Anth 311 Week 2 Notes
Anth 311 Week 2 Notes Anth 311
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Popular in Ancient Egypt
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Anth 311 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Ron Schirmer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Ancient Egypt in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
1/20/16 Lecture 2: Human Emergence to Badarian Culture Base Map Key areas in valley and at oases Towns are created along river at bends and regular spacing to collect taxes from people who have no other option, but to go through the town Rivers attract settlements Rivers have troubling ways with sites o Floods wash things away and bury them o Little good record Lower Paleolithic Generally, Achuelean o C. 1.7 Mya-250,000 ya Hand axes and some chopping tools Material extraction from eroded hilltops Many regional traditions On top of clay deposits o Clay = slow moving water Generally wetter environment o Sites along river are eroded o Sites in desert are well preserved but unexcavated Middle Paleolithic C. 250,000 – 30,000 ya Regional traditions o E.g. Nubian and Western Desert o Each have internal subdivisions E.g. Halfan, Safahan, Saramsan… During occupation, considerably wetter o Last glaciation, sea levels lower, Africa wetter o Rich environments, but little subsistence debris Wide variety of animal resources o Archaeological deposits reflect particular uses of microenvironments Desert sites are badly eroded by subsequent hyperaridity Late in period, general drying, forcing occupation into floodplain o Lithic resource extraction by complicated mining Upper Paleolithic C. 30,000 – 10,000 ya Western desert deserted Habitations still restricted to floodplain o Basic hunting and fishing camps o Seasonal movements to resource areas Mining developed to include underground chambers – mines used for long periods o Mining was done by hand and with rocks/sticks Quite different from Upper Paleolithic traditions elsewhere, and from Late Paleolithic in Egypt Late Paleolithic C. 21,000 – 12,000 ya (LGM to deglaciation) Climate hyperarid o Water levels very low in Mediterranean and northern 2/3rds of Nile valley Regressive erosion followed by alluviation earlier sites destroyed, sites of the period covered o Slow moving water in Upper Egypt resulted in lots of clay deposits – to c. 30m higher than modern Relatively well dated regional traditions o Restricted to sections of the river divided by cataracts o Nestled in wadis separated by expanses of desert Sites generally show long term, repeated use by small groups o Strong seasonal signal Two major fishing seasons Wide variety of plants – including very tough to use ones Neolithic C. 11,500 – 6,500 ya (4500 BC) Marked by presence of pottery o Unlike Neolithic anywhere else in that there were no domesticated plants, but plenty of animal domestication/herding Two centers – Western Desert (earlier) and Nile Valley o End of glacial period resulted in northward movement of monsoon belt, thus enabling reoccupation of deserts out of the Nile Lengthening occupations at individual sites o Some evidence of transhumance Early Neolithic in desert was fairly thin, but by 6600 BC there were greater numbers of people in larger villages o Wells, stone slab houses, wattle and daub construction, storage pits o Still some special focus sites around Early on, evidence of distant trade contacts, cattle worship and calendrics (Nabta Playa) Some Neolithic cultures lasted into Dynastic times C. 4400 BC, desert largely abandoned because of aridity Nile Valley Neolithic Different from Western Desert in that crops are earlier but goats are later Three major developments o Faiyum (5500 BC) o Merimda (5000 BC) o Badari (4400 BC) All three emerge as clusters of related settlements o Numerous local “cultures” of which these end up being the survivors Very unclear how contemporaries relate to them o Overlap in time o Slow trend to southern dominance 1/25/16 Faiyumian Grew out of Western Desert traditions Food production influenced by Mediterranean (Levant) o Barley, Emmer wheat, flax o Sheep, goats, cattle, pigs Houses in clusters with central sets of storage pits o Inferred communal resource organization Beginnings of social stratification Someone needs to be in charge of distributing goods o Large pots buried in ground called “silos” Cruddy pottery but exceptional basketry o Not enough clay for pottery, a lot of reeds for baskets Merimdan Merimda, c. 5000-4100 BC (Lower Egypt) o Remained an important town until 1000 BC o Strategic location Stratified site with some hiati (plural of hiatus) o At least five strata Problem with excavating deeper strata is that it is in the delta o Lower strata contemporary with Badarian, upper with Naqadan o Over time, gradual adoption of southern (Naqadan) lifeways Agriculture important early, followed by livestock House style change over time o Early, round, pole and thatch arranged in clusters o Later, oval, mud-brick, semi-subterranean houses along narrow streets o Numerous associated granaries, millings slabs in houses House production of grains becomes more important over time Subadults and adults in separate cemeteries o No evidence of social stratification in grave goods o This era gives evidence of different burial customs Badarian Culture Upper Egypt Minimally 4400-4000 BC, possibly as early as 5000 BC Earliest positive evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt o Remember, earlier in Western Desert and in Lower Egypt Likely because of outside influence Mostly known for cemeteries o Bodies flexed, head south, on mat Differs from Lower Egypt – head east Religious difference? Unclear why, but had to do something with belief system Merimdan have greater belief in Sun God, Badarian worship Bull God more o Unequal status in grave goods, richest in separate cemetery area Pottery is extremely refined o Mostly cups and bowls, mostly brown bodied with black top o Reflective, smooth surface o Perfectly round opening o Burial pots Lithic industry is mostly flakes and blades o Few exceptional biracial pieces o Obviously not meant to be used, found in grave goods Some fine bone and ivory carving and cosmetics palettes (status goods) o Would gather various minerals and grind them and mix with animal fats for cosmetic palettes Helps to block out the glare Minerals are expensive so only the elite have access to them; turns into decorating themselves Rarely some hammered copper Lots of agriculture, animal keeping and fishing o Wheat, barley, lentils, tubers o Sheep and goat enclosures common o Almost no wild animal hunting Different from Faiyum and Merimdan Several areas of presence, but most not well studied o Complicated by regular village movements Origins uncertain, but almost undoubtedly arose out of multiple regional groups
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