ALL of MUSC111 Lecture Notes
ALL of MUSC111 Lecture Notes MUSC 111
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MUSIC 111 Introduction to Music in the US Dr Baltimore Fall 2015 Lecture Notes Lectures 121 Lecture 1 Introduction 0 Properties of Music 0 Rhythm how a sound is arranged over time o Melody tones that follow one after another 0 Harmony a simultaneous combination of tones o Timbre quality of the sound ex The sound is smooth dark cheerful Tone notes pitches a sound Scalerising or descending pitches in an octave Keydetermines which notes happens more than others and are allowed Meter how many beats are in a measure Tempospeed of the music Form how different section of the piece organized Genre category of music to which it belongs Strophic form same melody repeated with different lyrics Texture how different musical forces t together 0 Type of texture o Monophonic one sound all playing same notes at the same time o Polyphonic many sounds Two keys of meter 0 Triple meter 3 beats per measure 0 Duple meter 2 beats per measure Dynamicsvolume how loud and quiet a melody is 0 Piano soft o Forte loud Lyrics words that go with a melody Performer who s performing it Composerljwho wrote it Lecture 2 Traditional Music 0 Genre folk country country irts with rock 0 Music we share through repetition Composers are usually anonymous 0 Roots music that digs deep to the past 0 Eric Hobsbawn 19172012 0 quotinventing traditionquot o Historian English 0 Traditional musicwho shares my roots 0 Page 41 quotNo More Auction Block for Mequot 0 Singer Odella Pete Seeger Barbara Allenquot 0 Written quotifl had a Hammerquot 0 Known for leading singalongs o In uential parts for civil rights movement 0 Traditional British ballads Music and text do not alline in ballads Ballad o A song that tells a story 0 Most are sadupsetting stories 0 Tragic love stories 0 Most are strophic form FrancisJames Child scholar 350 ballads includes Tam Lin 0 quotTam Linquot singer Sandy Danny by Fairport Convention Steely Span Example of Ballad quotMartinmas Time begin of winter 0 By Karan Casey Ballads stick around and people make new versions over and over again Lecture 3 TraditionalCountry Music Hegel German philosopher 19th century o Hegel s dialectic thesis antithesis synthesis 0 Richard Peterson 0 Two opposite ideas that comes together to makes a song Hardcore traditional Softshell popular 0 Country music is a combination of hardcore and O softshell Authenticity appealing to a purely country audience Dolly Parton O O O OO O From rural Tennessee There is constant connection to her rural roots But also achieves nancial success Her ideal of beauty from when she was younger white trash image with her wigs make up clothes etc 1St song Coat of many Colorsquot There is a twang to her voice instrument that made it sound country She pushes at the boundary of authenticity Brill Building in New York City Where popular songs were written in the 1960s quotI Will Always Love Youquot quotMe and Little Andyquot Stairway to Heavenquot Lecture 4 Rock Flirts with Country Traditional Music 0 Members of the Weavers 0 Pete Seeger 0 Fred Hellerman 0 Ronnie Gilbert 0 Lee Hays 0 Dave Van Ronk 0 Bob Dylan s mentor 0 Established blues guitarist 0 Not trained singer 0 quotGarden Shake Stompquot guitar picking lyrics are a list of towns in New Jersey 0 Luang Probang city in Lao Vietnam about the Vietnam War 0 Bob Dylan 0 quotOxfordTownquot antiblack racism song in Mississippi 0 Phil Ochs AntiWar Music and Anti Black Music Wrote funny political music quotI ain t marching anymorequot demonstrated his pantheism Not using preexisting traditional sound 0 quotDraft Dodger Ragquot excuse of not being drafted into the war 0 Arlo Guthrie 0 Son of Woody Guthrie o quotAlice39s Restaurantquot draft dodging song 0 Talking your way in the music 0 About War 0 U Utah Phillips The Golden Voice of the Great City 0 Main career labor organizer 0 Sang a lot of songs byJoe Hill Swedish immigrant o quotCaseyJones The union Scabquot train engineer crashes the train and goes to hell 0 Joan Baez 0 She popularizes most of Bob Dylan39s songs Sings traditional music of previous people quotAnd the Band Played Waltzing Matildaquot AntiWar song Movement excussively for white singers Movement for lesbians women who loved each other and wanted to live in a society without men 0 Women39s movement 0 Cris Williamson not published professional sound Mixed professional music with amateur musicians o Radicalesbians 0 Holly Near Had a musical career with Ronnie Gilbert 0 Tracy Chapman 0 Aftermath of the women movement artist 805 0 Love songs to nonprounoun lover quotyouquot Lecture 5 Religious Music of 19th Century 0000 0 0 0 0 Shapenote Music Sacred Harp 0 Its participatory o Helps people who can t read music 0 Timbre rough and unprofessional o The shapes gives you an idea where the notes are going to be Heterophony people are sort of singing the same thing but isn t people almost singing at the same time o Hollow Square 0 Song leader in the middle of a chorus that is positions in a square the song leader keeps the count rhythm o The chorus that is positioned in a square formation are split into 4 parts on each side of the square 0 quotAmazing GracequotJudy Collins professional folk folk rock singer who consist of extremely elegant voice 20th century version 0 Paul Robeson 18981976 0 Not born during slavery time o 1925 started to do public concerts 0 Famous for taking music from unprofessional musicians and making them artistic 0 One of the 1St blacks to do anything 0 Learned to speak different languages to sing music 0 quotDeep Riverquot spiritual very popular in the 19205 Voice is deep Timbre is smooth professional resseninant echoey 0 Very outspoken politically He would change lyrics to emphasize the message of the song 0 He joined the Harlem Renaissance o quotNobody Knows the Trouble I ve Seenquot 0 HT Burleigh 0 Doing artistic version of these religious songs Musically arranged the song Lecture 6 American Indian Music Brief Historv o 8500 BCE agriculture in Mesoamerica Ande5 Eastern North America 0 Late 14005 quotdiscoveryquot of America 100000000 0 Population plummeted bc of disease from Europeans 0 15001600 civilizations disappeared o 1776 Declaration of Independence o 1890 Massacre of Wounded Knee o No victory for Native American people 0 19605705 Red Power Movement govt removed Federal 1900 5 status but reversed o 1800 removed to reservations o Resulted in increasing pride to Native American community Case Study 1 Powwow o Intertribal competition in categories 0 Grass jingle Dress Fancy lntertribal Traditional Dances 0 From Pau Wau Waragansett l he5he dreams 0 Indian healer no indigenous background Men395 N Traditional Dance 0 18205 Pawhee quotlruska Dancequot warrior society 0 1830 OmahaPonca Helluska quotMan Dancequot 0 18405 Yanktona Dakota and Teton Lakota quotOmaha Dancequot 0 18505 Spread across Plain5 a5 quotGra55 Dancequot 0 18605 railroad 5pit5 Plain5 tribes 0 Tribes above and below the railroad North vs South Powwow 0 North in re5ervation5 innovation 0 South in Oklahoma tradition Gra55 Dance Song 0 Voices not raised on pitch which is desired Drum is the ensemble mostly men Melody Line descending Vocable5 words with lexical meaning tra la la Honor Beats 3 beat cadence pattern TVpical N Gra55 Structure 0 Repeats 0 Leader sings opening theme 0 Group sings open theme 0 Cadence Patterhonor beat Case Study 2 Apalachicola Turtle Dance oSE Tribe mixed blood MuskogeeCreek Animal Dances feather dance buffalo dance etc o Busk ritual cycle from Creek Posketa quotto fast No food before the week no sexual contact 0 Animism personhood animal plants humans objects are person Melodic Motion Communicates meaning Case Study 3 First Nations Fiddling Gwich in Fiddling 0 Antoine Houle ordered strings in 1848 1850 o Gwich in music genre 1 Monophonic singing love medicine war songs 2 Choral singing for dance hymns 3 Choral singing of Christian hymns 4 Fiddle music 0 Euro Vs Gwich in Fiddling 0 British Isles Jig 68 or 98 Square dance 4 couple set Multiple tunes per set 0 Gwich in Fiddling Jig 24 time Square Dance large square sets 1 tune per set Shorterbow stroke Foot Syncopation 0 Apache Riddle 1 string with horse hair and stock 0 Faint dry squeak sound Case Study 4 A Tribe called Red Canadian electronic dance music 0 Powwow step Line up 0 Ian Campeau 0 Tim Hill 0 Bear Witness 0 Makes images their own to give power back Lecture 7 Concert Music Vernacular Music quotfor the peoplequot ArtConcert Music For an audience viewed as select Orchestra Music 0 Long and lyrical melodies asymmetrical phrases consonant harmonies 0 Louis AntoineJullien 18121860 French conductor gave serious attention to orchestral music added American musicians to his orchestra Theodore Thomas 18351905 0 Accomplished violinist member of the Philharmonic Society 0 Methods systematically altered the balance in his concert between light 0 Virtuosos performers exhibiting technical brilliance Romantic Virtuosos o Musicianship broad combo of talented possessed by consummate performers 0 West Indies tropical Sounds and Flavor Piano Music 0 Damper loud petal and una corda soft pedal so tenuto middle Legato smooth and lyrical melody line Character pieces captured mood and character of subjects Theme and Variation melodytheme reoccurs through the piece Ostinato obstinately repeated pattern Second New England School 0 Composers shared a dedication to the principles of German music theory and concern for careful craftsmanship quotBoston Classicistsquot o Contributed strong compositions for organ and signi cant body of choral music to American music separate John Knowles Paine 18391906 0 Oldest member of the 2nOI New England School 0 Became the 1st American professor of music 0 quotSymphony No1quot 1st American symphony to be published in Germany Fugue polyphonic composition with three to ve melodic linesquotvoicesquot entering one at a time in limitation of one another 0 Subject principal theme is on the tonic Answer second voice begins on 5th tone of scae dominant Exposition beginning section all voices are introduced Countersubject second theme Motive a short melodic phrase lending itself readily to development Sequence repeats motive a several different levels of pitch 0 O O O 0000 O Amy Marcy Cheney Beach 0 Outstanding pianist 0 1st American woman to write a successful Mass and a symphony Movement one section of symphony Coda closing section added at end of piece or movement Edward MacDowell 18601908 composer in 2nCI England School 0 Wrote in symphonic choral solo genres 0 Was too romantic and too individual 0 1st American to write concert music in a style distinctively his own 0 MacDowell Colony a summer colony on Peterborough New Hampshire estate where artists musician literacy gures are invited to spend summers working w in their eld Parisian Scene 1920519305 France became the world center of artistic creativity Nadia Boulanger 18871979 French gifted teacher 0 De ned the way each composer might reach hisher best potential Aaron Copland 19001990 appreciative of fresh and nationalistic effects and found jazz emotionally limited inspired in other American sound captured the avors and spirit of Mexican folk and popular music Depression and War Years 0 Fanfare festive celebrates a royal or state personage or occasion Music for Dance 0 Ballets Dance compositions represent modern dance 0 Classical Ballet a formal stylized dance form in which steps gestures positions together with mime describes character and dramatize story 0 Modern Dance 20th century steps and gestures more varied and less stylized Samuel Barber 19101981 0 Traditionalists sought progress of an evolutionary kind 0 Neoromantic New Romantics compostion like programmatic emphasizing lyrical melodies richly dissonant harmonies o Adagio slow movement of string quartets Harlem Renaissance a movement in 19205 in which African American painters sculptors poets playwrights musicians novelist essayists broke from convention to quotpromote racial advancement through artistic creativityquot 0 the musicians sought to develop folk material from black cultural heritage into artistic creation commanding respect of whites 0 Harry T Burleigh Robert Nathaniel Det William Grant Still Minimalism simple restful sonorities that change very slowly over a drone 0 Steve Reich Terry Riley Phillip Glass Lecture 8 Experimental Music Experimental Music questions the way you de ne music AvantGardism peopleworks that are experimental or innovative particularly with respect to art culture and politics Charles Ives Was an estate insurance man by day invented estate planning Main component of virility in a manlj a quality of having strength oFamously homophobic and loved masculine music Wrote music in 1900 turn of the century but didn t become famous until 19405 quotMusic has been a masculine artquot quotMusic that is cultivated is corrupted by womenquot Use of extreme dissonance notes that do not sound good together would take out the femaleness of music Writes music that is polytonal 2 keys at the same time tone clusters Also liked to write using multiple tempos Loved church hymns and marching band music oLoved musically mixing them together Atonal musical that has no key centered Arnold Schoenberg Philosophy of Music founder of the 2nOI Vietnese School 0 Follows an atonality path 0 Wanted to write music he likes even though no one listened to it Serialism 12 tone an arrangement of all 12 pitches repeated over and over Toned row series of notes in an order Modernism used in art forms music that breaks from the past breaking from feminism o Modernist makes music masculine Modernist Against women making music Charles Seeger makes Schoenbergtype music 0 Can t relate it to womenlj who are less important serious recognized o Founded a group NY Musicological Society Ruth CrawfordSeeger came to NY to write modern music Bianca Walten o A Women that housed the modern musicians o Wrote serial polytonal music Henry Cowell BANSHEE played with strings on the piano 0 Prepared piano change the actual structure the way of how the instrument can be used 0 Popular in AvantGarde music Modernistlj change the way of music for new sources of new sound Gamelan used a piano to replicate the sound Important Electronic Music how composers tried to be different Theremin 0 Leon Theremin Russian inventor 0 Clara Rockmore youngest in St Petersburg for cello and best Theremin player 0 Wave hands around the electronic eld 0 Moog Synthesizer 0 Robert Moog electronic expert o lnvents a monophonic synthesizer only can play 1 note at a time 0 Wendy Carlos played Bach s Baroque music on a synthesizer 0 Having fun with serious music Rockmore and Carlos both promote the electronic music ohn Cage Composed a piece called Four Minutes and Thirty Three Seconds 0 3 movements and the entire song is in silence Tacet Tacet you don t play at this part c Merce Cunningham famous among choreographers o Reliance by chancel happens at random 0 Aleatoric chance determined at random 0 quotWater Walkquot 0 Wanted audience to be amused by his music 0 Each sound must occur mathematically Pushing towards performance art Lecture 9 AvantGarde Music Conion Nancarrow o Continues trend from modernist moving music away from musical expression to mathematical ways 0 Studied Cowell s music making sounds humans cannot make 0 Fascinated in writing music too rhythmically challenging to play 0 Polyrhythm more than one rhythm played simultaneously usually doesn t make sense 0 Player Piano music would be reported as holes on a paper into a machine Studies pieces on the player pianoslj impossible for humans to play 0 Milton Babbitt 20th century 0 Teacher of Steven Songtime 0 Into serialist music of modern music with combo with electronic 0 quotEnsemble for the Synthesizerquot 1964 album 0 Interested in rhythmic complexity in his music 0 Steve Reich complicated but not impossible style of music 0 How can avantgarde music reach to an audience 0 quotClapping musicquot form of minimalist music 0 Minimalist music style of modern music using only simple rhythms and patterns with minimal embellishment complexity 0 Extended technique do something to an instrument that s notsupposedto do 0 Specializenew music performers become important in the 20th century 0 John Cage tries to connect experimental music with the audience 0 Performance Art 0 19705 composers is same as performer can be deeply personal or unsettling o Pauline Olivernos kind of music that makes the audience become the performer form of chance music bc the audience makes the music 0 Laurie Anderson comes out of performance art to art music in various ways electronic music quot0 Supermanquot electronically processed music only wrote music for herself o Meredith Monic has professional singers do her music a sense of humor playful music level of training for singers highly trained consonance music bizarre techniques 0 605D Experimental Part of Music What counts as Music 0 705D Comes together as performance art Fluxus o Ensemble of students ofJohn Cage call themselves musicians 0 Manhattan late 19605 0 Created pieces of art as what we would consider to be theater art Yoko Oho Broke up the Beatles Married John Lenin Making music our of screaming bizarre quotLighting Piecequot not really music 0 AvantGarde Musician from Japan La Monte Snapper Juliana Snapper 0 Member of Meredith Monic ensemble Known as singing in impossible situation ex Underwater o Blurring boundary between human and electronic 0 Made electronic sounds from the human body huge in AvantGarde art 0 What counts as human and as electronic O 0000 Experimentalist From Performance Art 0 Pauline Olivernos 0 Laurie Anderson 0 Meredith Monic Diamanda Gias 805 performance artist Greek American 0 Deeply personal and associated with the body of the performer o quotPlague Massquot Written for her brother s death from AIDS Shows mourning and anger Showing her rage 0 Bring ancient practice to modern era with electronic and electronic processing 0 Connects art to current and personal events 1981 Premiere of MTV 0 1st video Video killed the Radio Star Lecture 10 American Opera Music Opera about the beauty of singing plot is also important 0 Hear pretty voices in a pretty sound 1 Where does Opera come from Europe Italy early 17th century 2 Opera end Still going on today a Spreads to England France Germany Austria during the 17th century 4 Basic Voices Soprano Alto Tenor Bass Type of Singing o Aria song beautiful melody there39s a beat rhythm slower words 0 Recitative like chanting gets through the plot 0 Talking Overture instrumental introduction to an Opera Vibrato adding vibration to a voice helps hold the note 17th century Italian Opera England Opera French Opera 18th century Comic Opera 19th century German Opera louder huge plots Richard Wagner German composer Gesant Kunstwerk the total Opera High art is associated with Europe wanted to be elite 2 important Venues Opera Houses in the 20th century 0 Metropolitan Opera oId biggest institution 0 Houston Grand Opera mid20th century to promote American Opera Some Prominent Themes in American Opera 0 How separate do we want to be from Europe 0 Black Opera singers are better 0 Ragtime Pop Song material 0 Folky costumes and setting 0 What is popular and art music ScottJoplin Black composer from Missouri 0 Pianist composer known for ragtime o quotTreemonishaquot set on a plantation after the Civil War About the importance of Black education 0 Black Composer uplift people through high art First American Operas o 4 Saints in 3 Acts 0 The Mother of Us All 4 Saints in 3 Acts by Gertrude Stein and Virgil Thomson 0 About 16th century Spanish catholic saints 0 Opera of 4 acts and about 20 saints opened on Broadway in 1930s Gertrude Stein 0 American Poet 0 Didn t believe in grammar of meaning like the way words sounded Virgil Thomson 0 Composer o Casted with all Black Opera singers 0 Was into music the sounded pleasing Baptist hymns o quotThe Mother of Usquot Main Character Susan B Anthony and other Political Figures Libretto ltalian word for lyrics George Gershwin o quotPorgy and Bessquot 1st Opera landmark in American Opera Steeped in racist history a little jazz pop and high art Featured the most recorded pop son quotSummertimequot Demonstrated how people were treated comparted to others and humanity o Audra McDonald Operatic Singer Marian Anderson end of 19305 Famous black Opera performers sang only for concert tours 0 Sang at the Lincoln Memorial Huge wake up call for discrimination in Opera John Carlos Menotti Operas played on Broadway 0 Working partner of Samuel Barber famous for TV Operas 0 Into accessible music music that everyone can understand and read 0 Librettists for Samuel Barber s Operas Philip Glass 0 Minimalist Opera 0 quotEinstein on the Beachquot 1970 Spoken word simple music no plot 0 Likes to write about big gures such as Gandhi Einstein etc c 19805 0 John Adams minimalist bizarre about recent political events but he waits till things settled uses peoplesituation where people have not agreed how to look at them the same put every day and political events recent into an Opera quotNixon in Chinaquot quotThe Death of Kinghoffquot o 2012 o Missy Mazzoli women composer AvantGarde style Does Chamber Operas small scale performed in small venues o 2013 o Nico Munly quot2 Boysquot First internet Opera dancing of AvantGarde dance too accessible to be high art Operas performed at the Metropolitan Hall Lecture 11 Film Music 0 Richard Wagner famous for German Operas of the 19th century 0 Leitmotiv leading motive theme of musical gestures that moves you Example a chord or a melody o A theme can be associated without characters or scenes in which Wagner says you don t need to notice because the music will be unconsciously moved by you Example Heroic Music in Star Wars or Dark Vedor s March 0 Musical Cues pieces of music that plays during a specific scene Bettie Davis during the classical Hollywood Era in many deepdark melo dramas 0 quotDark Victoryquotfilm In the 20th Century there were directorcomposer teams 0 Alfred Hitchcock and Bernard Herrmann Vertigo had visuals that made the music 0 Mickey Mousing Exact synoconization btwn music amp scenes of filmsjcome off as funny 0 Example actors namecredits with sudden brass music BMovies Phenomenon a lm uses their Bteam to make a movie but only given minimal budgetresources 0 They show more of what was happening nothing is re recorded since the music is added after the music is used to make upon things that Bmovies weren t able to afford shows importance of the score and scenes 0 quotThe Atomic Brainquot 19605 lm 0 Composed by Gene Kauer o The music is background inconclusive and it s not an orchestra because of budget an example of mickey mousing but goes out of sync Its more about the music 0 19505 lm scores was made with existing popular music as popular motifs Diegetic musicscores that the characters can hear 0 Part of the lm world characters are aware of it 0 Example when a character turns on the music NonDiegetic musicscore that only the audience can hear 0 Example character turns on the radio and the music drags onto the next scene 0 quotThe Graduatequot lm 19605 0 Composer Simon and Garfunkel o Demonstrates the way the director and composers move the music back and forth between diegetic and nondiegetic Lecture 12 Popular Music in 18th Century 0 quotMy Day Have Been So Wondrous Freequot 0 Francis Hopkinson1St American Composer 0 1st piece composed by an American 0 Thomas Hompson singer promotes American singing o Parlor Songs popular at the end of the 18th century piano is widely available at this time period Suppose to be light entertainment For middle class Amateur genre Casual music Without extensive musical training Simplicity of the structure 0 quotThe Beggar Operaquot musical in the 18th century 0 Roger Daltrey The Who rock band 0 Everyone knew the songs but not the lyrics because they were changed byJohn Gay o Ballad Opera invented byJohn Gay taking a play and sticking popular music that everyone already knew and wrote new lyrics for them 0 Theater in the 18th century you are there for ve to six hours 0 You were able to talk to others during the boring parts 0 There was places to eat 0 There were bathroom breaks for the audience and actors 0 You were sometimes watching different plays throughout the day 0 Able to throw tomatoes at the bad shows 0 Moravian Trombone Choir 0 Moravians German and Czech in Pennsylvania 0 Used music for fun 0 Take church music and takes it with come thing else Lecture 13 Album Review Requirements 0 Chicago Citation is mostly recommended 0 Needs to Consist 0 Biography of Performer 0 Historical Introduction of the music general context of the album 0 My own assessment of the album RILM databaselj research umdedu click on Towson Oxfordmusiconlinecom main music encyclopedia Artist Websites Records the album itself Rolling Stones Billboard Interviews 4 Avoid allmusiccom Wikipedia 0 How to write a review 0 Lyrical Value are the words worth listening to 0 Does the album do what it s supposed to do 0 Here is what the album is going for does it failsucceed which can be seen through the examples of WNH Compare to past work Bestworst moments of the album quotThis album is a mix of and different styles Is this song normalabnormal How are you going to describe the music Comparison to past music reference point that is recognizable 000000 c In Class Example quotMy Days Have Been So Wondrous Freequot Cause Effect Timbre piano and male voice Playful Major Key Pleasant Legato Operatic Changing Aria Voice Tenor Voice Professional Guide your causes to the effect the music detail to effect Lecture 14 Popular Music during Civil War Era 18005 Minstrel Minstrel Shows popular in 18405 to 505 popular entertainment in the North roots of musical theater Blackface white people used burnt corks to put on their faces as paintmake up to look like a racist character from 18405 to 19505 0 Became a trend in 18205 18305 in England 18405 exploded of shows Stock Characters handful of characters in which whites believe Blacks in general were in minstrel show 0 Jim Crow popular stereotype of a rural dumb slave 0 Zip Coon opposite character ofJim Crow 18705 postCivil War blacks themselves do minstrel shows to a white audience they are no longer set on a southern plantation it39s a show about quotCan39t we remember the good ol39daysquot quotDixiequot tune from a minstrel show anthem of the southern pride a symbol of the quotOld Southquot the quotslave Southquot Music of Minstrel Shows in a fusion of IrishScottish with African roots 0 Syncopated rhythms banjo as a prominent instrument 0 Stephen Foster 1St professional song writer in the US who wrote parlor songs simple melody with piano and minstrel shows made most of his money 0 Didn t have any familiarity of minstrel shows bc he was not a performer o Tended to avoid nasty stereotypes eg refers a woman as a lady o Inspired HT Burleigh Paul Robeson Antonio Dvorjak quotl Dreamed of Geniequot by Stephen Foster the melody is simple amateur pleasant tunes gentle tradition of the parlor song 0 quotOh Susannahquot by Stephen Foster banjo by Pete Seeger actively involved in the civil rights movement minstrel song with romantic combo from parlor songs syncopated rhythms between the banjo and voice lyrics jokes about opposites that cannot be true for a stupid character that shoes its minstrel roots 0 quotThe Anacreontic Societyquot boys club in the 18th century England 0 quotThe Anacreontic Songquot tune of Star Spangled Banner their anthem for drinking 0 Francis Scott Key wrote the lyrics to Star Spangled Banner with the tune of A Song 0 quotGet off the Trackquot sung by Hutchinson metaphoric about the freedom train Hutchinson family group northern abolitionist family group Takes an existing popular song and puts abolitionist lyrics to it 0 quot0 Dan Tuckerquot a popular minstrel song emancipation lyrics 0 Scottish Snap syncopated rhythms that associated with minstrel songs 0 Band Music important during Civil War era and 19th century 0 Amateur bands in small towns that were mostly male veterans Patrick Gilmore leader of professionalization of Bands gets his start as a minstrel performer Popular Music before 19205 were mostly the genres of Minstrel Shows and PanorSongs Lecture 15 Popular Music during the Turn of the Century 0 4 Kinds of Popular Music from the changeover of 19th to 20th century 0 Ragtime 0 March 0 Barbershop o Tin Pan Alley Ragtime 18901910 0 ScottJoplin Improvised piano in the beginning of the 19th century Full of syncopated rhythms Marches 0 John Philip Sousa March King Loud upbeat brass percussion woodwind instruments 0 Gilmore military marching band Barbershop around the turn of the 20th century 0 4 men singing acapella no instruments 0 Tend to sing in quotclose harmonyquot 0 Everyone is singing in the same range Tin Pan Alley 0 Mass production of popular music 0 Songpluggers advertised music by banging pianos loudly and singing loudly all AT THE SAME TIME Irving Berlin Jerome Kern Cole Porter George Gershwin Lecture 16 Introduction to JazzJazz Age 0 Jazz Age 19205 Historiography the study of the writing of history 0 3 Categories of Blues Ruralcountry Blues Classic Blues Urban Blues 0 Blues Scale nots that fall into inbetween notes 0 Blues songs do not tell a story it39s a series of verse that have many different angles to the situations more than one thing you can be focused on 0 Blues lyrics follow a pattern AAB call and responseljl singers call and the instruments respond with wordless comments 0 AAB 3 parts with 4 measures eachlj 12 Bar Blues is a genre that blends European genre with African American roots Blues is primarily a vocal genre WC Handy quotfatherquot of the Blues Urban Blues D quotSaint Louis Bluesquot Gertrude quotMaquot Raineyquot quotMotherquot of the Blues b18805 0 1st to succeed as a popular singer of the Blues in the 19105 0 Performed with husband country folk stylelj appealing to a working class 0 quotProve it on me Bluesquot formal patterning isn39t a Blues but vocals and lyrics are Bluesy Characteristics of Blues Call and response back and forth woman vocalist and chorus Classic Blues was popular in the northlNY amp Chicago bc of the Great Migration Bessie Smith 1 performer in 1920 classicurban Blues 0 quotEmpty Bed Bluesquot 1928 sets up as a sad situation but as the song goes on it39s about the good times she had last night 19205 style sexual songs assisted by Charlie Green trombone player 0 Blues is a genre where women express authority D sexual power and nancial dependence Giadys Bentley extremely public about being a lesbiaanarried a white woman she was a hit for the dirty jokes of the style of Smith and Rainey 0 Made parodies of popular songs but making them dirty 0 Played to a variety of audience Black and White 0 quotThe Well of Lonelinessquotnovels 1 lesbian novel about a monish women39s life Giadys Bentley this novel and wrote an autobiography about how she discovered her own feministljshe is going to marry a man and appear as a conservative housewife Giadys Bentley39s autobiography is read as ction to lesbian readers but seemed real to other outside audience 0 quotWorried Bluesquot 1st played as a one women performance RobertJohnson ruralcountry Blues sound authentic Blues SingerGuitarist 0 Popular musician in the 19305 Some songs were about dark situations He doesn39t stick to the rhythmDhe will add extra beats and expressions Song about hard times in a rural style He was a straight guy 0 Second line refers to at a funeral the band that plays the music which plays sad music in the music and celebratory of the music when leaving the funeral Lecture 17 Jazz cont 0 The Jazz Age was during the 19205 0 Billy Holiday she s a WOMAN singer Swing taking a boring rhythm and moving it around to turn into Jazz The Swing Era was during the 19405 New Orleans 0 Ancestral homeland ofJazz o DixielandJazz Louis Armstrong importantJazz musician trumpet player associated with scat singing Historiography the way we record history SweetJazz vs HotJazz Styles 17th century France Rene Descartes o Derived the Cartesian Plane and Cartesian Dualism o Cartesian Dualism mind and body are separate the concept of who you are is based on your wind and your body is an outer shell Women in Jazz has been MAJOR in singing Vocalist 1930519405 the girl singer and the jazz man Ella Fitzgerald vocalist for 60 years 19301990 0 Natural talentD not practiced 0 Was observed by Chick Webb 0 When Chick died she took over his band and became leader which was huge because women were are not allowed to be leader of bands Chick Webb 0 Leader of late 305 band 0 Became Ella s manager 0 Ella became singer of his band 0 Assisted and improved Ella s singing techniques Ella broke the norm ofJazz Women Singers 1 Improvisation measure of skill in Jazz 2 Deemotionalized she treated the song as if it was the basis of her song her lyrics didn t matter 3 Didn t sing gongs sexuallyD her voice was pure 3 Songs that amplify Ella breaking the norm 1 quotMack the Knifequot melody is deliberately boring but she is decorating it light improvisation by swinging the rhythms a One of the 1St to take joy of improvisation to the vocals b She could invent melodies and lyrics on the spot c Famous for imitating instruments with her voice 2 quotThe Man That Got Awayquot rst introduced byjudy Garland who was all about emotional singing a Ella s version of the song is not as emotionally xed she didn t care about the lyrics because to her it was about decorating 3 quotI m Always True to You in my Fashionquot a Nancy Anderson performed this song on Broadway which sexiness and irtness ampli es the song b List song joke about a man giving her something c Ella s Version she didn t display herself sexually she changed some lyrics because it was too sexual for her to sing she sang it with a cheerful tone instead of irty d She takes out the sexuality and emotional work she was not interested in the meaning of lyrics which was to be expected by vocalists 0 Jazz singing is deeply connected to American Pop Genres interactions w other forms of music 0 Billy Strayhorn 0 Composer of quotTake the A Trainquot 0 Piano player song writer worked with Duke Ellington 0 Never got credit for the musical brains because of Duke Ellington 0 He was outly gay which was not cool during the 19305 jazz because jazz in the 19305 was all about masculinity 0 He was seen as an attack on jazz masculinity 0 Billy Tipton 0 Jazz pianist o Transgender musician NOT OKAY 0 Jazz and Gender are very intertwine Lecture 18 Jazz 1960now Miles Davis goes for a move to artistic styetrying to make the audience work hard to pay attention Cool jazzassociated with bop moving away from ordinary jazz to improvising jazz l very restrained and controlled quotTake Fivequot by Dave Krubeck keyboard player and part of progressive jazz movement 5 beats in a measure Gwither Schuler Goal make jazz as high art music jazz scholar jazz has artistic and has value 1St Stream classicalart music 2nCI Stream jazz music 3rCI Stream not a Blending Modern jazz Quartet 0 They get into Third Stream jazz 0 4 jazz Musicians that worked with classical musicians 0 They play pieces with classical ensembles john Lewis wants to mix classical white people with jazz Black people john Coltrane make jazz into classical music 0 Interested in free improvisation 0 Interested in spiritual experimental jazz Free jazz quotWe lnsistquot Mark Roach and wife Abbey Lincon who sang jazz standards Triptych o Prayers styles are very distinctive to Protest violence in music to re ect society to Peace Wordless Objectives outside the sound of what we can conserve as music 0 Very abstract Sun Ra 70s and 805 importantjazz musician o Started off as a standard jazz Pianist 0 Starting the 705 he took his jazz to quotout of this worldquot 0 Really important to the artist movement of Afrofuturism Afrofuturism take science ction ideas and using it to express your own reimaging of African culture and roots Wynton Marsalis Trumpet player 0 Classical music trumpet playing and jazz trumpet player 0 Conservative older preserving jazz musician 0 Symbol as jazz in an art form music Batrica Barber 0 jazz composer singer keyboard player 0 She takes an ancient Greece text and turns each character in Methamorphicys into jazz song Cecile McLorn Salvant takes really old jazz and reinterprestist o quotNo Bodyquot 0 Sing songs that will start discussion Lecture 1920 Musicals Musicals started in the late 19th century Minstrel shows were popular in the 1840518705 Variety Shows popular entertainment in the 1960s a bunch of different acts that aren39t really connected to each other 0 Example Saturday Night Live Different Types of Variety Show 0 Vaudevilles acceptable family entertainment the shows were a bunch of distinct acts 0 Burlesques featured comedy numbers and stripping number 0 Extravaganzas emphasizes an elaborate production sometimes had a theme 0 Folles L Frank Bawm author of Wizard of 02 books 1900 made it into an extravaganza Zieg linked variety shows with an idea such as costume Revue all acts are thematically linked quotThe Black Crookquot 1St musical had a plot a mix of singing and dancing didn39t have a xed text late 19th century 19205 modern musicals Show Boat 1936 Had an actual plot told primarily through music which helped advance the show and reveal the characters 0 Composer Jerome Kern Lyrist Oscar Hammerstein 2 Producer Zieg Integrated show Took place on a Boat in the Mississippi River Helen Morgan 205405 musical performer Displayed racial tension helped humanized Black people Text from Show Boat Ferber Cole Porter composer and Lyrist Was a Tin Pan Alley songwriter Well known on Broadway during 1930519505 Known as a writer of dirty jokessexy songs Hidden metaphors and analogies in his song Closet gay man wrote songs personal to HlM Wrote a lot of Maternal for Ethnel Merman sounded like a trumpet can sing loudy can sing over an orchestra without a need of a microphone but very homophobic Lorenz Hart 1930s wrote songs personal to him and was a closet gay man Irving Berlin 0 quotThere39s No Business like Show Businessquot Extravaganza musical Demonstrated over the top musical which was very popular in the 19505 Camp describes a particular style of musical a style of communication where it communicated to different audiences o Involved over the top production 0 Larry Hart 1930s camp song composer 0000000 000000 Oscar Hammerstein 2 focused on antiracist shows 0 Wrote Show Boat Iyrist 0 He took in Stephen Sondheim neighbor interested in theater Stephen Sondheim wrote musicals that weren39t as upbeat into grim topics always for social indictment wanted you to be invested in his musicals made quotInto the Woodsquot took dark topics and made them upbeat brought up by Hammerstein Hammerstein and Roger Partnership dominated the Broadways Style for decades 0 quotOklahomaquot 1st musical together created in 1943 capitalized nationalism 0 quotSound of Musicquot Last musical together Integrated Musical the songs story costume dancers etc are fully integrated with each other for a common artistic goaltheme Juanita Hall a lightskin Black woman from NewJersey who playedperformed as AsianHispanic characters 0 1St Black actor to win a Tony Megamusical describes musical of 1980 which are long contain little talking dominated from England and France Andrew Lloyd Webber composer of musicals quotCatsquot and quotPhantom of the Operaquot 1988 Rock Musicals get started in 19605 in which Broadway composers experiment with rock music 0 quotBye Bye Birdyquot by Charles Strous tried to incorporate rock the 1St to do so quotHairquot created in the Public theater by people who had no Broadway expenence 0 Composer Galt McDermott o 1967was very successful Joseph Pap the man who ran the Public Theater quotRentquot mis19905 the next big musical 0 Only loved by audience not critics quotHedwig and the Angry Inchquot 0 Satis ed the Critics and Audience 0 Considered to be a rock Musical quotkinky Bootsquot 0 Scored by Cynal Lauper 0 Starring Billy Porter Starting in 21St century was HipHop Musicals o HipHop was Broadly Popular in the 805 quotInto the Woodsquot 1988 0 1st rap that was incorporated with musicals quotHoller if you Hear Mequot juke box music redid the songs Lin Manuel Mirande 0 NY born 0 1St Big Show quotIn the Heightquot about Latino immigrants mixed salsa Broadway rap in the score o 2nCI Big Show quotHamiltonquot tells a biography of Alexander Hamilton does it all as a hiphop and rap score no white leads in the show deliberately a multiethnic cast hugely successful Lecture 21 Latin Pop Music and Rock n Roll Music Carmen French Opera set in Spain 0 Aria Habaneralj music derived from Cuba Countries that had most signi cant musical impact in US Brazil Mexico Ca bbean Salsa popular genre that got started in the 605 Roots important to Salsa Puerto Rico Cuba NYC Manhattan 0 People who popularized salsa were mostly Puerto Rican who lived in NYC almost all were men bc it demonstrated masculinity through bass and percussion Montuno section in the son with call and response Salsa Dura Hard Salsa Music most aggressive salsa upbeat songssuper peppy highly rhythmic and fast tempo Celia Cruz Cuban queen of salsa Desa nado the song that popularized Bosinova Bosinova 0 Antonio Carlos Jobim the man who coined the term Bosinova Rhythm and Blues RampB used to describe a speci c genre 0 became Rock n Roll when it was marketed to a different audience it replaced the term quotRace Recordquot beginning of Rock n Roll was the 505 performers didn t understand copyrights so the white performers would take Black musicians music so that the black musicians would get no credit Sister Rosetta Tharpe an artist who is predated Rock n Roll 0 Gospel Music is what she sang its music that is done in Black churches 1St electric guitar player before Rock n Roll became popular Sang religious music in a popular way Career as a child by singing in churches she was not credited for her music Ruth Brown performed RampB preElvis o quotMama He Treats your Daughter Meanquot Rockabilly upbeat rock style with country western style Beatles in uenced by American Rock capitalized Girl Group Motown record label in Detroit founded by Berry Gorder 0 Berry Gordy Jrwho was interested in selling Black artist to a white audience for a classbased strategy Motown was hugely successful Supremes the 1 to come out of Motown Girl Groups music for teenage girls hugely popular in the US easily relatable w young teens Beatlemania people being really obsessed with the Beatles who came in 1964 it was invented by the Beatle39s manager GOO GOO 0 Late 605 DrugFueled Music Cyclidelic Rock for adults not teens Janis Joplin
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