be able to summarize it Bisexua until graduation There is along tradition of romantic and physically intimate relationships between teenage girls or young women who later become pillars of heterosexual society Purpose may be to arouse the interest of males or for experimentation More than a fourth of all young women who identify as bisexual or lesbian give up that identity within five years Their sexual attractions don39t change but the way they interpret these attractions ls casual sex more or less accepted in the gay community What are some explanations for the phenomenon It is more accepted Gay men are not restrained by woes reluctance to engage in casual sex Pregnancy is no an issue Gay men who may already be stigmatized by society for their sexual orientations are less likely to pay attention to public opinion on the topic of casual sex Explain the phenomenon of flirting What is involved What are some of the flirting behaviors women engage in What are some of the flirting behaviors men engage in Women Smile arch eyebrows look down and to the side and then put hands near mouth and laugh When both persons are attracted they move closer make slight touching movements nod in agreement and gaze into each others eyes People are bad at judging flirtatiousness Tend to believe that partners were being flirtatious when they themselves were being flirtatious and only them May be cause of many misunderstandings in the real world Anti flirting behaviors Frowning sneering picking at nails or teeth What is meant by the phrase quotfirst dates may follow a script What is involved with typical heterosexual scripts How do samesex date scripts differ from heterosexual date scripts Because of the uncertainty of a first date participants often follow socially established rituals scripts Particularly marked when first date is blind Heterosexual college students traditional script demands that the man take the leading active role He picks up the woman plans and pays for the activities initiates any sexual intimacy and takes her home The woman takes the reactive role accepting or rejecting the date the activities and the sex This pattern conforms to the traditional expectation that men will be the ones who initiate sexual interactions and women the one who say yes or no thus setting their limits Same sex dates have their own scripts There has to be an initial recognition or mutual disclosure that the two are open to same sex relationship May promote a more rapid development than would be typical for an opposite sex couple Many times two people may be essentially in love before the question of sexual attraction and behavior comes into play Dating under these circumstances has a very different meaning than dates between most heterosexual or male male couples in which two people are not typically very romantically intimate on first date What is attachment theory How do our attachment styles affect future relationships It is the idea that relationship styles are influenced by the quality of the early parent chid bond If parents especially the mother respond sensitively to the young child39s needs the child become securely attached that is will become confident in the parents love will respond positively to the parent and will seek contact with him or her but will not be unduly disturbed by brief separations On other hand if parent is rejecting or emotionally distant the child may avoid intimate interaction with the parent IF parent is inconsistent or unresponsive child may become anxious or ambivalent often becoming extremely upset when separated According to the theory the attachment styles we learn as children persist into later childhood and adulthood influencing how we relate to peers and romantic partners People who were securely attached have a basic self confidence and trust that allows them to enter into intimate relationships with relative ease during adolescence and adulthood People who were avoidant as children may be uncomfortable with adult intimacy and may strike potential romantic partners as cold People who were anxious or ambivalent as children may have an unrealistic fear of being deserted and this may cause them to seek an emotional merger that actually has the opposite effect driving the partner away How does communication affect relationships What types of factors hinder or help communication between couples Many couples are reluctant to communicate at all about sexual issues In heterosexual relationships the gender barrier may compound communication problems Boys and young men tend to talk about sexual matters among themselves as do girls and young women But they tend to do it in different ways leading to almost separate languages Combined with limited knowledge about the others sex anatomy and physiology Similarly girls and young women may discuss sexual and relationship issues at great length among themselves but may be quite unprepared to bring up these same issues with men Cultural factors inhibit communication in certain groups Asian americans may find it foreign concept to discuss sex or relationship problems Machismo The traditional Latino culture of manliness which delineates sharp gender roles and gives en certain obligations and privileges Hispanic americans have custom of marital silence on sexual issues Know what MRE programs are and know what behavioral couples therapy is MRE programs Marriage and relationship education Teach basic communication skills that are often as relevant to work and general social life as they are to sexual relationships At the core of all communication for example is one person saying something and the other person listening May practice this Active listening exercises The right of a partner to make a clear statement of a potential problem without interruption and the obligation of partner to give feedback Behavior Couples Therapy Therapy focused on improving styles of communication between partners in relationships Is quite successful in helping rescue troubled relationships no matter what problems that couples have Simple exercised such as catch your partner doing something nice Show partner you are there for them and they can count on you If partners actions show genuine concern for the other even when problems arise both of them will come to realize that they have a truly trusting relationship How does jealousy affect relationships How can jealousy have a positive function Men and women can experience both kinds ofjealousy but men typically experience sexual jealousy and women emotional jealous Positives Femae mammals make a much greater biological contribution to reproduction than do males but in some species this imbalance may be countered by extra resources that males contribute Femaes can be certain that any offspring they bear are there own Males cannot Thus during evolution the major risk for a woman was that a man would take up another mate leaving her to rear children along For man risk was that he would unwittingly devote a great deal of time and effort to rearing kids who were not his own Jealous arises when people in relationships receive sexual advances from outsiders In addition people may be tempted to cheat because love is not always strong enough by itself to preserve monogamy Thats where jealousy attempts to take over the job and can have a positive value for the person who experiences it painful though it is It is part of the mechanism that detects and gives salience to cheating by a partner and then motivates action to prevent or end it Jealousy is neither a good or bad thing but a psychological response that can have both positive and negative consequences Ch 9 Contraception How was birth control achieved historically In ancient times it was accomplished by neglect abandonment and killing babies In medieval herbal preparations Limited success contraceptions such as olive oil douching Withdrawal Male condoms were originally from animal intestines and so expensive had to be reused Became mass produced at end of nineteenth century Diaphragms were originally natural objects Artificial invented in eighties Main form used by women until the sixties Oral contraceptives in 605 Margaret Sanger and other early feminists led struggle to legalize contraception in 20th century Did not achieve definite success until 605 and 70s with supreme court decisions overthrew laws that banned the use or distribution of contraceptives Based on constitutional right of privacy Federal and state governments began supporting family planning initiatives like Medicaid How does the modern condom differ from the first condoms introduced Most early condoms were made from animal intestines and were so expensive that they had to be used repeatedly Thus they had to be tested by inflating them before each use Mass produced vulcanized rubber condoms became available at end of 19th century followed by latex in 19305 What is the history of the diaphragm Were originally natural objects such as half squeezed lemons Besides acting as a barrier the acidity had some spermicidal action A reasonably effective artificial diaphragm was invented in 18805 Was main form of contraception used by women until 1960s In 1920 Ernst Grafenberg developed and effective intrauterine device IUD What were the Comstock Laws How did they affect birth control In 1914 Sanger began publishing a radical feminist monthly which included appeals for the right to practice birth control She was indicted under the Comstock Law which forbade the dissemination of information about contraception She jumped bail and spent a year in Europe While there she got diaphragms and imported into the US During her trial she hoped to showcase for birth control Charges were dropped because of widespread public sympathy for her In 1916 she opened the first birth control clinic Police closed it and imprisoned her where she taught contraceptive methods to other inmates She lost the appeal of her conviction court did rule that physicians could provide contraceptive info for medical reasons Read box 91 and be able to explain the significance of Margaret Sanger see above Has contraception solved the problem of unwanted births What are some of the reasons No Currently 90 of sexually active women from 1545 and do not want to become pregnant are using contraceptive techniques But fewer than half the pregnancies are planned Remainder end in abortion miscarriage or unwanted babies More than 3 million unwanted pregnancies a year Half of these result from not using contraception and other half from failure of the method that was used although maybe not properly Another practical problem is financial Many medical insurance plans do not cover contraceptive drugs or devices that require a prescription What is the prolife argument What is the prochoice argument Where do most Americans stand on the abortion debate Americans are divided on abortion but most favor restricted ability In 1973 Supreme Court ruled that states could not enact outright bans on abortions performed before the age of fetal viability mean before end of second trimester Since then Americans have remained divided Relatively few people favor either either complete legality or a complete ban One of issues that most strongly influence peoples opinions is the timing of abortion Pro life People who believe that elective abortion is always wrong and that it should be a criminal offense Pro choice People who believe that women should be allowed to make all abortion decisions for themselves What four main variables correlate with abortion views Religious beliefs political affiliation Education level and age People with strong religious beliefs who are republican are more likely to have restrictive views on abortion while democrats people who are more highly educated and younger people are more likely to have permissive views Be able to explain the specific issues the abortion debate focuses on Should abortion be restricted by imposing conditions on it such as mandatory 24 hour waiting periods or mandatory counseling about alternatives to abortion Should abortion be banned after a certain duration of pregnancy Should indigent women39s abortions be paid for by public funds Should anti abortion protesters be kept away from people entering or leaving abortion clinics Should embryonic stem cells derived from aborted fetuses be used for research or medical purposes How does the availability of abortion vary by locations Many large metropolitan areas have plenty of abortion providersIn non metropoitan areas and in the south it may be difficult to locate an abortion provider at all In Mississippi there is only one Over a third of all American women live in counties that have no abortion provider Many abortion provider murders and violence Ch 10 Sexuality across the life Span From Birth to Adolescence What marks the beginning of adolescence What causes this sexual awakening Teen years between 1318 or 20 The beginning of adolescence may correspond to the biological events of puberty such as menarche or first ejaculation The beginning of adolescence is usually marked by a great increase in a boys or girls sexual feelings and often by an increase in sexual behavior as well This sexual awakening may in part be a response to the obvious bodily changes that accompany puberty In addition the rising blood levels of sex hormones especially testosterone seem to directly activate the brain circuitry that produces sexual feelings and urges in both girls and boys An adolescents testosterone level is quite a strong predictor of when he or she will begin to engage in partnered sex Be able to explain the different types of puberty rites performed in different cultures Western Apaches sunrise ceremony Four day ceremony is a reenactment of the apache origin story Involves dancing running to the compass points and much else emphasizes 4 goals of life physical strength a good disposition prosperity and a healthy old age For boys puberty rites may be simple or complex In West Pacific a boy whose pubic hair has and facial hair become noticeable simply puts on an adult loincloth and goes to live in the mens quarters Among Keraki of New Guinea puberty rites take up to a year Boys are gathered n a clearing where they are shown a sacred musical instrument and struck a blow on the back with a heavy banana stalk There follows a parade and a feast The boys are confined for nearly a year in special longhouse where they take receptive role in anal sex with older males Body modification like circumcision or sub incision is common In west africa country of cameroon many girls are subjected to breast ironing where mothers massage or pound breasts with heated wooden pestles Painful Make girls less attractive to boys Bar mitzvahs and quinceneras How much of the US population has sex before the age of 15 How do demographics affect this number What other factors are associated with the early initiation of sexual activity About 16 The percentage is higher among the less educated less religious and less affluent people Adolescents are likely to initiate in sexual activity early if their community has a low average income few college graduates a high crime rate or high unemployment It is likely that such communities offer adolescents few challenging goals and therefore give them little motivation to work hard and avoid risky sexual activities Another factor associated with early initiation of sexual activity is having a significantly older boyfriend or girlfriend Television probably promotes early entry into sex by portraying sex as highly glamorized How does TV affect teen sexuality Television promotes early entry into sex by portraying sexual relationships and activities among young people often in a highly glamorized and unrealistic fashion Girls are being prematurely sexualized by exposure to inappropriate images and role models in the media and advertising Not all tv glamorizes sex such as Pregnant and 16 which highlights the tough situations faced by working class teen mothers so it may encourage teens to delay sex or use contraception more effectively On the other hand it may actually promote teen pregnancy simply by virtue of the attention paid to the girls in the show What is the most common sexual behavior among adolescents Who engages in this behavior more males or females How have the statistics on masturbation changed Masturbation Males Adolescents often feel guilty about masturbation and can be reluctant to admit it which can make research hard Frequency of masturbation increased during early and mid teen years In mid 20th century only 39 of young women had ever masturbated but by early 21st century 84 had How has the sexual behavior of American teens increased and diversified Dating in the 40s generally involved sexual behavior short of coitus engaging in this risked pregnancy and endangered the social status of unmarried young adult females Males found it difficult to persuade females to have intercourse and some turned to prostitutes Many social changes have caused teenage sexual activity to increase especially among girls One was introduction of oral contraceptives in the 1960s Another was legalization of abortion in 1973 Another was introduction of effective treatments for some sexually transmitted diseases Another was feminism encouraging women to attend college enter work and postpone marriage Made sex less risky Also children are increasingly being brought up by single but sexually active mothers making them think it is ok for themselves General increase in young peoples sense of self reliance which allows them to make choices based on feeling good instead of being good Why is noncoital sex popular among teens Maybe because it is a way to have sex without loss of vaginal virginity and without risk of pregnancy For most teens oral sex is something they add to their sexual repertoire because of the pleasure it brings not as a substitute for coitus ls oral sex a precursor to sex or an addition to teens sexual repertoire See above Know the different ideas on virginity loss as discussed in box 105 Virginity loss as a gift It is something valuable to be given to a partner in a loving relationship Many will engage in a great deal of heavy petting and oral sex as a substitute Most are female and want to lost to another gifter but is hard due to shortage of male gifters Virginity loss as erasing a stigma May be seen as dorky to be a virgin Often seize first opportunity for coitus and often do not use contraception Most of the stigmatized are male but some are female Virginity loss as part of a process See virginity loss as not good or bad but part of the process of growing up into male or female adulthood Typically have sex with partners they are dating but don39t wait for the perfect partners like gifters do Virginity loss as a sacrament See abstinence as a form of worship and losing ones virginity with eventual spouse as a mutual gift to God Typically avoid almost all forms of sexual intimacy before marriage Know the ethnic differences with regards to sexual initiation African american adolescents are more likely to have experienced coitus than similar age adolescents of other races but are less likely to have engaged in non coita behaviors especially cunnilingus Hispanics are more like white Americans in popularity of oral sex Asian americans and pacific islanders are a small but very diverse group who often get overlooked in surveys Far fewer of these HS students have ever engaged in coitus than have students of other origins Many asian american females have never discussed sexual matters with their parents Teen sexuality is central to identity development What types of questions are important in this process Why is the development of sense of self vital to practical sexual concerns What is my sexual orientation What am i looking for in sexual relationships How attractive am I Who might I attract as a sexual partner and what are the best ways for entering into a partnershipgt How does my sexuality relate to other aspects of my identity such as my career goals my ethnic origins or my religion Both young women and men need to be able to refuse unwanted sex including sex without a condom In study girls with higher evaluation of themselves communicated better with partner concerning condom use What is serial monogamy How is this changing with today39s adolescents Youth has a series of exclusive relationships with girlfriends or boyfriends or both Involvement in a series of monogamous relationships Hook up culture has come to American high school largely replacing traditional dating relationship according to some news paper investigations etc Teens increasingly attend proms and similar events without specific partners But according to a study the percentage of HS students who have had 4 or more sexual partners in their lifetime has been falling steadily This suggests that if a hook up culture does exist in the adolescent years it involves only a small minority of young people or it doesn39t involve penetrative sex Ch 11 Sexuality across the Life Span Adulthood Given the median age at first marriage are the statistics on actual sex partners expected or surprising 282 for men and 261 for women Between 20 and 25 only 30 of men and 25 of women report having had more than one opposite sex sex partner in the previous 12 months Surprising How does cohabitation affect marriage Are marriages preceded by cohabitation more or less durable Why or why not Marriages preceded by cohabitation may be less durable They are less satisfying and end more quickly than those that are not both in the US and in Canada Three possibilities why Couples who cohabit differ from those who don39t for example by having less traditional views about marriage and this difference is what causes their marriages to be shorter selection effect All live in relationships tend to run out of steam after a certain period of time so if some of that time is used up in cohabitation the marriage will be that much shorter The experience of cohabitation itself somehow reduces subsequent marital stability perhaps by labeling the relationship an impermanent one First hypothesis was the correct one in the past but only among couples who live together before deciding to marry Another study found the negative effect only among partners who had previously cohabitated with someone else Seems to support selection hypothesis There are diverse meanings of cohabitation What are these different types of cohabitation How can cohabitation be viewed as a marriage How can cohabitation be viewed as dating About 40 have children living with them and 20 last more than five years Some are between elderly people widowed or divorced some are same sex couples Those who view it as a prelude to marriage experience the cohabitation very much like marriage Those who do not experience on average poorer management of conflicts and lower overall satisfaction with the relationship than would typically be seen in marriage For many couples it is not perceived as an alternative to marriage but as an alternative to dating May be driven more by economic considerations of convenience than by a deep sense of commitment Serial cohabitation is an increasingly prevalent lifestyle What are the social and personal functions of marriage In many cultures women viewed as mens property so marriage is a transaction marking the transfer of woman from her father to her husband Marriage has functioned to A means to identify the man responsible for the support of a woman and her children By publicly identifying two people as a couple places an obligation on others to respect the sexual exclusivity of their relationship thus reducing social friction Marriage may bring the couple39s extended families together this was an important function of tas or to create social alliances o By making it difficult for a man and woman to separate marriage is intended to stabilize their union and ensure that they stay together long enough to rear any children they may have Know the different types of marriages and know the advantages and disadvantages of these different types of marriages Copanionate Marriage a form of marriage in which the husband and wife are expected to be emotionally intimate and to engage in social activities together Demand intimacy and affection although not all couples are capable of sustaining these feelings over a lifetime Makes availability of divorce a necessity Implies some kind of equivalence between husband and wife Expected to be romantic partners friends economic collaborators fellow workers in the home and colleagues in parenting Covenant Marriage Couples commit themselves to a lifelong monogamous relationship Couple required to undergo pre marital counseling Couple may not receive a no fault divorce May be legally granted only if one party proves that the other has committed adultery or a felony or has permanently abandoned the marriage or if has been separated for two years Not very popular 1 in 50 Group marriage Three or more people living together in a marriage like relationship also called polyfidelity A variety of sexual relationships can exist Can be closed or open May not be equivalent marriages Adopt a wide variety of rules or ethical codes to regulate their sexual relations Its appeal is limited by the problem ofjealousy Swingers Couples who agree to engage in casual sexual contacts with others Say that their marriages are happy and that swinging makes a positive contribution to marital stability Polyandry Marriage or mating of one female with more than one male Tend to be societies in which resources are so limited that a man cannot maintain a wife and children on his own Polygamy Marriage or mating of one male with more than one female Usuallyjust the wealthy men who have many Connected to the idea that women are mens property ls marriage a majority or minority status What types of ethnic differences exist with regards to marriages and families It is becoming a minority status 65 of 3544 are married compared to 88 in 1960 Rate has declined most steeply among less educated people African american women are far less likely to be married or cohabitating than other groups so that most black children live in households where only their mother is present Large reason is shortage of available young black men Black men have higher death rate and are more likely to partner with non blacks How does marriage affect couples sex lives Does marriage increase or decrease satisfaction Does frequency increase or decrease Married couples are satisfied with their sex lives They generally seem happier with their sex lives than the frequency of their sexual activity would suggest Married women are less likely than dating women to have sex more than twice a week Also less adventurous sexually Less likely to orgasm reliably But physical satisfaction is greater than in short term and their emotional satisfaction is higher Data for men are roughy comparable except they have high likelihood of experiencing orgasm in any type or relationship Marriage makes sex more satisfying for women mabe because of high level of commitment and exclusivity The frequency of sex declines duing marriage Habituation Psychological process that reduces persons resonse to stimulus after repeated exposure and dimming of passionate love Also decline in sexual interest Also associated with aging itself How does women39s marital satisfaction change with age It declines during middle age 0 The birth of first child Loss of quality time in relationship as well as perception that each is having to shoulder unfair share of family responsibility The entry of first child into adolescence Father and mother often have differences over how to cope with the stresses associated with an adolescent child Retirement Paradoxically too much quality time may be the cause here Women less satisfied with their marriages on the whole than men In late fifties men are more than twice as likely as women to describe themselves as extremely emotionally satisfied with their partner What types of factors bring relationships to an end Which people have longer marriages Demographics of marriage Older better educated people have more stable Marriage during teen years Under eighteen chance of divorce within ten years in one in two African american more likely to break up than whites While hispanics and asian americans are less likely Divorce for those with college education for 4 year degrees is less than half compared to those without What are the positive consequences of marital disruption What are the negative consequences of marital disruption Divorced men and women can suffer psychological physical and economic damage Less happy less sexually active more socially isolated and more prone to substance abuse Divorced women generally suffer a severe drop in per capita household income Children experience heightened risk of depression behavioral problems criminality substance abuse early sexual activity low academic performance Divorce may be the start of a new life Escape form unhappy possibly abusive relationship Potential for forming a better one Most divorced people remarry What are the effects of divorce on stepchildren They are twice as likely to suffer from behavioral problems as those who live with their biological parents Nevertheless the majority do well in school and don39t have emotional or behavioral problems Do divorced people tend to remarry or remain single Are these later marriages more or less durable Why or why not Remarry Men remarry more quickly Brings economic benefits Somewhat less durable Woman 25 has 1 in 4 chance of divorce in first ten years but if she has been previously married 1 in 3 What causes menopause How does the decrease in hormone levels affect the sexual response How does menopause affect sexual desire May be caused by a depletion of ova Women who have fewer pregnancies short cycle lengths one ovary removed or don t use oral contraceptive are more likely to experience earlier Women are born with certain capacity for number of ovarian cycles and that the main reason for the transition to infertility may be the depletion of the cells that give rise to ova At time of m ovaries contain very few cells May experience a decline in sexual desire and sexual arousal but only a part of this is attributed to the biological process Other factors such as relationship issues aging health etc have large effects The psychological effects of menopause on sexuality are diverse For women who believe that the main or only purpose of sex is reproduction the loss of fertility may lead to a loss of interest in sex For the larger number who see an emotional or recreational significance in sex get increased pleasure when no risk of pregnancy or need or contraceptives What steps can be taken to reduce menopausal symptoms What are the advantages and disadvantages of these treatments Hormone therapy can reduce menopausal symptoms Menopausal women have the option of taking sex hormones or other drugs to compensate for the loss of their own ovarian hormones and thus to alleviate the symptoms of menopause Menopausal hormone therapy Most common is estrogens and progestins Estrogens alleviate symptoms such as hot flushes and vaginal dryness Progestins are added to protect the woman from side effect of estrogen of increased risk of endometrial factor Women who had hysterectomy progestins have little benefit and may use estrogens alone Women with vaginal symptoms as main problem estrogen can be administered directly to the vagina by means of ring tablets or cream Postmenopausal hormone therapy Hormone treatment extending for a long time after menopause Continue benefits and offer long term protection against some of major health risks These women combined the estrogenprogestin therapy did enjoy some protection from osteoporosis but these were outweighed by an increased risk of cardiovascular disease breast cancer and even dementia What are the ethnic differences in the psychological experience of menopause White women tend to medicalize menopause to suffer more psychosomatic symptoms and to be relatively concerned about a perceived loss of youthfulness and attractiveness African American and Latina women report more physical symptoms associated with menopause and yet they tend to adopt a more positive even welcoming view of the event A normal stage in life that allows them to restructure their priorities with greater emphasis on self fulfillment How does men39s fertility change with age How do these changes differ from menopause Mens fertility declines gradually with age Do not experience a sudden or complete cessation of fertility comparable to menopause but instead a gradual reduction in fertility and sexual function with aging Evidenced by declining sperm counts and ejaculate volume an increased likelihood of erectile dysfunction and decreased sexual desire and frequency of sex Loss of muscle bulk and bone density changes in skin and hair possible cognitive changes such as memory impairment Some decline in blood levels of testosterone and other hormones with aging doesn39t seem to be any close correlation between testosterone levels and sexual activity among normal older men any more than in any younger men Andropause The gradual decline of fertility with age a hypothetical male equivalent of menopause What physiological changes of aging affect the sexual response Penis becomes erect more slowly in response to either tactile or mental stimulation The erect penis is less hard Ejaculatory volume is smaller and the ejaculate is discharged less forcefully The erection is lost more rapidly The refractory period is longer In women Walls of vagina thin and entire vagina may become shorter and narrower Vaginal lubrication decreases Fewer contractions during orgasm There is a more rapid decrease in arousal after orgasm What medical conditions drugs and social factors affect the sexuality of old people Medical conditions that become more common with aging can impair sexual performance such as arthritis heart disease osteoporosis incontinence diabetes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obesity Surgeries can also effect Older take more prescription drugs and many can interfere with sexual performance such as tranquilizers antidepressants and chemotherapy Alternative drugs can often be prescribed Excessive alcohol use impairs performance worse in older people Psych and social factors impair expression such as depression poor self image performance anxiety lack of available partner and internalization of the negative expectations of others especially the older persons children and medical professionals and bereavement Know what coping strategies help old people maintain their sex life Odds are stacked against a widowed woman of 75 to remarry Some form sexual relationships with younger or married men or with other women But may strike many older women as inappropriate or immoral For older couples who have difficulty with coitus may be good to practice oral sex instead But people of this age grew at time when oral sex was uncommon Ma be hard for such people to accept or enjoy it now What is the main reason for the lack of sexual activity in older age What types of activities do older people generally engage in Lack of partner especially among women Health problems Sexual dysfunctions Loss of interest in sex Touching fondling without coitus followed by masturbation and then coitus The frequency with which older people engaged in most sexual behavior is predicted by the frequency of younger in life People of habit Ch 12 Sexual Orientation Know Kinsey39s sevenpoint scale of sexual orientation Seven point scale of sexual orientation that ranged from group O exclusively attracted to the opposite sex to group 6 Exclusively attracted to to the same sex with the intervening groups defining various degrees of bisexuality Less widely used by researchers today than it was in the past because it suggests finer gradations of sexual orientation than are usually supported by scientific studies Use 5 point scale More men than women are exclusively homosexual whereas more women than men fall into the intermediate groups representing various degrees of bisexuality What is the distribution of sexual orientations The distribution of sexual orientations is strongly biased toward the heterosexual end of the continuum At least 8590 of men and women say they are attracted sexually only to persons of the other sex and another several percent say they are attracted to mostly the other sex Less than 2 of men and 1 of women say they are attracted only to persons of the same sex If one included in the definition of gay people those who say they are attracted mostly to the same sex their numbers rise to about 2 4 of the population True figures may be somewhat higher How do gay people in general differ from straight people in regards to genderrelated traits During childhood boys who become gay men tend to engage less in rough and tumble play aggressive behavior and athletics and to enjoy interacting with girls sissy reputation and less stereotypically male career plans Girls who become lesbians tend to be very active physically tomboy male career plans etc o In adulthood gay men usually are gender atypical Less aggressive perform less well on male favoring tests such as mental rotation and target accuracy and perform better on some female favoring tests such as verbal fluency object location memory and face recognition Lesbians also score in gender atypical fashion in some tests doing better than heterosexual women in mental rotation and worse in object location memory On average gay and bisexual men describe themselves as less masculine and lesbians and bisexual women describe as less feminine Gays and lesbians tend to be gender nonconformist in their choice of occupations and interests Know the diverse theories that attempt to explain sexual orientation Developmental theories Freud saw heterosexuality as the normal end stage of psychosexual development which included a homosexual phase in early childhood that is later forgotten The normal developmental process could be disrupted by abnormal relationships within the family If these phenomena blocked normal development child might remain stuck in early homosexual phase Not substantiated by scientific research Socialization a Sexual interactions are a very powerful form of socialization Has been suggested that male and female homosexuality result from molestations during childhood rape during young adulthood same sex experiences in boarding school or other early experiences Evidence does not support such ideas Women whose sexual feelings are more strongly modulated by considerations of love and intimacy that those of men may for that reason be more responsive to the vagaries of individual life history and to culturally based identities and sexual scrips which might give their sexual orientation greater fluidity than that of men Although it seems likely that parental influence does mold some aspects a child39s gender characteristics there is no positive evidence for an influence on sexual orientation Biological theories Theory proposes that sexual orientation reflects the sexual differences of the brain under the influence of prenatal sex hormones Everything depends on androgen levels during a sensitive period of prenatal development Fetuses whose brains are exposed to high levels of androgens during this period will be sexually attracted to women gynephilic in adult life Exposed to low levels androphilic attracted to men It may not be hormone levels themselves but the brains sensitivity to hormones that differ between pre gay and pre straight fetuses Prenatal hormone hypothesis could explain why gay people are gender atypical Condition of congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH in which human fetuses are exposed to high levels of androgens are more likely to experience same sex attraction The medial pre optic area us involved in the regulation of sexual behaviors typically shown by males including preferences for female partners Usually larger in males than females NAH3 A neuronal cell group in hypothalamus that differs in size between men and women and between gay and straight men This sex difference results from differences in circulating sex hormone levels during the prenatal period when this region of the brain is developing Functional differences between the hypothalami of gay and straight have also been described Functional connections between the olfactory system and the hypothalamus differ between homosexual and heterosexual individuals of the same sex 0 Difference in relative siz of the left and right cerebral hemispheres function of inner ear eye blink reflexes length of fingers ration of arm length to height Maybe the fetus s genes affect prenatal hormone levels or sensitivity to hormones Genes do have a significant influence on sexual orientation Having a gay family member increases the likelihood Where did the gay rights movement begin How did the gay rights movement evolve after moving to the US What is the Stonewall Rebellion Berlin 1897 After second world war gay activism moved to the US First gay rights organizations were in LA and first Lesbian in SF Functioned largely as support groups for gays and lesbians June 1969 riot outside stonewall inn a bar in greenwich that catered to gays transvestites and transexuals Riot was in response to a police raid Evolved into street demonstrations that continued several nights Followed by formation of more confrontational gay rights organizations Viewed as starting point of the modern gay rights movement How are attitudes towards gay people changing in American society Used to be thought of as something to be cured Had no legal protection from discrimination In seventies period of rapid change Marches for rights Homosexuality deleted from DSM Homosexuality became a topic of consideration in public interest By 77 about 40 cities had some kind of anitdiscriminatory ordinance AIDS began in 80 continues today Lesbians who had been involved in fem causes joined forces with gay men Gays and lesbians came out of the closet in droves Percentage of people who knew someone openly gay rose from 30 in 83 to 73 in 2000 Pro gay attitudes have dramatically increased over the last two decades 2011 don39t ask don39t tell ended How are gay rights addressed in other countries Varies around the world US has been leader in gay peoples political struggle over last decade Some countries especially in western europe have a tradition of social tolerance that has allowed their gay citizens to sidestep some of the inequalities that their american counterparts have experienced In france sex between men has been legal since 1791 With little effort gay couples in seven European countries have acquired the full legal rights of marriage In many european countries anti gay and gay bashing are less common than us Berlin Hamburg and Paris have gay mayors Throughout much of the rest of the world gay people experience discrimination or outright persecution South Africa and argentina recognize gay marriage Most countries ban homosexual behavior completely ban it for one sex or have higher age of consent for gay sex than heterosexual Police harassment of gay people is common in many countries especially central america south america balkan nations and china Corrective rape reported in several countries like south africa Some politicians and clerics have joined effort to stem flood of anti gay violence in africa What are some of the challenges of growing up gay What are some of the positives related with growing up gay Many gay people still have to grow up in a hostile environment and this hostility may strongly color their world views as adults A pre gay child39s position on this gender continuum strongly affects their growing up process Parents may suspect that child is becoming gay and may do everything in their power to prevent it including punishment and various kinds of therapy A sissy boy may quickly become the least favorite child in the family For tomboyish girls its less predictable Because children form same sex social networks in childhood a child who is gender no non conformist to any extent may be excluded from friendship groups and even verbally abused Terms such as faggot and dyke Teachers do not always make efforts to stop Things get worse as get older Gay adolescents who are more conventional in their gender characteristics have the option of passing as straight and many do Some commit suicide run away become prostitutes etc Yet for increasing numbers of todays adolescents growing up gay can be relatively painless or a very positive experience Much depends on the kind of environment they find themselves Be able to explain the coming out process How important is each step in this process Ethnic minority children are born into a predominantly straight culture and everyone expects them to become heterosexual adults Coming out of the closet is a lifelong voyage away from the social expectation of heterosexuality and toward a fully integrated and healthy gay identity 0 First coming out to oneself Realizing and consciously accepting that one is gay Hardest step for most gay people Second coming out to others Usually a gradual process Parents tend to find out last Fear parental rejection sometimes for good reason Third element of coming out is joining a gay or lesbian community For some gay men means moving to a big city that has well developed gay community Lesbians tend to be more scattered to some smaller cities What special concerns do gay minorities have There were until recently few or no role models for gay people within their own minority communities There had been prominent leaders who had been homosexual but the sexuality of those individuals was not public knowledge Situation is now changing Number of minority public figures are openly gay Many minority gay people have to deal with cultural traditions that make heterosexual marriage into a new sacred obligation or that place taboos on the discussion of sexual topics in general especially for women Thus acknowledging their own gay identity might for some minority gay people come at the cost of distancing themselves from their communities or their cultural roots Immigrant families in particular may see their children s homosexuality as a sign that they are losing them to an alien culture Members of sexual minorities may develop their own cultural institutions such as voguing balls elaborate contests in dance drag and realness that sprang up among gay and transgender men in NY hispanic and african american communities What sexual behaviors are practiced by female couples By male couples How do these behaviors differ from those behaviors practiced by heterosexual couples How does gay sex differ from heterosexual sex Most sexual behaviors that male female couples engage in are also practiced by same sex couples Females Kissing fondling oral or manual breast stimulation body to body rubbing involving the vulva cunnilingus anilingus manual stimulation of clitoris penetration of vagina or anus with finger or toy and sex play involving elements of BDSM Males Kissing fondling nipple stimulation body to body rubbing involving penis fellatio anal penetration with finger or penis intercrural between the thighs intercourse and BDSM play Same sex couples take their time over sex Gay men often bring each other close to orgasm and then back off thus prolonging sexual pleasure and causing a more intense orgasm when it finally arrives What are some of the reasons gay men engage in sex in semipublic environments Lack of other options If live with parents are heterosexually married or live some distance from where meet their sex partners may not be able to bring partner home Cohabitating gay men who are seeking extra pair sex also Another reason is thrill seeking he sense of hunting for a partner and being hunted combined with the possibility of public disclosure Also the opportunity to have sex with a number of different partners in a short time Sex in bathhouses A facility in form of private club used for casual sex between men AIDS May have a pool Gay culture includes and is fairly accepting of outdoor sex bathhouses and the like its worth nothing that large numbers of gay men live in very ordinary monogamous relationships What diversities exist in the gay community What are some of the subtypes that exist Lesbians Butch and femme 0 Butch Masculine acting lesbians Look dress and act like men and take dominant role in sex Femme feminine acting lesbians Look like heterosexual women and take submissive role in sex Gay Men Tops and bottoms Women may identify as bisexual instead of lesbian BDSM culture and leather community Gay Culture Bears In gay slang a burly gay man with plenty of body hair more generally a member of a gay male subculture that rejects many of the prevailing standards of gay male attractiveness and behavior Its not really their appearance so much as attitude Rejection of necessity to be a pretty boy or muscle boy Lesbians don39t have such prominent sexual subcultures as gay men BDSM Do have social subcultures ranging from literary salons to softball leagues to music festivals What are the ways that gay people become parents How do the children of gay parents compare to children of heterosexual parents Many lesbians and gay men have been in straight relationships before coming out or are still in them so have children Increasing numbers however are making parenting a part of their gay experience Lesbians can have sex with a man or use artificial insemination Gay males can employ a surrogate mother or can adopt Becoming parents is an expensive proposition for most gay male couples Some males mix their sperm prior so that they don39t know It may ultimately be possible to create human embryos with two genetic parents of the safe sex As gay marriage becomes legal in more states gay adoption will become easier The children of gay parents generally thrive o Children who had to go through divorce first may be moderately traumatized in case that child39s realization that the difference in sexual orientation was reason for breakup Children who are produced or adopted they are most certain to be wanted and loved Also do not have to cope with divorce Many gay couples may ensure that a same sex role model is available like a close friend The children of gay parents do not differ significantly fro children of heterosexual Children of openly gay parents may suffer a degree of teasing or taunting but no evidence that this causes long term harm ls changing sexual orientation possible What are the possible consequences of attempting to change sexual orientation It is difficult or impossible There is no convincing evidence for success of any conversion treatments and that some evidence indicates that these treatments may be harmful to the persons who undergo them Can include depression and thoughts of suicide What are the roots of homophobia What are some theories behind homophobic attitudes Homophobia has multiple roots Some children and adults learn to dislike homosexuality and gay people by receiving anti gay messages form authoritative figures The fact that children of gay parents are more tolerant of homosexuality than other children is a simple illustration of the importance of that learning process Beliefs about origins of homosexuality persons who think that being gay is a choice are far more likely to have anti gay attitudes than if think it is a trait born with Silence can also coney an anti gay message such as failure of some teachers to discourage the use of terms like fag and dyke Discomfort with idea of it arises from failure of empathy When think of homo imagine sex with another man and is turned off aversion Fails to put self in mind of man who is sexually attracted to men Explains why men are directed against gay me more than lesbians Another motivation for anti gay prejudice is the sense that gay people are rule breakers not just society39s rules but the natural order of things by engaging in gay sex and being nonconformist Femiphobia Prejudice against femininity in males Its possible that people who hate or actually attack lesbians and gay men are themselves homosexual or bisexual Study had positive evidence What unique prejudices do bisexuals face Negative attitudes toward bisexual people are more widespread than are anti gay attitudes Part of reason is w widespread belief that people who claim to be bisexual are deceiving themselves or others Gay straight or lying Stereotype that they need to express their sexual attraction to both men and women and therefore are incapable of being in a durable monogamous relationship Ch 17 Sex as a Commodity What are the historical views on prostitution ls prostitution today on the rise or decline What are some of the reasons for this Historically prostitutions was viewed as a necessary evil For millennia prostitution was just about the only way in which unattached women could support themselves Prostitution has been condemned as fornication throughout the christian era Serious efforts to eradicate prostitution did not begin until the protestant reformation of the sixteenth century Driven by moral concerns and problem of sexually transmitted disease In latter of nineteenth century most US cities saw the development of red light districts in which prostitution was tolerated or even legal In early 20th century a coalition of reformers early feminists and health authorities forced most of these districts out of existence Epidemics of std during ww2 triggered a major campaign against prostitution and profession went underground Over the last century prostitution has become much less prevalent in the US and other developed nations Kinsey estimated that mens usage of female prostitutes had dropped by nearly 50 over the few decades prior to the time of his surveys in the 1940s and he attributed decline to a greater willingness of unmarried women to engage in sex with men Further decline in prostitution accompanied the sexual revolution of 605 Thanks to oral contraceptives unmarried women became more willing to have sex so need for prostitution decined Also employment for women expanded so less incentive Stats on prevalence of prostitution today are hard to come by In chicago estimated less than 1 in 1000 are prostitutes All forms are illegal everywhere in the US except for 111 non urban counties of nevada Enforcement greatly varies Know the locations for each type of prostitution and what types of services can be obtained at each level of prostitution Streetwalkingz most visible Usually picked up by clients driving ars but may also be picked up at bars Agree on kind of sex and fee sex takes place in car pay by hour motel or elsewhere Lowest rank and lowest prices Risk of being beaten or raped May be less likely to insist on condom so at more risk More likely to get in trouble with the law Female male and transgender streetwalkers have different experiences More economically prosperous for females 0 Males get more sexual enjoyment and experience orgasm more Men usually work for themselves whereas females often work for pimps Give pimps part or all of their earnings and also commonly have sex with them In return set up woman39s living and work arrangements protect turf provide drugs and paid of police or bailed out ofjail Many men are specifically attracted to transgender shemaes Massage parlors An establishment for massage that may also offer the services of prostitutes Or an exotic dance venue Frequent target for police raids Hand genital contact common At strip joint dancers provide sex by rubbing body against customers genitalia Hard to find today is an old fashioned brothel or whorehouse with traditional red lantern in doorway Escort services third and most prevalent a Form of off street prostitution that is not tied to a specific service location Escorts advertise their services by means of ads in weekly newspapers adult entertainment magazines or yellow pages Also internet sites and chat rooms 0 Ritualized encounter If have skill to provide a girlfriend experience can charge more At the top of hierarchy are premier escortsL Beautiful and well presented young women or men that a client can take to a dinner or show without embarrassment May stay with a visiting businessperson or politician for an entire weekend or even travel abroad with oil sheik Often called madams who have some access to affluent society Male escorts are only kind of prostitute that women use in any significant number Called gigolos Not common in US Rather than hire expensive european gigolos some older white women travel to africa the caribbean or elsewhere for sexual pleasure Who is most likely to be a prostitute What are some reasons for becoming a prostitute Good pay is the main motivation for prostitution Economic necessity and lack of sex partner on part of clients Even at streetwalking level a single 20 min can be equivilant to about a days work at minimum wage Many would want to switch jobs but don39t have the education and have blank resumes Some have financial needs from drug addictions and transgenders who are trying to get money for surgery reassignment Can39t do better than prostitution What types of prostitutes do women typically use What are alternatives to expensive gigolos Rather than hire expensive european gigolos some older white women travel to africa the caribbean or elsewhere for sexual pleasure Its not just about economics White women who seek out nonwhite men in exotic environments are driven by a particular fantasy that of violating colonial taboos to find intimacy with a hyper mascuine native No amount of money can fulfill this fantasy in their home countries What are some of the reasons men seek out prostitutes Some have difficulty finding unpaid partners May be shy unlikeable unattractive or severely disabled May be away from home or recently separated from a partner Some men who could get unpaid sex partners prefer to pay in order to avoid the hassles and obligations they perceive to be associated with regular dating Men who have regular partners may seek out prostitutes because their partner does not want to have sex as often as they want or will not participate in the practices they want May be looking for sexual variety or excitement of forbidden sex What is the central goal of COYOTE What are the differences between decriminalization and legalization with regulation Call off your old tired ethics To serve and represent prostitutes working in SF Mission was to improve the image and working conditions of prostitutes See decriminalization the simple elimination of laws that outlaw prostitution as key to their goals After decriminalization the thinking goes prostitution would become just another job subject to normal labor practices unionization and the like Legalization with regulation Conversion of an activity such as prostitution from a crime to a governmentally regulated occupation Where does most of the demand for underage prostitutes come from How has the UN affected the demand for underage prostitutes Comes form local men but visitors from overseas are also an important factor because of their disproportionate wealth Can be tourists businessmen or military personnel In 2007 114 UN peacekeepers were expelled from haiti for sexually exploiting women and girls as young as 13 paying as little as one dollar for sex How is global prostitution connected to the transnational trafficking of women Can the trafficking of women be considered voluntary in any sense Transnational trafficking of women is often connected with involuntary prostitution Usually from poor to rich countries There is much variation in how willingly women participate in sex trafficking Some women know what they are letting themselves in for and see it as a chance for economic betterment Some are deceived enslaved held prisoner and forced to engage in prostitution Much gray area Women travel voluntarily and know that they will be working in the sex industry but experience some degree of deception or coercion What is phone sex What are some of the advantages of phone sex A man calls an operator who engages him in erotic conversation while he mastubates Charged around 2 per minute billed to credit card or added to telephone bill Advantages Easier and safer and allows them to organize their work around their regular lives More convenient and cheaper for customer If customer has wife or partner may feel more comfortable with phone sex because doesn39t cross boundary of infidelity Know the similarities and differences between pornography erotica sexually explicit material and obscenity When is sexually explicit material considered erotica When is it considered obscene Pornography Material such as art writing photographic images and film that is intended to be sexually arousing Erotica Sexually themed works such as books or sculpture deemed to have literary or artistic merit Sexually explicit material A nonjudgmental phrase denoting pornography Obscenity Related to sexually themed publications art films performances or behavior that is deemed offensive to public morals or that violates legal standards of acceptability Obscene if Average person must find that the work is sexually arousing The work depicts or describes sexual conduct or excretory functions Lacks serious literary artistic political or scientific merit What is the difference between softcore and hardcorn pornography Soft core Relatively non explicit Includes no images of actual pornographic sex Hard core Related to explicit pornography such as images of penetrative sex and ejaculation How does pornography for women differ from pornography for men What role do lesbians have in women39s pornography Women prefer materials that contain indicators of affection and psychological intimacy and were turned off by too graphic depictions of sex acts and violence Some commercial pornography directed toward women is soft core and has romantic flavor Lesbians have long been pacesetters in woman39s pornography Plenty of male pornography included lesbian sex Lesbians who want pornography have to generate their own because they are usually presented as objects of heterosexual male desire Know the different perspectives on the value or harm of pornography Has research resolved the question of its effects What has research been able to determine Only porn involving minors is generally suppressed in the US According to religious conservatives porn promotes general moral decay and undermines traditional social institutions such as family Radical feminists possibility that has provoked the most discussion is that it promotes physical or sexual violence or other forms of harm against women Liberal generally downplay any harmful effects and even see it as beneficial in terms of encouraging sexual exploration or providing a harmless outlet for fantasies that could be dangerous in real life Argue that it is protected by first amendmentResearch ahs not resolved the question of its effects Finds that there is indeed a positive correlation between mens porn consumption and their acceptance of violence The association is especially strong for consumption of porn material that actually portrays sexual violence Perpetrators of violent crimes against women do not report a greater exposure to porn or only slightly greater compared with men in control groups When porn consumption increases sex crime rates decrease or stay the same but do not rise Final Exam Review Moral judgments about sex depend on its context The more affectionate intimate or committed the relationship the more likely people are to consider sexual acts morally acceptable Demographic factors affect sexual attitudes a Sex age education region raceethnicity religion pg 198201 American s attitudes have changed over time Decline in who think sex before marriage is always wrong Increase in percent who think extramarital sex affairs are wrong Casual sex has more appeal to men than to women M are more likely to consider one night stands morally acceptable Hooking up the new norm Many young w are becoming much more open to engaging in casual uncommitted sexual intimacy with acquaintances hooking up Casual sex is more accepted in the gay community Negotiating sex involves flirting Women often take the first step in interaction At some point male takes a more controlling role Dating relationships are often short lived Dating relationships usually involve some degree of physical intimacy sexual exclusivity may be expected First dates may follow a script Traditional script demands male take leadingactive role Woman takes the reactive role Dating relationships may evolve rapidly Tendency to idealize a partner minimization of the importance of their partner39s shortcomings Life experiences mold our sexual relationships Relationship styles are influenced by childhood attachments Attachment theory If parents respond sensitively to young child39s needs the child will become securely attached The attachment styles we learn as a child influence how we relate to peers and romantic partners Communication is a key facor in the success of relationships Many couples are reluctant to communicate about sexual issues Stems from a tradition of silence about sexual matters Gender barrier may compound communication problems Cultural factors inhibit communication in certain groups Asian americans and hispanic americans have a custom of silence on sexual issues Love jealousy and infidelity may be intertwined Sexual jealousy vs emotional jealousy Men typically experience sexual jealousy while women experience emotional jealousy Jealousy is part of the mechanism that detects cheating and motivates action to prevent it Jealousy is a psychological response that can have positive and negative consequences
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