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TSEM 102- Fath

by: Stacy Downing

TSEM 102- Fath TSEM 102

Stacy Downing
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These notes will be needed to write your paper and do the classwork assignments. She is a harsh grader and so i would write plenty for all of her assignments. These are very detailed notes and will...
Green Eating On A Blue Planet
Natalia Fath
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This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Stacy Downing on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Bundle belongs to TSEM 102 at Towson University taught by Natalia Fath in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Green Eating On A Blue Planet in Geography at Towson University.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
TSEM 102: T owson Seminar "Green Eating on a Blue Planet" Dr. Fath (Fall 2015) Lecture Notes (Lectures 1-18) Lecture 1: History of Food (How has food systems changed over human history)  Timeline: hunting and gathering (150,000 bp) to agriculture (250 bp)  Hunting and gathering was the dominant lifestyle for more than 90% of human history o Implying what they ate was healthy, natural, organic o Physically active and time consuming o Hunting was not reliable, gathering was plant based and hunting for meat was for occasion o Early humans didn’t have diet related diseases o Nomadic lifestyle wasn’t realistic; population wasn’t growing yet o Population growth: humans learned to store food and settle in one place  Between 12,000 and 10,000 years ago: The Emergence of Agriculture o Mesopotamia, Fertile Crescent: they had domesticated animals o Jared Diamond: center of origin of food production o Americans: corn and soybean o China :rice  What motivated the transition to agriculture? o Climate change wild food shortage o Population change increased food demand o New technology viable in agriculture  Plow, use of animals, irrigation  Sedentary Agriculture o Food production increasedpopulation started to grow  Surplus of food produced for the first time o Living permanently in one placedramatic alternations to the environment o Economic specialization inequalities of wealth and status o Cities emergence o Rise of civilizations  Cycles of Boom and Bust o New technologies irrigation and plow promoted agriculture o Plow contributed to soil erosion o Rome falling soil erosioncivilization will fall o Fertilization o Continued population growth  Matheus: population will outgrow the food supply  1050-1850: Global Population/ Agricultural Evolution o Population more than doubled o Improved nutrition  Exchange of food: food from New World brought to Europe  Potato: Nutritional Powerhouse or Tomatoes o New technologies: storage/refrigeration  Industrialization o Industrial Revolution England, mid-1700s  Shift from human labor to machines by steam, water, coal, petroleum products  Resulted in exponential growth  Industrialization and Food Production in 20 century 1. What was the rationale for industrializing the food system? o Free Americans to join the labor force o Lower cost of food, increase spending on products  Industrialized Food System Characteristics o Specialization (more efficient) o Simpler, more routine mechanization  Standardized, factory lines  Mechanization leads to tools/resources o Dependence on resources manufactured off the farm  Chemicals, fossil fuels o Standardization  Number of farms decreased o Consolidation (trends toward fewer, larger operations) 2. Did the system achieve its purpose? What’s the hidden cost of in expensive foods? o Benefits increased food production; less human labor, lower food prices o Costpublic health harm, social injustice, environmental degradation, animal welfare 3. What can we learn from the history of food? o Benefits isn’t always better; always improve Lecture 2  Successfully completing a research paper is a complex processes. It encompasses… o Topic selection o Developing a research question o Gaining necessary context and background knowledge o Locating relevant and high quality sources o Thoughtfully reading those sources o Organization, argumentation, and writing o Citing properly (Chicago)  How to develop a research question? o The question you are trying to answer when you do research and a research report o Avoid “How can we understand/explain?” o These questions are unclear, unfocused, too simple o Make sure not broad/narrow o Write several questions, try to answer, what kind of evidence is needed, are there any constraints  A well thought out and focused research question leads directly into you hypothesis o Topic Research Question  Hypothesis o Evaluate your research question Lecture 3: Food Inc. Notes  There aren’t any seasons in the American Supermarket o Example: tomatoes  Fast Food to all Foods o 1930s restaurants called Drive-In  Brought factory system into restaurant kitchen o 1970s top 5 packers controlled 25% of the meat industry o Today top 4 packers controlled 85% of the meat industry o Produce food (large amount) of a small land and with affordable price o The company keeps farmers under their thumb because of the amount of debt  Typical debt = $500,000  Where our food comes from? o Corn (30% of land based)  Encourage to over produce corn  Main component in feed for animals o CAFO: concentrated animal feeding operation o E.coli in cows  Unintended Consequences o E.coli is everywhere because of farm run-offs o FDA safety inspections are decreasing  1970s 50,000 per year  Today 2,000 per year o Kevin’s Law: never got passed  Suppose to give privilege to the USDA to shut down contaminated facilitated  The Dollar Menu o Vegetable vs. Junk Food (Fast Food) o Screwed food system to the bad calories o Cheap corn, wheat, soybean = cheap junk food o Diabetes affecting children at epidemic proportions  In the Grass o Industrial production is unsanitary o Culture of technicians o Meat packaging is one of the most dangerous jobs in US today  Hidden Cost o Industrial foods are not produced/processed honestly o Organic is growing fast in the food industry o 16 century farmers can feed 6-7 people o Today farms can feed twice, 26 people  From seed to supermarket o Monsanto seed production (soybean)  They control the food product to the supermarket  The Veil o Government dominated by industries  Power being used against farmers and people  Consumers may have a fear of what’s in the food o Sue just to send a message even if they can’t win  Shocks to the System o A spike in the oil prices Discussion: Food Inc.  Michael Pollen (author) o Defense of Food o Omnivore dilemma  Chicken production (more white meat)  CAFO = industry Lecture 4: Lester Brown Chapter 3 Discussion  More quality and quantity of food  Spike of delicacy meals  Seafood in Japan  Find other means to produce food  People are increasing food, wealth and want to eat more animal protein o Lamb  Increased production for animal protein rising output of 2 natural oceanic Fisherie and range land o Poultry becoming important  Cheapest, doesn’t require as much land  They are being fed grains, and the portion  1950-2000 o The oceanic fish catch increased five folds o World consumption of meat increase more than five folds  Japan and Norway had most production of seafood  US, Russia, Brazil, ArgentinaBeef  Australia and Kazakhstan Mutton  Germany and Polandpork  Japan, Norway, island nations seafood  Production and consumption of protein will increase  2025 fine fish will be primary poultry o The effect of fish farming?  Efficient system in China Poly-capillary system o 4 species, different feed is given to eat  Dairy production in India  The drop residue is what feed animals  Why aren’t they bring applied in other countries Lecture 5: Lester Brown Chapter 5 Discussion  What is need for food production? o Man power, farmable land (soil), water  Dead City = North Syria (near Fertile Crescent) o Major trade routes, in the area o After Arab invasion, trade routes destroyed o Soil = nonrenewable resources on a human time scale  If not taken care of, desert soil will result  Soil = finite resource  The development of a soil is influenced by: 1. Organisms 2. Time- long time for soil to form 3. Parent Material (Bad Rock) started formation 4. Topography farms on slope are prone to erosion 5. Climate lack of perception/ or too much, nutrients washed off with too much rain  Soil Horizons = Soil Level  Soil contains: mineral particle, water, air, organic matter o High (%) of organic matter, the better the soil  (%) arable land in the world: ~12%  4%= too hot ; 4%= too wet ; 4%= too rocky o Europe (conditions are favorable) o India o Nigeria (highest and population in Africa)  Soil Erosion: is a natural process that is accelerated by human activities that uncover soil (overgrazing, cultivation, logging, etc.)  Soil erosion Slope (Mediterranean), Semi-dry (Kenya) accelerated  Effects of wind soil erosion o Dust storms o Dust bowl (mid-1930) wind picked up particles because over plowing, no time for soil forest and drought  1935soil conservation services o Taught farmers what to do  Gobi Desert: is spreading (desertification) o Borders between Mongolia and China o Beijing is very close to the desert  Yellow Dragon 2010 severe wind storm  Africa Sahel o On south border of Sahara o Senegal, Mauritania, BF, Mal, Algeria, Chad, Sudan, Eritea, Niger, Nigeria o Lake Chad: lost half of its size o Natural fertilizer from Africa to rainforest  Effects of water soil erosion o Overgrazing and desertification in Madagascar o The Yellow River (China) o The Yangtze River sediment rich water  Effects of water and wind erosion o Dust storms; increased sediment in river economic disruption, very often- far away  Agricultural is inherently reduces both mineral content and organic material in soil, if not replenished by human actions  Contour strip cropping (able cropping) protects soil o ~ 1/3 of the top soil is lost in the world o Strongly degraded areas are still growing  Cannot be restored o When soil is depleted, human population will disappear  This was a result of disappearance of many great civilization Lecture 6: Lester Brown Chapter 6 Discussion  Eating less meat o Mass unsustainable production of meat o Risk of urban agriculture pollution, soil erosion  Major Milestones st o 1804: 1 billion reached in population  Took tens of thousands of years  Population ever since has been growing exponentially  10,000 years ago was when population started growth o 1927: 2 nd billion rd o 1960: 3 billion (took only 33 years) o End of 20 century: we reached the 6 billion o 2011: 7 billion  Consequences of this explosive growth? o Grow put the carrying capacity (Malthus Theory)  Running out of resources  Limited land and fresh water  Older people retire, not enough younger people  Last century trend to population growth o Started 1900 with below 2 billion o Ended 1900 with 6 billion  Which regions has reached population stability? o Developed countries have reached stability  Women having access to education  Low rate of fertilization o Asia (Japan) , West Europe  No population = no economic growth?  Which region is moving rapidly to population stability? o Latin America and East Asia (Koreas and Taiwan)  Trends in Latin America o Developing  Trends Sub-Sandra Africa and South Asia (India) o Still growing, difficult to reduce poverty  Demographic transition model o Model that analysis Crude Birth Rate and Crude Death Rate 1. Early Agricultural Stage: no medicine, High Birth Rate a. Black Death: began in Europe, bubonic plague, wiped 1/3 Europe population, lack hygiene (mid- th 14 century) b. Europe was population center of the world 1350s c. The bubonic plague was brought on by merchant ships 2. Increase of food production + improve medical care a. Crude Death Rate declines 3. Birth rate declinesopportunity for women and the invention of birth control  Stages of DTM 1. Early Agricultural 2. Pre-industrial 3. Transitional 4. Industrial  education availability, more people moving into cities, more career openings 5. Postindustrial where most developed countries are at  The Demographic Transition Model DOESN’T take into account of migration o Future population may come from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia  World most Populated countries 1. China (1.3 billion) 2. India (1.2 billion) 3. USA (319 million) 4. 10. Japan (decrease projectivity in size)  To Evaluate an increase/decrease naturally: CBR – CDR = % Lecture 7: Climate Change and Food Production - What are the signs of change?  The earth temperature increasing (by 1°C) o 1880: when direct measurements of temperature started th o Earth 20 century: a small plateauth o Increase in the late/end of the 20 century o 1980s: major increase with no fluctuation o Ice Ages: coldest temperature o Temperature and CO2 concentration directly related o CO2: from ice cores, tree cores, pollen  Glaciers are melting o Asia (Himylas) o Europe (Alps)  Extreme weather is more intense and longer  Sea ice is shrinking o Shrinkage causes passage (advantages= ships can go thru)  Rising Sea Levels o Melting of Greenland and Antarctic Ice Melting - Climate Change: how it works 1. Radiation from sun 2. Absorbed by ground and converted to heat 3. Infrared radiation absorbed by atmospheric gases 4. Greenhouse gases: infrared blocked concentration of greenhouse gases has increased has been connected with human activity - What are the consequences?  Higher temperatures: o Disrupt pollination o Reduces photosynthesis o 1 degree Celsius rise 10% drop in corn, wheat, rice yield o Melting glaciers loss of water for irrigation o Rising sea level loss of major rice-growing areas in Asia o More drought, wildfires, heat waves o Agriculture is a major source of emissions  Greenhouse gases o CO 2 Carbon Dioxide ; CH 4 Methane ; N 2- Nitric oxide o Around 1800 CO i2creased because of industrial revolution which was caused by fossil fuel emission o CO 2 burning of fossil fuels and deforestation o Methane sources: Rice cultivation o Increase Meat production leads to increase Methane emission o Nitric oxide: from nitrogen fertilizers Lecture 8: Thesis Statement  Writing takes the form of persuasion convincing the audience and others that you have an interest and logical point of view on the subject/ topic that you are studying.  After a brief introduction to your topic, you state your point of view (aka Thesis Statement) o Usually 1 sentence long and is located at the end of your introduction paragraph  The rest of your paper will gather and organize evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of the interpretation on your subject  You evaluate a text to determine the objectivity of the author and credibility of the work  Scholarly written by a scholar, contains reliable sources of information on events and issues  Credibility journals by the author in the field/ on your subject, written or published within the last ten years Lecture 9: Plagiarism Module  Introduction o Plagiarism: “presenting work, products, ideas, or data of another as one’s own is plagiarism which must be acknowledged when: 1. Quoting another person’s actual words 2. Using another person’s ideas, opinions, work, data, or theories, even if they are paraphrased 3. Borrowing facts, stats, or other illustrated materials  Integrate Source Material o Introduce an idea  You will need to indicate the information came from so readers will know you are no longer speaking in your voice  Use words like: describe, note, indicate, conclusion, state o Cite the source  You will need an in-text citation which allows the reader to look up your source by finding the full reference at the end of your paper  Chicago Author- Date Citation: author’s last name and year published o List a reference  At the end of your paper, you will have a reference list  Bibliography: identifies various information about your source, such as author, article title, publisher, and page number  Using Source Material o Quoting: need to place quotation marks  Example: according to author “ “ (year, page) o Paraphrasing: when restate information, you won’t need quotations but you still need to give credit  Example: ~~~~~~~~~ according to author (year) o Summarizing  Example: ~~~~~~~~~ (author, year)  Common Plagiarism Mistakes o Avoid Quotation Errors 1. Quotation marks are required when a source’s exact words, even if you already credited the author in the same sentence 2. Quotations can even go around single words or shot phrases 3. If you put quotes, remember to include in-texts citations and a complete reference at the end of your paper 4. You aren’t an expert, always remember to give credit o Avoid Paraphrase and Summarizing Errors 1. Introduce your source before you restate its words, then site the source 2. Change as many words as you can, avoid dependence on the source’s wording/structure. Some words can’t be changed but it can help if you read, put away, and rewrite 3. Don’t assume the readers know when you are rewording Lecture 10: Library 3- Plagiarism and Proper Citations  Plagiarism is using someone’s ideas or expression of those ideas without giving proper credit  Diogenes: looked for wisdom/ honest man = dead never finding one  3 Types of Deception o Butlers: lies to create a buffer, to protect relationships o Sock Puppet: identity o Chinese Water Army: astroturfing  Email is the most honest; phone is the most lies  Resume: paper were less honest than online  No reliable cues when someone else is lying  The point is… o No matter where you are, you will constantly need to assess the info. around you o In order to be an informed consumer you should know how to evaluate the info. you acquire and what is happening to your own data o In order to support your own arguments, you should know how to research your question and cite your sources  Why is it important to cite your source? o Allows reader to verify and identify your info = support your argument o Gives credit to the owners of the ideas = not plagiarizing o Get credit for your ideas o Required for your assignment  What needs to be cited o Books, Web Pages, YouTube videos, Magazine articles, graphics, VHS/DVD,government reports, statistics, encyclopedia  Style Manuals o Social Sciences = American Psychological Association (APA) o Humanities = MLA Handbook for Writers (MLA) o Physical and Natural Sciences = Chicago/Turban Author-Date  Chicago Style o Citations: Arabic page numbers begin in the header of the 1 page of text, requires using parenthical citation to identify source st o References: labeled references/work cited and 2 blank lines and 1 source, alphabetical order, date after authors name, journals= vol:pag# (e.g. 116: 354-69)  What needs to be cited? o Direct quotes o Ideas borrowed o Paraphrased materials  Tools for citing sources o Cook Library Quick Tools o OWL: Purdue University o Turban Citation Quick Guide Lecture 11: Sources, Tips, Paper Outline Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  In brief, scholarly work is o Written by expect for experts o Based on original research/ intellectual inquiry o Provides citations for all sources used o Is usually peer reviewed prior to publication  Peer Review: a group of experts that read your work Questions you have to ask for internet websites  Who is the author?  Is that author a “Scholar”?  If no credentials = not a scholar  Is the article sponsored by a scholarly organization= yes = scholarly source Tips for Rough Draft  Avoid using 1 person; Avoid generalizations claims that cannot be supported; Avoid long paragraphs you will lose your reader; Avoid informal tone/vocabulary Outline  Aids in the process of writing; helps you organize your writing; presents your material in a logical form; shows relationship Paper outline Categories  Introduction, Body, Conclusion, References Introduction  State the topic of your research paper and thesis  Thesis statement is the central idea of the paper and should be written as a complete sentence Body  This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement Conclusion  Summary of your finds Lecture 12: Forks over Knives Documentary Notes  40% obese ¼ children obese  50% take prescription drugs  &2.2 trillion on healthcare  Every 1 minute a person dies from a heart attack  1500 die from cancer  1/3 will develop diabetes  Need to adapt a whole foods plant-based diet  CRP test measures implication of blood vessels  Beginning of the 20 century meat=120 lbs., 40 lbs. refined sugar, 290 lbs. dairy  Late 50s: drive ins; convenient foods were born  Protein!  to help malnutrition  1960s heart disease gave to a rise  Dietary Cholesterol (meat,egg,dairy leads to canary heart disease)  Casein: protein found in milk  1971Reagan Cancer Act  1978 chances of Breast Cancer in Kenya 82% lower than the US  1970s: heart disease was 12x less in China than the Us  1958: 148 million, 10,000 pancreas cancer  Whole foods plant based diet= fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, no meat egg dairy  High case in intake = early liver tumor growth  Animal protein = amino acids in cells, cell growth and repair  Animal food = increase cancer growth  Plant food = decrease cancer growth  High fructose corn syrup  Stretch receptors, density receptors = in stomach  Motivational triad: o Pleasure: food and sex o Avoiding Pain o Overcoming hunger feeling  Pleasure Trap: interaction between what we want but is bad for you  Plant based diet and some small amounts of animal has resulted of a low mortality in cancer  Plant based diet reversed cancer  Removed dairy products in diet st  25% 1 known of coronary heart disease was death  Osteoporosis: lack of dairyhip fractures  Since 1980s 20% of amazon rain forest destroyed  Heart attack = plaque blockage in blood vessels  Plant based diet lowers cholesterol and blood pressure Lecture 13: “You Are What You Eat: Understanding Israel through Its Unique Cuisine” Dr. Nir Avieli  Theoretical Observations o Nutrition is nutrients o Food is when you take this nutritional object and transform it culturally o Taste is no the quality of the food, taste is culturally constructed  Israeli Cuisine: the outcome of the cuisines that the Jew from all over the world brought into Israel; these were poverty cuisines made local ecology and Israeli produce  Israeli people = Palestinians do not exist = Palestinian cuisine no exist  Ruth Sirkis: published best-selling cook book, our food is the compound of ethnic cuisines, internationally influenced, produce of the land and development of food culture o Oranges were the most famous export at the time o Raisins symbolize tradition o Cumin for oriental taste  Israeli cuisine is an outcome of a meeting process of other cuisines  Argument: Israeli cuisine is defined by the size of the portion o What represents Israeli cuisine is large cheap portions  Salad Bars Israelis took 1.25 kg.  70% more than Americans and Europeans  French cuisine FAILED in Israel: Israelis demanded large portion for cheap prices and chef’s couldn’t do it  Israeli Breakfast: 700-800 eggs cracked/day, 60 m long breakfast buffet (8m for loaves of bread), 25 cm (+8 in) diameter, exterminate 700-800 croissants, plates  guest filled up a few times o the amount per person: 2.5 croissants, 3 rolls, 2 eggs  Israelis like to eat with their eyes; size does matter  In Turkey: very important Israeli tourist destination; ALL included = Food is free  Culinary Myth o 4 strong Israeli farmers went to an all you can eat grilled meat buffet, after 3 hours, owner asked them to leave o How would you like your steak? BIG nd  Taste of the City: culinary market in Israel (1996); 2 largest food market in the world, disappointed with expensive small portions  McDonald is Israel is the largest in the world  Spanish Tapas: food max size is a glass, Israel didn’t like the expensive small portions  Sushi: compress more content into the roll. o Processes: enlargement, compressing more fish and less rice  What does it mean to be FULL? To eat until you fell you will vomit  Most important idea in Israel: Nobodies’ Sucker o In dualistic people don’t want to be suckers o Also being a sucker is a good thing o We constantly think about how not to be a sucker o Being treated well in restaurant means getting a lot. When getting little, Israelis’ feel like suckers Lecture 14: Food Security in the US Dr. Braunstein What is hunger?  Uneasy/painful sensation caused by a lack of food  Limited access What is Food Security?  Access by all people all times to enough food for an active, healthy life  Readily available of nutritionally adequate and safe food  Ability to acquire food in a proper way 2015 Baltimore Food Map  Food Desert: o ¼ mile from supermarket, Low vehicle availability, Low healthy food availability  Impacts: o 25% live in food desert, 30% children, 34% African Americans, 1 in 4 Seniors Food Insecurity – Child Health Outcomes  Fair or poor health, More frequent stomachaches, headaches, cold ; Worse academic, Jeopardy of developmental risk, Negative psychosocial outcomes Adults  Increase weight risk of pregnancy, stress, child developmental problem Obesity Paradox  High energy density and palatability of sweets and fats  Cycling of low calorie intake Senior Citizens  Fair/poor health, limits to ADL, high diabetes, people may not qualify for retirement funds yet, 60% depression, 53% heart attack, 52% asthma Federal and State Nutrition Programs st  24% use food stamp all by 1 week What Can BE Done  Reach out to socially isolated, mobility issues  Recognize importance of informal food programs  SNAP Lecture 15: Lester Brown Chapters 9, 7, 4 Discussion  Food Insecurity: lack of stable access to food supplies required for healthy lifestyle  Chapter 9- China and the Soybean Challenge o Soybean originated in China and then was delivered to the US o Four Main Crops: rice, wheat, corn, soybean o Main Producers: U.S, Brazil, Argentina o Main Consumers of Soybean: China and U.S o Use of Soybean: cooking oil, feed for the animals, used for biofuel o Problem: NOT enough land, so they are deforesting The Amazon and Brazil’s tropical rainforest is removing the habitat which causes species extinction  Chapter 7- Grain yield Starting to Plateau o Mid-last century, wheat started to grow not as fast o Growth in land area, under-cultivation, is what caused an increase to grain harvest o Significant growth of grain harvest between 1950s- 1970s o Natural and Human Factors: day length, temperature, raining pattern, climate change, human started with a dwarf plant and use fertilizer and irrigation b/c large plants are more vulnerable o The pace of growth has slowed in the past two decade or even plateaued, some countries hit “glass-ceiling” which a country cannot do anything  Chapter 4- Food or Fuel o Competition for land from the energy sector has o Jeopardizing food crops and increase deforestation o Indonesia and Malaysia: leading palm oil  Reason of deforestationexpansion of palm plantation o You need a large amount of land for a car to run o Plateau: no more land expansion to have an increased grain yield Lecture 16: Peak Water and Food Security  Distribution of Earth’s Water o Earth’s water: fresh water 3%, saline (oceans) 97% o Freshwater: ice caps and glaciers 68.7%, ground water 30.1%, other .9%, surface water .3% o Fresh Surface water: lakes 87%, swamps 11%, rivers 2%  What’s the Problem? o Demand is increasing o Supply is decreasing  Growing food: land is either rain fed or irrigated (typically from a reservoir created by the dam; more recent trend- from well  What is the problem with H O2coming from aquifer? o Depletion of aquifer  Fossil (deep) Aquifer- Ogallala aquifer, under the North China Plain, the Saudi Aquifer  International Conflict and Security o The Middle East and North Africa region faces the greatest water shortage  Possible Solutions o Water conservation o Reduce pollution o Improved management of water o Is desalination an alternative source Lecture 17: New Geopolitics of Food Discussion 1.Food shortage undermined earlier civilization a.Demand Problems i. Population growth ii. Poverty iii. Rising affluence b.Supply Problems i. Soil erosion ii. Rising temperature iii. Water shortage 2.Demand 3.Supply  Possible Solutions o Shifting to smaller families o Access to education o Moving down the food chain o Less meat consumption o Cancel biofuel man dates o Reconstruct the tax system (carbon taxes) o Raising water productivity o Soil conservations Final Paper Requirements  No title page/No footnotes  Eight pages (no bibliography)  Doubled space  Font- Times New Roman- 12 pt.  In-text citation should match references  Sample instruction/paper Chicago AD Your Name 1 TSEM, Dr. Fath Title Begin Paper…  Avoid too many direct quotes: instead provide your analysis  Do go to a source to another source o Ex: Page 1 Sources Page 2 Analyze multiple sources (integrate sources)  “Long Quotes” should be “Blocked” o Indent, single space, +4 sentences  No double spacing between paragraphs and use sub-headings  Adding visuals (must be small o Caption and cited o Not pictures, graphs possibly o Make sure you incorporate/refer to them  Smooth transitions  Introductioninteresting and Thesis at the end


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