Anth 120 Chapter 3 Notes
Anth 120 Chapter 3 Notes Anth 120
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Popular in Forensic Science: An Anthropological Approach
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Anth 120 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Kathleen Blue in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Forensic Science: An Anthropological Approach in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
1/20/16 Chapter Three Physical Evidence Physical Evidence Different types Identification vs. comparison Individual vs. class Common Types of Physical Evidence Blood, semen and saliva Documents Drugs Explosives Fibers Fingerprints Firearms and ammunition Glass Hair Impressions Organs and physiological fluids Paint Petroleum products Plastic bags Plastic, rubber and other polymers Powder residues Serial numbers Soil and minerals Tool marks Vehicle lights Wood and other vegetative matter Insects Bones – trauma, cut marks, personal identification Significance of Physical Evidence Identification o Process of determining a substance’s physical or chemical identity o Establishment of standardized test results o To the exclusion of other substances or materials Multiple tests may be required Types of Physical Evidence Transient evidence o Temporary; lost or changed; best observed by first officer on scene Odor Temperature Imprints Indentations Pattern evidence o Direct contact between objects or object/person Tire prints Fire burn pattern Tool marks Gunpowder residue Body position Conditional evidence o Produced by specific events/actions and used to determine sequence Light Smoke Fire Location Transfer evidence o Contact between people, objects or people and objects Fibers Hair Soil Associative evidence o Associates victim or suspect with scene I.e. Personal belongings Wallet Car Identification Comparison Process of determining whether two or more objects have a common origin Examples o Hair o Paint chip One or more properties must match; any non-match results indicates different sources Individual characteristics Class characteristics Individual Characteristics Properties of evidence that can be attributed to a common source with a high degree of probability o Ridge characteristics of fingerprints o Random striations on bullets or tool marks o Irregular and random wear patterns on shoe and tire prints o Handwriting characteristics o Irregular edges of broken or torn objects o Sequentially made plastic bags o DNA Class Characteristics Properties of evidence that can only be associated with a group and never with a single source Probability affects likelihood of having a common source o Product rule Examples o Paint chips o Blood o Fiber o Hair Significance and Value of Physical Evidence Significance o Difficulty in assigning exact or approximate probability values o Creation of statistical databases for various types of class evidence o Experience o Class evidence is more common, and therefore important Value o Corroborate events with data in a manner as free from human error or bias as possible o Class evidence is not unique, but it is diverse o Collective presence of multiple lines of evidence increases the probability of involvement Limitations of Physical Evidence Importance of physical evidence is decided by a jury or sometimes a judge Since the scientific value and/or significance to a jury cannot be pre-determined for any given piece of evidence, thorough collection and evaluation of physical evidence present at a science is paramount Limiting of analysis may be necessary given natural variation among materials Databases AFIS/IAFIS o Fingerprints o Automated Fingerprint Identification System CODIS o DNA o Combined DNA Index System IBIS o Ballistics o Integrated Ballistic Identification System PDQ o Automotive paint International Forensic Automotive Paint Data Query Private Databases o SICAR (shoeprints) o Treadmate (tireprints)
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