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Chapter 11 - Solutions and Their Properties

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by: kpatt29

Chapter 11 - Solutions and Their Properties Chem 122

Marketplace > University of North Dakota > Chemistry > Chem 122 > Chapter 11 Solutions and Their Properties
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About this Document

These notes cover all of chapter 11. Equations are included. Practice problems that were done in class are included as well.
General Chemistry II
Dr. Shaina Mattingly
75 ?




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"You're awesome! I'll be using your notes for sure moving forward :D"
Natalie Hane

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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by kpatt29 on Friday January 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Chem 122 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Shaina Mattingly in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at University of North Dakota.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
Chapter 11 — Solutions and Their Properties 1 I. Solutions A. solutions = solvent + solute B. four main classes of solutions: 1. gas in gas: solvent is major component, solute is minor component(s) 2. liquid in liquid: solvent is major component, solute is minor component(s) 3. gas in liquid: liquid is the solvent, gas(es) is / are the solute(s) 4. solid in liquid: liquid is the solvent, solid(s) is / are the solute(s) II. Energy Changes in the Solution Process A. a solution will form at a given temperature if ΔG < 0 1. a 2. a ΔG = ΔH — TΔS 3. a B. when forming a solution, ΔS is always positive (entropy always increases when mixing solute and solvent) C. when forming a solution, ΔH can be positive or negative (heat is either absorbed or released when mixing solute and solvent) D. why is ΔH positive OR negative when forming a solution? 1. heat energy is needed for three things when forming a solution: a) ΔH solvent-solventvercoming solvent-solvent; IMF always positive b) ΔH solute-solute overcoming solute-solute; IMF always positive c) ΔH — forming solvent-solute; IMF always negative d) a solvent-solute ΔH = ΔH + ΔH + ΔH e) a solution solvent-solute solvent-solvent solute-solute f)•aforming a solution is endothermic when: g) a ΔH < (ΔH + ΔH ) h) a solvent-solute solvent-solvent solute-solute i)•aforming a solution is exothermic when: j) aa E. units: ΔH solvent-soluteΔH solvent-solventH solute-solute 1. ΔG = J/mol OR kJ/mol 2. ΔH = J/mol OR kJ/mol 3. T = kelvin 4. ΔS = J/(K x mol) OR kJ/(K x mol) III.Some Factors that Affect Solubility A. like dissolves like — based upon polarity solubility — amount of the solute per unit volume of solvent needed to form a saturated B. solution 1. units: gramsolute 100 mL solvent 2. solubility is temperature dependent a) solubility of a solid in a liquid increases with increasing temperature b) solubility of a gas in liquid decreases with increasing temperature C. a solution can be: 1. unsaturated — solution contains less solute per 100 mL than is soluble at a certain temperature 2. saturated — solution contains exact amount of solute per 100 mL as is soluble at a certain temperature 3. supersaturated — solution contains more solute per 100 mL than is soluble at a certain temperature Chapter 11 — Solutions and Their Properties 2 D. spectrum of solubility in alcohol 1. increasing the number of carbon, you are increasing the molecule that does not react with water and therefore decreasing the solubility 2. increasing polarity means an increase in solubility E. how is solubility of a gas in liquid related to pressure? 1. Henry’s Law — the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of gas over the solution a) a b) a Sg= kP g c) a IV. Concentration of Solution A. concentration — amount of solute present in a given quantity of solution or solvent B. types of concentration: 1. mass percent: independent of temperature, but less convenient when working with liquids; ppm and ppb a % = x 100 a) 6 b) a mass solute x ? ppm = 10 c) a mass ppb = 10 9 d) a solution 2. mole fraction: independent of temperature, X a) a b) a moles A X = c) a moles total = A + B + … d) a 3. molarity: use if temperature is not an issue, M a) a b) a moles c)= a solute d) a liters solution temperature dependent 4. molality: use if temperature is an issue, m a) a b)m = moles solute c) a kilogram solvent d) a V. Colligative Properties of Solutions colligative property — depend on the amount of dissolved solute particles, but not the A. identity of the solute B. types of colligative properties: 1. vapor pressure lowering — nature of a liquid to interact at the surface to become a gas a) Raoult’s Law — vapor pressure of a solution containing a nonvolatile solute is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure solvent times the mole fraction of the solvent (1) a PsolutionPsolvent X solvent (3) a b) Dalton’s Law — total vapor pressure of solution equals the vapor pressure of volatile liquid A in solution + vapor pressure of volatile liquid B in solution (1) a P = P x P + … total A B Chapter 11 — Solutions and Their Properties 3 2. freezing point lowering & boiling point elevation a) finding the number of particles of dissolved solute: (1) a i(2) moles of particles in solution (3) a moles of solute dissolved b) approximate values for i: (1) i is approx. 1 for molecular compounds that DO NOT form ions (2) i is approx. 2 for NaCl and other ionic compounds that dissociate into 2 ions (3) i is approx. 3 for Mg2l and other ionic compounds that dissociate into 3 ions c) a d) aT(b) = K(b) x i x m e) ΔT(f) = —K(f) x i x m f) ea 3. osmosis and osmotic pressure a) M is the molarity of the solution b) R is the gas constant (0.0821 (L x atm)/(K x mol)) c) T is the temperature in Kelvin d) a e) a π = iMRT


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