Anth 311 Week 3 Notes
Anth 311 Week 3 Notes Anth 311
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Popular in Ancient Egypt
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Anth 311 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Ron Schirmer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Ancient Egypt in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
1/25/16 Lecture 3: Naqada Discovering Naqada 1892 Petrie expedition discovered site o Investigated the site by digging up the burials Several years long, more than 3,000 burials dug o Rather like other pre-dynastic burials Body flexed, wrapped in skin, with a mat, in a pit Few pieces of common pottery, ivory combs and spoons, flint knives Much more interesting cosmetic palettes (cattle palette with shell eye from Mediterranean) Shocking, in a way, because it was the first non-pharaonic, large, complex village o Required some way of placing it chronologically and culturally in Egyptian history o Petrie used large pottery selection to build “sequence date” series based on seriation Based on popularity curve – at first there will be few examples, then a lot as it becomes popular and then finally it will go away when a new form appears Petrie’s system good, but o Non necessarily applicable to all of Egypt o Did not consider all all aspects of pottery o Further work resulted in refinements Sequence Dates Naqada I (Amratian) o 4000-3500 BC o SDs 30-38 Naqada II (Gerzean) o 3500-3200 BC o SDs 39-60 Naqada III (Final Predynastic) o 3200-3000 BC o SDs 61-80 Naqada I Very similar to late Badarian – question of relatedness o Badarian may be older, regional source Most differences in material culture o Black-topped pottery less common o White-painted, decorated pottery more common Decorations clearly presage developed Dynastic iconography Animals Notable individuals (male) hunting or victorious in battle – showed what they thought was important and what they wanted the public to think of as powerful and important o Appearance of long blades, bearded figures, glazing Beards are seen as a sign of power – lead to the emergence of fake beards However, grave types are more diverse o Interpreted as more social positions, not strata o A few high status individuals in coffins/sarcophagi, with mace heads (weapons, these were not used in war though; made of ivory and smaller), in big, rectangular pits Naqada II Direct outgrowth of Naqada I, but big changes o Importantly, not change at frontiers/margins, but in core area o Significant geographic expansion of pattern Driven by economic expansion with threat (and execution) of force Major focus on River trade – seen in grave goods and pottery decorations focusing on boats (growing importance of trade on the Nile River) Elaboration of funerary practices o Sacrificed attendants, wrapping, multi-room structures Changes in material culture o Revision of cosmetic palettes Simpler outlines, more relief carving o Expansion of stone and metal working, agriculture Rise of specialization o Settlements Three major centers: Naqada, Hierakonpolis, Abydos Mid-Naqada II, Naqada known as Nubt – referring to its position as the center of gold production o Craftspeople By mid-Naqada II it is clear that there are kings attempting unification o Royals buried at Abydos Sekhen, Iry-hour, Ka, “Crocodile”, “Scorpion I”, “Scorpion II” Naqada II in the North Rise of local group in late Naqada I called Maadi (near Cairo) o Outgrowth of patterns seen first at Merimda Evidence of poly-cultural organization o Multiple types of houses, lots of exotic goods Positioned themselves on east side of Nile so if you take the first fork, you end up at Maadi Yet largely agricultural and pastoral o Wider variety of grains than elsewhere Cemeteries show slow trend to differential status, but still nothing compared to Upper Egypt End of Maadian culture by assimilation of Naqada II o Well documented at Buto Evidence of actual Egyptian settlements in trade networks in Palestine and elsewhere o Sense of necessity of organizing to get exotic goods Naqada III By beginning of Naqada III major cities become specialized o Naqada remains important trade center, but no longer dominant Decrease in splendor of elite tombs is clear o Abydos becomes administrative center with focus on cult of dead King By end of Naqada III already 12-room burial complexes crammed with exotic goods o Hierakonpolis becomes dominant cult center focus on Horus (living King) Mid-size tombs Emergent state new Capitol at Memphis founded by Aha o Had to be more local seat of power, however, first “dynastic” tombs still at home, in Abydos Had already been Royal burial ground for hundreds of years Abydos is upriver; that is where all life comes from so that is where the king should be buried for the continuation of life o Transport of dead King up River to royal cemetery was symbolic of them as sources of life (viz. Nile flooding) 1/27/16 Outreach not only north, but south o Ivory, ebony, incense, skins, etc., from south o Lapis, cedar, turquoise, amethyst, oils, etc., from north Lapis is from Afghanistan hundreds of miles away Cedar is from Syria All the other resources are from far away as well, indicating that they were doing immense amounts of long distance trading (same with the south resources) Massive reworking of shipbuilding o No more reed boats – all big wooden ones Reed boats could actually sail a long ways and hold a lot of weight Wooden boats though could hold more storage space because the walls of the boat do not have to be as thick – increases the amount of long distance trade Bifurcated economic position for commoners o Agricultural production for half year, the other half as paid laborers for the crown Slaves did not build the pyramids and temples, commoners in the second half of the year did Could not farm due to floods, so what else could they do? Work for the government and earn money Food comes from bakeries that the Royal families support, get beer from breweries the royal families support, live in housing that the Royal families provide Give back to the crown because they have connection with the gods and the gods provide the floods Creation of taxation system o Taxes paid in commodities that were held in trust Used to build Royal and religious structures (keeping the gods happy keeps the world going) Used to defray the impacts of regional productions shortfalls Distributed to regional elite families to keep their support Making Dynasty Precise nature of political dynamics unknown o Competition was likely, but what for it took? Iconography suggests warfare, but little to no evidence (mutilated bodies, weapons, destroyed villages, etc.) Question of interpretation: how much is real versus allegorical? Could be to set an example of power and how people should act o Formalization of language and writing system and spreads o Centralization of power/force and tribute/taxation When a state becomes formalized then we can for sure see that there is a king Extension of Egyptian material culture into distant lands o E.g. Making Egyptian pottery with local clays Clear integration of non-local material culture into Egyptian pattern o E.g. Cylinder seals, boat styles Cylinder seals identify whose property, where it is going, and the contents Libyan and Bull Palettes o Evolved from cosmetic palettes o Formal ornaments that show all sorts of interesting scenes o Formalization and communication of styles that portray a particular message Message is likely a story of the King Battlefield Palette o Falcon is a symbol of kingship Narmer Palette o Most famous palette o Narmer is the first true king o Unified crown – white crown of upper Egypt and red crown of lower Egypt Scorpion and Narmer Maceheads o Much larger Maceheads than previously found in burials (too small for battle) Still would not have been used in battle, too large
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