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Anth 120 Chapter 3 Notes

by: Hallie Notetaker

Anth 120 Chapter 3 Notes Anth 120

Hallie Notetaker
Minnesota State University, Mankato
GPA 3.66

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Physical Evidence
Forensic Science: An Anthropological Approach
Dr. Kathleen Blue
Anthropology, Forensic Science
75 ?




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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Anth 120 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Kathleen Blue in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Forensic Science: An Anthropological Approach in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 01/29/16
1/20/16 Chapter Three Physical Evidence Physical Evidence  Different types  Identification vs. comparison  Individual vs. class Common Types of Physical Evidence  Blood, semen and saliva  Documents  Drugs  Explosives  Fibers  Fingerprints  Firearms and ammunition  Glass  Hair  Impressions  Organs and physiological fluids  Paint  Petroleum products  Plastic bags  Plastic, rubber and other polymers  Powder residues  Serial numbers  Soil and minerals  Tool marks  Vehicle lights  Wood and other vegetative matter  Insects  Bones – trauma, cut marks, personal identification Significance of Physical Evidence  Identification o Process of determining a substance’s physical or chemical identity o Establishment of standardized test results o To the exclusion of other substances or materials  Multiple tests may be required Types of Physical Evidence  Transient evidence o Temporary; lost or changed; best observed by first officer on scene  Odor  Temperature  Imprints  Indentations  Pattern evidence o Direct contact between objects or object/person  Tire prints  Fire burn pattern  Tool marks  Gunpowder residue  Body position  Conditional evidence o Produced by specific events/actions and used to determine sequence  Light  Smoke  Fire  Location  Transfer evidence o Contact between people, objects or people and objects  Fibers  Hair  Soil  Associative evidence o Associates victim or suspect with scene  I.e. Personal belongings  Wallet  Car  Identification Comparison  Process of determining whether two or more objects have a common origin  Examples o Hair o Paint chip  One or more properties must match; any non-match results indicates different sources  Individual characteristics  Class characteristics Individual Characteristics  Properties of evidence that can be attributed to a common source with a high degree of probability o Ridge characteristics of fingerprints o Random striations on bullets or tool marks o Irregular and random wear patterns on shoe and tire prints o Handwriting characteristics o Irregular edges of broken or torn objects o Sequentially made plastic bags o DNA Class Characteristics  Properties of evidence that can only be associated with a group and never with a single source  Probability affects likelihood of having a common source o Product rule  Examples o Paint chips o Blood o Fiber o Hair Significance and Value of Physical Evidence  Significance o Difficulty in assigning exact or approximate probability values o Creation of statistical databases for various types of class evidence o Experience o Class evidence is more common, and therefore important  Value o Corroborate events with data in a manner as free from human error or bias as possible o Class evidence is not unique, but it is diverse o Collective presence of multiple lines of evidence increases the probability of involvement Limitations of Physical Evidence  Importance of physical evidence is decided by a jury or sometimes a judge  Since the scientific value and/or significance to a jury cannot be pre-determined for any given piece of evidence, thorough collection and evaluation of physical evidence present at a science is paramount  Limiting of analysis may be necessary given natural variation among materials Databases  AFIS/IAFIS o Fingerprints o Automated Fingerprint Identification System  CODIS o DNA o Combined DNA Index System  IBIS o Ballistics o Integrated Ballistic Identification System  PDQ o Automotive paint  International Forensic Automotive Paint Data Query  Private Databases o SICAR (shoeprints) o Treadmate (tireprints)


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