Family Communication Exam 2 Notes
Family Communication Exam 2 Notes COMM 40223
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Emily Tall on Friday January 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to COMM 40223 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Carr in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Family Communication in Communication Studies at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
▯ EXAM 2 NOTES ▯ 10/7/15 ▯ Families and Stress ▯ Two Types of Family Stress Developmental Stress o Stress resulting from change that naturally occurs throughout family life, often as a result of marker events (college, job, kids, death) o Individuals experience seasons or life stages (critical periods of change) from birth to death o Change is natural, occurs throughout our lives, and we cope and adapt through communication… o …But just because change is developmental and expected doesn’t mean it can’t be stressful Unpredictable Stress o Stress that cannot be anticipated or defended against ▯ Life Course Approach to Developmental Stress Different family members experience stress in different ways Events occur either “on-time” or “off-time,” but this distinction can be difficult to make ▯ Flow of Stress Through the Family Vertical Stressors: Stressors transmitted across generations: attitudes, values, expectations, secrets, rules, personalities (Historical horizontal stressors) Horizontal Stressors: Stress that is unique to the family and occurs over time o Includes both predictable and unpredictable events Horizontal Stressors interact with vertical stressors to create life transitions ▯ Nondevelopmental/Unpredictable Stress Nondevelopmental Stress: Events or circumstances that cannot be foreseen from a developmental perspective o Stress can result from both positive or negative events o What’s the difference between off time and nondevelopmental stress? Stress vs. Trauma o Trauma: “stress so great and unexpected that it cannot be defended against, coped with, or managed o From the narrative perspective: events are neutral. You decide if they are a stressor or traumatic o So does trauma exist? ▯ ▯ 10/14/15 ▯ What is Resilience? Resiliency- The perceived personality trait or characteristic of resilience. Resilience- The process of disruption and successful reintegration after adversity; the outcome of successful coping, the ability to “bounce back” o Resiliency is more descriptive of who we are, but resilience is based on how we relate stories about adversity ▯ Historical Approach to Resilience The first wave: What individual characteristics are related to resiliency? o Self-efficiency o Optimism o High self-esteem o Agency o Social support o Strong communication skills o Those who show resilience potentially pass on resiliency to future generations The second wave: How do resilient individuals acquire these qualities after the experience of adversity? The “process” of resilience o Biopsychospiritual homeostasis o Disruption from adversity o 4 possible responses to disruption 1. Resilient reintegration Overcome and learn from that event 2. Returning to homeostasis 3. Recovering with loss 4. Dysfunctional reintegration The third wave: What motivates resilient reintegration? How can we explain variation in individual levels of motivation for enacting resilience? Some possible answers: o Religion: Resilience comes from a higher power o Physics: Resilience comes from an environmental “self-righting” mechanism o Eastern Medicine: Resilience comes from rebalancing our life energy or Tao o Psychoneuroimmunology: Adversity creates a chemical imbalance: we are motivated by unconscious neurological desire for chemical stability in the brain ▯ Where do we go from here? Waves 1,2, and 3 focus on resilience as an individual process o However, the experience of adversity is frequently shared with others o Our identities and coping abilities are shaped by our communicative experiences with others A possible fourth wave: Resilience is the result of an interpersonal process, as well as an individual one. o People interpret and respond to adversity through their communication with others ▯ Resilience in Families “Resilience rests, fundamentally, on relationships” (Luthar, 2006). Families provide a foundation for our response to adversity later in life. o Amount/Degree of adversity Some adversity is good, too much is bad, BUT… “People who have experienced manageable traumatic events report more positive change than those who have not experienced adversity” (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996). ▯ Family Resilience & Circumplex Individuals’ ability to manage stress is affected by the way that families communicate about stressful events o The way that families communicate about adversity is more important than the extent of adversity they have experienced Families can move along the dimensions of cohesion and flexibility by changing their communication o Family functioning can be altered by changing family communication ▯ Family Resilience and Memorable Messages Memorable messages: meaningful and enduring “units” of communication that family members pull forward to guide sense-making ▯ Family Resilience and Social Support Social Support: The process of interaction in [family] relationships which improves coping, esteem, belonging, and competence through actual or perceived exchanges of physical and psychosocial resources Two ways of explaining the relationship between social support and resilience: o Main effects model: Social support is beneficial, regardless of whether one is experiencing stress. o Buffering effect model: Social support serves as a protective buffer from the negative effects of stress (but otherwise, doesn’t help us) Three types of support o Perceived: Support potentially available from your social network o Received: Support you actually get from your social network o Enacted Verbal and nonverbal messages of support that vary in their effectiveness Enacted support varies in person-centeredness ▯ Hurtful Family Environments & Resilience Two models to explain how exposure to hurtful family environments affect our response o Sensitization model: Ongoing exposure to hurtful experiences increases sensitivity to hurt, and reactions to hurt more intense o Habituation model: Ongoing exposure to hurtful experiences decreases sensitivity to hurt, and future hurtful situation are less intense ▯ ▯ 10/21/15 ▯ Family Comm and Mental Health Two overarching connections: o Cause: Mental health problems often have roots in family communication/interaction o Effect: When family members have mental health problems it impacts how they relate to their spouses, children, and family Three examples: o Schizophrenia o Eating disorders o Depression ▯ Family Interaction and Schizophrenia Communication deviance: Failure to maintain shared conversational focus due to odd word usage, sentences with no clear object, internal contradictions, etc. o “It’s gonna be up and downwards along the process all the while to go through something like this.” Parental comm deviance is associated with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in at-risk teenagers Family members treated for schizophrenia are more likely to relapse when parents have high levels of comm deviance. Family affective style: emotional climate of family as communicated during interactions (specifically, criticism, hostility, and over involvement) Over five years… o Only 8% of adolescents from a family with neutral or positive affective style were diagnosed with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder o 59% of adolescents from a family with a negative affective style were diagnosed (!!) Negative parenting behaviors include: threats, slaps, derogatory statements, fear, lack of physical affection, or praise ▯ Family interaction and Eating Disorders Affectionless control: Family interaction patterns characterized by intrusiveness or over-involvement couples with a lack of emotional availability or affection o Affectionless control is a longitudinal predictor of anorexia and bulimia Inappropriate nonverbal communication (e.g., “mild” abuse such as slapping or being rough with a child from anger) interferes with development of social competence, often resulting in eating disorders o Inappropriate nonverbal comm makes children up to five time more likely to develop disordered eating. ▯ Family Interaction and Depression Depressed family members tend to be more aggressive and use negative nonverbal behavior o Depressed parents tend to use more harsh and inconsistent discipline o Depressed parents tend to be less nurturing o Depression increases marital conflict Non-depressed family members tend to respond in a purposely non- aggressive manner to the depress person, which can reinforce the depressed family member’s comm pattern ▯ Family Comm and Well-Being “The quality of family relationships affect and maintain mental health, and mental health problems impact how one interacts with family members” (Segrin, 2006, p. 6) Role of Family Comm and Health o Buffering Effect: Cancer patients reported less physical pain, depression, and greater quality of life when they reported receiving more communication-based emotional support from their spouse. ▯ ▯ 10/28/15 ▯ Family Health Communication Family members influence each other’s health in several ways: o Communication health promoting behaviors Good nutrition, exercise, brushing teeth o Communicating health risk reduction behaviors Avoiding excessive sun exposure, not smoking ▯ Two Types of Parental Messages to Reduce Risky Health Behavior Abstinence or “no tolerance” rules o “Don’t have sex until you’re married” Contingency rules o “You should wait until you’re married to have sex.. but if you do, be sure you are safe” ▯ Parental Support & Illness in First-year College Students Stress: When environmental demands exceed a person’s adaptive capacity, which results in physical or psychological changes that place a person at risk for disease The transition to college is stressful and makes “adaptive demands” on first year students in at least three ways: o Academic: classes, meeting requirements, declaring major o Interpersonal demands: Roommates, professors, new friends o Demands of daily living: Laundry, cleaning, cooking by yourself “Illness is a relational phenomena” o Symptoms are both physical and psychological o Social networks (positively and negatively) affect our ability to manage health symptoms “Stress is positively related to frequency of symptoms” o The more stress we have, the more frequent symptoms we have Does parental support help first-year students? o If so, what type of support is most helpful Received: support actually provided Desired: Support one would like to receive Survey says! o Stress and stress related symptoms are inversely related to support received from parents (H2a & H3a) The more support we receive from our parents, the less stress we experience (correlation, not causation) o BUT: Stress and stress related symptoms are both unrelated to support desired from parents (H2b & H3b) Experiencing more stress doesn’t change the amount of support we want from our parents Overall: Students who feel overwhelmed early on continue to feel that way near the end of the semester, although, parental support can alleviate some of that stress ▯ ▯ 11/4/15 ▯ What is Relational Maintenance? Relational Maintenance o Where relationships exist between their initial development and their possible decline
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