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Notes from the first day of class up until 1.27

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by: Shelby Creech

Notes from the first day of class up until 1.27 HDFS 302

Marketplace > Colorado State University > HDFS > HDFS 302 > Notes from the first day of class up until 1 27
Shelby Creech

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About this Document

These are the beginning notes to unit 1
Marriage & Family Relationships
Erin Albrecht
75 ?




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"I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!"
Gay DuBuque

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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Shelby Creech on Friday January 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HDFS 302 at Colorado State University taught by Erin Albrecht in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Marriage & Family Relationships in HDFS at Colorado State University.


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I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!

-Gay DuBuque


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Date Created: 01/29/16
HDFS 302 01/22/2016 2/22 Chapter 1: Making choices in a changing society:  What is family?  Emotional and practical support over time  Dyad related by blood, marriage, love or friendship or adoption  Influenced by them  Disagreement/conflict  Identity (cultural influence)  Investment (emotional or economical)  Model  Why do we define family?  To help with social security, divorce, medical, etc.  Family:  Any sexually intimate/expressive or parent-child or other kin relationship in which people related by ancestry, marriage or adoption (1) form a economic unit and care for any young, (2) consider their identity attached to the group, (3) commit to maintain that group over time.  The postmodern family:  There are now many different family forms:  Single-parents families, stepfamilies, cohabiting, couples, gay and lesbian families, and three-generation families.  Same-Sex marriages:  June 2013 Supreme Court decision:  Federal government to provide benefits to both same- sex and opposite-sex coupled marriages  Junes 2015 Supreme Court decision:  Same-sex marriage legal in all 50 states  1/25 Facts about families:  Fewer people are currently married  People have been postponing marriage  Median age has risen from 21 to 27 years for women; 24-29 for men  There is increased acceptance of diverse family forms  More people are cohabiting  Same-sex marriage  More people choose to live alone  Many adult children live with their parents (1-2 adults age 25- 34)  Households are multigenerational (new immigrants, unwed mothers, and those dealing with housing shortages)  Parenthood is increasingly postponed and fertility has declined  More women wait until after established careers  Female bodies declines egg production around age 35  Increased in fertility treatments and assisted reproduction  Divorce rates have stabilized, but have remained relatively high  Remarriage rates have declined, but remain significant  1 out of 3 marriages was a remarriage in 2010  A significant proportion of the population is aging  The large baby boom generation is entering old age  Majority of baby boom population is between 45 and 64  Smaller percent (15%) is 65 or older ▯ 1/27 Changing times: technology:  Social media  Skype, face time, online dating sites, cyber bullying ▯ iclicker questions answer: ▯ 1) ▯ Facts about family:  Increasing race/ethnic diversity of U.S. Families ▯ Race:  A social construction reflecting how Americans think about different social groups  It implies a biological group, but this idea has been rejected by scientific study  No common genetic markers to a group  Intra-group differences larger than inter-group differences Ethnicity:  Cultural distinctions often based in language, religion, and history ▯ Results of diversity:  Acculturation: (assimilation)  A process that happens on two levels:  Personal and societal level  The personal and societal changes that occur when members of different cultural groups interact  Biracial and multiracial families ▯ Growing economic inequality:  Overall, household income is rising, and the poverty rate is slowly dropping  14.5% of the population  Over 30% of children (1 in 5) living in poverty  But, there is a growing gap between the nation’s wealthiest and poorest  “Unequal states of America” ▯ Summary:  We live in a changing society, characterized by:  Increased ethnic, economic, and family diversity  Decreased martial and family permanence  Increased tension between familistic and individualistic values  This situation can make personal decision making more difficult and more important  Your personal decision making feeds into society and changes it  We affect our social environment every time we make a choice Our decisions can have direct or indirect effects on sociopolitical trends regarding families ▯ ▯ Working with Families:  The family as an agent of socialization  Shaped by:  Values  Traditions  Shared experiences  Individuals in family context:  Individuals are embedded in the context of family  Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological model  Families in Societal and cultural contexts  Beliefs and perspectives  Chronosystems: Cohort effect (shared experience)  E.g.: Great Depression  Understandings the identities:  Categorize and making assumptions: The Big 8:  Age  Sex  Race  Ethnicity  Religion  Social Class  Sexual Orientation  Ability  See people through our own “culture lens”  Framework for understanding individuals  Not categorizing, exploring other people’s experiences  Dangers of Categorization:  Overemphasize own experiences  Miss the individual OR  Underemphasize cultural context  Omit significant portion of individuals experiences  Values:  Remaining person-centered  Seek to understand their worlf from their point of view  Values  Experiences  Cultural norms  Importance of awareness of own beliefs, values and biases  Self-exploration/introspection  Supervision  Often based on our:  Upbringing  Experiences  Not inherently good or bad, just different  Discrepancies between cultural and personal values  American value: achievement  Pressure  Social Sanctions and consequences?  Don’t judge too quickly  Social priming and assumptions:  Based on societal/cultural values and stereotypes  Create expectations:  Pressure others to math our expectations  Experiences  Alter our interpretation of other’s actions  Inhibit contextual understanding  Going deeper:  To understand behavior, we must attend to person-situation interactions within a larger social contextual  Aspects that influence behavior  Collective Representations  Immediate Situation Cues  Personal Characteristics (personally, values, experiences)  How should we respond?  Be aware of biases, assumptions and trigger words  Distinguish what we KNOW and what we THINK WE KNOW  Culture self aware :  Becoming conscious of ones reactions to culturally different individuals  Similarities and differences between cultural groups  Cultural differences that exist between seemingly homogenous cultural communities  Summary and Response:  Seeing the world through their eyes  Importance of self awareness:  Possible assumptions/biases  Importance of exposure to other ways of life:  Take advantage of opportunities to interact with and learn from people with different beliefs and experiences than you  Travel, go to cultural groups, talk to new people ▯ ▯ ** Family Ecology Perspective: (most popular) Paper theory!!  Theme:  The ecological context of the family affects family life and children’s outcomes  Key concepts:  Natural physical-biological environment; Human-built environment; Social-cultural environment  Current research:  Family policy; Neighborhood effects  Nested circles:  Each layer is a different layer of the individual (put in context)  Inner circle:  individual (genetic)  Next, microsystem:  Family, friends, school, teachers, churches, neighborhood ▯ Ecological perspective: (circles overlapping)  The multiple layers of the ecology are connected and interrelated in very fluid and dynamic ways  The idea is not that society determines human behavior, but that the social and physical environment offers limitations as well as opportunities  There are direct and indirect ways that society and the environment (human-built, physical, social cultural) can affect families  Example: Climate refugees:  Families disrupted or split up by climate catastrophes  Global warming may create 150 million refugees by 2050 ▯ Family Development Perspective:  Theme:  Families experience predictable changes over time  Key concepts:  Family life cycle; Developmental tasks  Current Research:  Transition to adulthood ▯ Family life cycle:  Sequence of phases that characterizes development of most families:  Early adulthood: people typically live on their own, marry, go to college, and rear children  Middle age: children leave home and parental responsibilities lessen  Late adulthood: brings retirement, aging, becoming grandparents, and death of one’s spouse ▯ How are family life stages changing?  We already had little existing research evidence for how dyads and families change over time  Now that marriage and childbirth are delayed, and divorce and remarriage are common, how might these “predictable” family cycles change?  ▯ Structure-functional Perspective on the family:  Theme:  The family performs essential functions for society  Key concepts:  Social-institution; family structure; family functions  Current research:  Cross-cultural and historical comparisons ▯ Family Functions:  According to structural functionalist perspective, the family is a social institution that preforms three essentials functions:  Raise children  Provide economic support  Give emotional security  However, we need to appreciate that functions may differ by cultural background ▯ ** Interactionist Perspective: (Paper theory)  Theme:  The internal dynamics of the family as a group of interacting individuals shape the family  Key concepts:  Interaction; Self-concept; Identity; Meaning  Current Research:  Family rituals; the role of culture in social interactions  Celebrating family rituals fits the interactionist perspective  Families may adopt existing rituals or create their own  They may be elaborate or simple  They vary by culture ▯ ** Systems Theory Perspective: (Paper theory!)  Theme:  The family as a whole is more than the sum of its parts  Key Concepts:  System; Equilibrium; Boundaries  Current Research:  Family health and illness; family dynamics and functioning; communication and family typologies ▯ Family Systems Theory:  Families and relationships tend toward equilibrium  May reveal costs or benefits of certain family patterns  Boundaries= Who is in the family, considered to be part of that unit/system  Ex: stepfamilies and boundary ambiguity ▯ Exchange theory:  Theme:  The resources that individuals bring to a relationship or family affect formation, continuation and nature of a relationship  Key Concepts:  Resources; Costs and rewards; Exchange balance; Power and decision making  Current Research:  Family power; Entry exit from marriage; Family violence ▯ Conflict perspective:  Theme:  Social and economic relations are not equally beneficial; conflict and exploitation characterize inequality  Key concepts:  Inequality; Power; Class  Current Research:  Effect of economic inequality on families in the U.S.; Race/ethnicity and immigration status; effect on changing global economy on families ▯ Feminist Theory:  Theme:  White male dominance in the culture, society, families and relationships is oppressive to women and to anyone who is not a white male-based on race, social class, gender, religion, age, physical ability, and sexual orientation  Key Concepts:  Sex versus gender, categorization, stratification, privilege, social deconstruction  Current Research:  Division of labor within the family, family violence, Black Feminism ▯ Conflict/Feminist Perspective Research:  Racial/ethnic equalities that impact families  Education opportunities:  Racial minorities more likely than White students to be suspended from school, to have less access to high level math and science classes, and to be taught by less qualified teachers  Economic opportunities:  Black Wealth, White Wealth  Research gaps:  Designed around white, middle-class families  Within-group research on the rise ▯ Theory Summary:  A theory is a framework that helps social scientists suggest possible explanations for why patterns and behaviors occur in individuals and families  No one theory can explain everything  Social scientists and practitioners generally rely on several theories together to understand families and relationships ▯ Research on family relationships: The Ethic of research on families:  Researchers must have their plans reviewed by an institutional review board (IRB)  The IRB scrutinizes research proposals for adherence to professional ethical standards, e.g.:  Informed consent  Lack of coercion  Confidentiality ▯ Methods of data collection:  Laboratory observation and experiments  Naturalistic observation  Surveys ▯ Dr. Gottman’s Research:  Studying material couple relationships in “The Love Lab”  What methods does Dr. Gottman use?  Advantages/disadvantages? ▯ Laboratory observations:  Pro:  Researcher has more power with which to test and interpret effects  More control over experimental factors  More consistency in observations across families  Con:  Family may behave differently in a new, structured environment  May be asking them to preform behaviors that are atypical or uncomfortable to them  Cultural differences in responses to instructions?  Data may be less valid when testing hypotheses ▯ Naturalistic observations:  Pro:  May get a better sense of a “real” family interactions in their natural environment  Can be better accommodate their routines, schedule  Power dynamic more balanced on family’s territory  Results reflect ways families actually behave  Con:  Researcher has less control  Families may “act” for the camera  Typically dynamic more balanced on family’s territory  Research questions may need to evolve naturally from the data as opposed to being “a priori” ▯ ▯ ▯


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