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by: Stacy Downing


Marketplace > Towson University > PSYC 101 > PSYCHOLOGY 101
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Very Detailed Notes, needed to be studied for the exams.
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Willen
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Date Created: 01/30/16
AP Psychology Notes History and Approaches  Wave: “School of thought”; a way of thinking about human thought and behavior that dominated the field for a certain period of time until a new way of looking at psychology started to dominate the field.  Wave 1: Introspection o Trephination: Stone Age humans carving holes through the skull to release evil spirits o Greek philosophers such as Plato and Democritus theorized about the relationship between thought and behavior o Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920): set up the 1 psychological laboratory in an apartment near the university at Leipzig Germany.  Trained subjects in introspection (the subjects were asked to record accurately their cognitive reactions to simple stimuli  Developed a theory of structuralism (the idea that the mind operates by combining subjects’ emotions and objective sensation. o William James (1842-1910): published The Principles of Psychology, the science’s first textbook. James examined how these structures Wundt identified function in our lives (James’s theory is called functionalism) o Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930): studied with William James and went on to become president of American Psychological Association o Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939): the 1 woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology o G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924): pioneered the study of child development and was the 1 president of the APA.  Wave 2: Gestalt Psychology o Max Wertheimer (1880-1943): a gestalt psychologist; argued against dividing human thought and behavior into discrete structures. o Gestalt psychology tried to examine a person’s total experience because the way we experience the world is more than just an accumulation of various perceptual experiences. o Gestalt theorists demonstrated that the whole experience is often more than just the sum of the parts of the experience.  Wave 3: Psychoanalysis o Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): discovered the unconscious mind (a part of our mind over which we do not have conscious control that determines, in part, how we think and behave  Believed that this hidden part of ourselves builds up over the years through repression (the pushing down into the unconscious events and feelings that cause so much anxiety and tension that our conscious mind cannot deal with them  Believed that to understand human thought and behave truly, we must examine the unconscious mind through dream analysis, word association, and other psychoanalytic therapy techniques  Has been criticized for being unscientific and creating unverifiable theories.  Wave 4: Behaviorism o John Watson (1878-1958): for psychology to be considered a science, it must limit itself to observable phenomena, not unobservable concepts like the unconscious mind o Behaviorists maintain that psychologists should look at only behavior and causes of behavior- stimuli (environmental events) and response (physical reactions) o B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): expanded the basic ideas of behaviorism to include the idea of reinforcement (environmental stimuli that either encourage or discourage certain Reponses)  Wave 5: Multiple Perspectives o Many psychologist describe themselves as eclectic (drawing from multiple perspectives)  Humanist Perspective o Humanists stressed individual choice and free will and believe that we choose most of our behaviors and these choices are guided by physiological, emotional, or spiritual needs o Abraham Maslow(1908-1970) and Carl Rogers (1902-1987)  Psychanalytic Perspective o Psychologists using this perspective believe that the unconscious mind (a part of our mind that we do not have conscious control over or access to) controls much of our thought and action. o Impulses or memories pushed in the unconscious mind is through repression. o We must examine our unconscious mind through dream analysis, word association, other psychoanalytic therapy techniques  Biopsychology/ Neuroscience Perspective: explain human thought/behavior in terms of biological processes. o Human cognition and reactions might be caused by effects of our genes, hormones, and neurotransmitters in the brain or by a combo of all three.  Evolutionary/Darwinian Perspective: examine human thoughts and actions in terms of natural selection. o Charles Darwin (1809-1882): theory of natural selection might explain a person’s tendency to be extroverted as a survival advantage.  Behavior Perspective o explains human though and behavior in terms of conditioning, looks strictly at observable behavior and what reaction organisms get in response to specific behaviors, looks for environmental conditions that caused an extroverted response in the person.  Cognitive Perspective: examines human thoughts and behaviors in terms of how we interpret, process, and remember environmental events. o Jean Piaget (1896-1980): cognitive developmental theory focuses on how our cognitions develop in stages as we mature.  Social-Cultural Perspective: looks at how our thoughts and behaviors vary from people living in other cultures. o Emphasize the influence culture has on the way we think and act o Eclectic: claims that no one perspective has all the answers to variety of human thought/behavior Methods  Research Methods o People have the tendency upon hearing about research findings to think that they knew it all along; this tendency is called hindsight bias. o A type of research known as applied research has a clear, practical application o Basic research explores questions that are of interest to psychologist but not intended to have immediate, real-world application.  Terminology o Hypothesis: expresses a relationship between two variables o Variables: are things that can vary among the participants in the research o Dependent variable depends on the independent variable  a change in the independent variable will produce a change in the dependent variable  Researchers manipulate the independent variable and measure the dependent variable. o Theory: aims to explain some phenomenon and allows researchers to generate testable hypotheses with the hope of collecting data that support the theory. o Researchers not only need to name the variables they will study, they need to provide operational definitions of them. When you operationalize a variable, you explain how you will measure it. o Research is valid when it measures what the researcher set out to measure; it is accurate o Research is reliable when it can be replicated; it is consistent o The individuals on which the research will be conducted are called participants (or subject) and the process by which participants are selected is called sampling. o In order to select a sample (the group of participants), one must 1 identify the population from which the sample will be selective. o The definition of random selection is that every number of the population has an equal chance of being selected; increases the likelihood that the sample represents the population and that one can generalize the finding s to the larger population; best done using a computer, a table of random numbers, or that tried-and-true method of picking names out of a hat. o Stratified sampling is a process that allows a researcher to ensure that the sample represents the population on some criteria.  Experimental Method o A carefully controlled experiment can one show a causal relationship o A confounding variable is any difference between the experimental and control conditions except for the independent variable that might affect the dependent variable. o Assignment is the process by which participants are put into a group, experimental or control. o Random assignment means that each participant has an equal chance of being into any group o Using random assignment diminishes the chance that participants in the 2 groups differ in any meaningful way, or, in other words, it controls for participant-relevant variables. o Benefit of random assignment is that it limits the effect of participant-relevant confounding variables. o Experimenter Bias is the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis. o A double-blind procedure occurs when neither the participants nor the researcher are able to affect the outcome of the research o A single-blind procedure occurs when the participant don’t know to which group they have assigned o The experimental group is the one that gets the treatment operationalized in the independent variable. o The control group gets none of the independent variable. Merely selecting a group of people on whom to experiment has been determined to affect the performance of that group, regardless of what is done to those individuals. This finding is known as the Hawthorne effect. o Whenever participants in the experimental group are supposed to ingest a drug, participants in the control group are given an inert but otherwise identical substance. This technique allows researchers to separate the physiological effects of the drug from the psychological effects of people thinking they took a drug (called the placebo effect)  Correlational Method o A correlation expresses a relationship between two variables without ascribing cause. Correlations can be either positive or negative. o A positive correlation between 2 things means that the presence of one thing predicts the present of the other. A negative correlation means that the presence of 1 thing predicts the absence of the other. o If I seek to control all other aspects of the research process, as I would in an experiment, I will have conducted an ex post facto study  Naturalistic Observation o Sometimes researchers opt to observe their participants in their natural habitats without interacting with them at all which is called naturalistic observation. o The goal of naturalistic observation is to get a realistic and rich picture of the participants’ behavior  Case studies o Used to get a full, detailed picture of one participant or a small group of participants o Allows researchers to get the richest possible picture of what they are studying, the focus on a single individual or small group means that the findings cannot be generalized to a larger population.  Statistics o Descriptive Statistics: simply describe a set of data o Frequency Polygons (Histograms): a frequency distributions turned into a graph where the y-axis always represents frequency, while whatever you are graphing is graphed along the x-axis. o Mean: average of all the scores in a distribution o Median: the central score in the distribution o Mode: the score that appears most frequently o Bimodal: a distribution having more than one mode o When a distribution includes outliers (extreme scores), the median is often used as a better measure of central tendency. Outliers skew distribution. Very high outliers cause positively skewed distributions. o Measures of Variability: range, variance, standard variation o Standard variation: the square root of the variance; average distance from the mean o Z-score measures the distance of a score from the mean in units of standard deviation. o The normal curve is theoretical bell-shaped curve for which the area under the curve lying between any two z scores has been predetermined. Approximately 68% of scores in a normal distribution fall within one standard deviation of the mean, approximately 95% of scores fall within two standard deviations of the mean, and almost 99% of scores fall within three standard deviations of the mean. o While Z score measure the distance of a score away from the mean, percentiles indicate the distance of a score from 0. o A correlation measures the relationship between two variable. Correlations may be either strong or weak. The strength of a correlation can be computed by a statistic called the correlation coefficient. Correlation coefficient range from -1 and +1, where -1 is a perfect, negative correlation and +1 is a perfect positive correlation. o A correlation may be graphed using a scatter plot. The closer the points come to falling on a straight line, the stronger the correlation. The line of best fit or regression line is the line drawn through the scatter plot that minimizes the distance of all the points from the line. o The purpose of inferential statistics is to determine whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was selected. The extent to which the sample differs from the population is known as sampling error. o All these tests yields a p value. The p value of .05 is the cutoff for statistically significant results. Biological Bases of Behavior  Neuron: individual nerve cells o Dendrites: root like parts of the cell that stretch out from the cell body. Dendrites grow to make synaptic connections with other neurons. o Cell Body: (the Soma) contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell needed to sustain its life. o Axon: wire like structure ending in the terminal buttons that extends from the cell body o Myelin sheath: a fatty coving around the axon of some neurons that speeds neutral impulses. o Terminal buttons: the branched end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters o Neurotransmitters: chemicals contained in terminal buttons that enable neurons to communicate. Neurotransmitters fit into receptor sites on the dendrites of neurons like a key fits into a lock. o Synapse: the space between the terminals buttons of one neuron & the dendrites of the next neuron.  How a neuron “fires” o In Resting State, a neuron has an overall slightly negative charge because mostly negative ions are within the cell and mostly positive ions are surrounding it. o The reaction BEGINS when the terminal buttons of neuron A are stimulated and release neurotransmitters into the synapse. These neurotransmitters fit into receptor sites on the dendrites of neuron B. o If enough neurotransmitters are received (this level is called the threshold), the cell membrane of neuron B becomes permeable and positive ions rush into the cell. The change in charge spreads down the length of neuron B and this electric message firing is called an action potential. o When the charge reaches the terminal button of neuron B, the button release their neurotransmitters into the synapse. The process may begin again if enough neurotransmitters are received by that next cell to pass the threshold. o A neuron either fires completely or it does not fire; this is called the all-or-none principle. If the dendrites of a neuron receive enough neurotransmitters to push the neuron past its threshold, the neuron will fire completely every time.  Neurotransmitters Neurotrans Function Problem Associated with an Excess/Deficit mitter Acetylcholine Motor movement Lack of acetylcholine is associated w/ Alzheimer’s Disease Dopamine Motor movement and Lack of dopamine is associated w/ Parkinson’s alertness disease, an overabundance is associated w/ schizophrenia Endorphins Pain control Involved in addictions Serotonin Mood control Lack of serotonin is associated with clinical depression  Neurons (S.A.M.E) o Afferent Neurons (Sensory): take information from the sense to the brain o Interneurons: once information reaches the brain or spinal cord, the interneurons take the message and send them elsewhere in the brain or on to efferent neurons o Efferent Neurons (Motor):take information from the brain to the rest of the body; carrying the information that EXITS the brain  Central Nervous System: consist of brain and spinal cordall the nerves housed within bone. The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that run through the center of the spine; it transmits information from the rest of the body to the brain.  Peripheral Nervous System: consists of all the other nerves in your body- all nerves not encased in bones. o Somatic Nervous System: controls our voluntary muscle movements. The motor cortex of the brain sends impulses to the somatic nervous system, which controls the muscles that allow us to move. o Autonomic Nervous System: controls the automatic functions of our body- our heart, lungs, internal organs, glands… these nerves control our responses to stress- the fight or flight response that prepares our body to respond to a perceived threat,  Sympathetic Nervous System: mobilizes our body to respond to stress; carries messages to the control system of the organs, glands, and muscles that direct our body’s response to stress; this is the alert system of our body; it accelerates some functions but conserves resources needed for a quick response by slowing down other functions.  Parasympathetic Nervous System: responsible for slowing down our body after a stress response; it carries messages to the stress response system that causes our body to slow down.  The brain controls most of human thought and behavior  Ways of Studying the Brain o Accidents: Phineas Gage was involved in an accident that damaged the front part of his brain and Gage became highly emotional and impulsive after the accident. Researchers concluded that the parts of the brain damaged in the accident are somehow involved in emotional control. o Lesions: Lesioning is the removal or destruction of part of the brain; for example, a person may develop a brain tumor that cannot be removed without removing part of the surrounding brain, any time brain tissue is removed (lesioning), researchers can examine behavior changes and try to infer the function. o Electroencephalogram (EEG): detect brain waves and examines what type of waves the brain produces during different stages of consciousness and use this information to generalize about brain function. o Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT or CT): a scan is a sophisticated X-ray; uses several X-ray cameras that rotate around the brain & combine all the pictures into a detailed 3-D picture of the brain structure. o Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): gives you a picture of the brain; uses magnetic fields to measure the density and location of brain material; only structure NOT function of the brain o Position Emission Tomography (PET): allows researchers to see what areas of the brain are most active during certain tasks; measures how much of a certain chemical parts of the brain are using; the more used the higher the activity o Functional MRI (fMRI): combines elements of the MRI and PET scans; shows details of brain structure with information about blood flow in the brain  Brain Structures o Hindbrain: consist of structures in the top part of the spinal cord; our life-support system: it controls the basic biological functions that keep us alive  Medulla: control of our blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing; located above the spinal cord  Pons: located above the medulla and toward the front; connects the hindbrain with the midbrain and forebrain; control of facial expression  Cerebellum: located on the bottom rear of the brain; means little brain’ coordinates some habitual muscle movements o Midbrain: located just above the spinal cord but still below areas categorized as the forebrain; coordinates simple movements with sensory information; integrates some types of sensory information and muscle movement  Reticular Formation: netlike collection of cells throughout the midbrain that controls general body arousal and the ability to focus our attention; not function = deep coma o Forebrain: control what we think of as thought and reason; the size of our forebrain makes humans human  Thalamus: top of the brain stem; responsible for receiving the sensory signals coming up the spinal cord and sending them to the appropriate areas in the rest of the forebrain  Hypothalamus: right next to the thalamus; controls several metabolic functions, including body temperature, sexual arousal (libido), hunger, thirst, and endocrine system  Amygdala: Located near the end of each hippocampus arm; vital to our experience of emotion  Hippocampus: the two arms surrounding the thalamus; vital to our memory system  Cerebral Cortex: the gray wrinkled surface of the brain o The surface of the cerebral cortex is wrinkled (the wrinkles are called fissures) to increase the available surface area of the brain and the cerebral cortex is divided into two hemisphere  Areas of the Cerebral Cortex o Frontal Lobes: located at the top front part of the brain behind the eyes  The anterior of the frontal lobe is called the prefrontal cortex which acts as the brain’s central executives and is important in foreseeing consequences, pursuing goals, and maintaining emotional control  Frontal lobe in the left hemisphere contains responsibilities for language processing  Broca’s Area: responsible for controlling the muscles involved in producing speech; damage could leave us unable to make the muscle movement needed for speech  Motor Cortex: a thin vertical strip at the back of the frontal lobe; sends signals to our muscles, controlling our voluntary movement o Parental Lobes: located behind the frontal lobe but still on the top of the brain; contains the sensory cortex which is located right behind the motor cortex in the frontal lobe  Sensory cortex: a thin vertical strip that receives incoming touch sensations from the rest of our body; receives sensations from the bottom of the body, progressing down the cortex to the bottom, which processes signal from our face and head o Occipital Lobes: very back of our brain, farthest from our eyes; interpret messages from our eyes in our visual cortex; impulses from the retinas in our eyes are sent to the visual cortex to be interpreted; impulses from the right half of each retina are processed in the visual cortex in the right occipital lobe; impulses from the left part of each retina are sent to the visual cortex in left occipital lobe o Temporal Lobes: process sound sensed by our ears; sound waves are processed by the ears, turned into neural impulses, and interpreted in our auditory cortices; sound received by the left ear is processed in the auditory cortices in both hemispheres  Wernicke’s area: interprets both written and spoken speech, damage would affect our ability to understand language  Brain plasticity o Since dendrites grow throughout our lives, if one part of the brain is damaged, dendrites might be able to make new connections in another part of the brain is damaged, dendrites might be able to make new connections in another part of the brain that would be able to take over the functions usually performed by the damaged part of the brain. Younger brains are more plastic and are more likely to be able to compensate for damage.  Endocrine System: a system of glands that secretes hormones that affect many different biological processes in our bodies; the endocrine system is controlled in the brain by the hypothalamus  Adrenal glands: produce adrenaline, which signals the rest of the body to prepare for fight or flight  Ovaries and Testes: produce our sex hormones, estrogen for women and testosterone for men  Twins o Identical twins (monozygotic twins): share all the same genetic material o Thomas Bouchard: found more than 100 identical twins who were given up for adoption and raised in different families and compared hundreds of traits and concluded about the relative influences of genetic and the environment on specific traits. o Twins raised in separate families obviously share very similar physical appearance, this physical similarity may cause others to treat them in similar ways, creating the same effective psychological environment for both twins  Chromosomal Abnormalities o Turner’ syndrome: only a single X chromosome in the spot usually occupied by the 23 pair; causes shortness, webbed necks, and differences in physical sexual development o Kilnefelter syndrome: have an extra X chromosome, resulting in an XXY pattern; causes minimal sexual development and personality traits like extreme introversion o Down syndrome: extra chromosome on the 21 pair; rounded face, shorter fingers and toes, slanted eyes set far apart, and some degree of mental retardation. Sensation and Perception  The Process of Vision o Step 1 Gathering light: 1 light is reflected off objects and gathered by the eye.  Factors that influence the color we perceive  Light intensity: how much energy the light contains; determines how bright the object appears  Light wavelength: determines the particular hue we see; the longest to the shortest wavelengths are: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet  Objects appear the color they do as a result of the wavelength of light thy reflect  Objects appear black because they absorb all colors and white because they reflect all wavelengths of light o Step 2 within the eye:  The reflected light first enters they eye through the cornea (a protective covering which helps focus the light) then the light goes through the pupil (the shutter of a camera)  The muscles that control the pupil (called the iris) open it (dilate) to let more light in and also make it smaller to let less light in.  Through a process called accommodation, light that enters the pupil is focused by the lens; the lens is curved and flexible in order to focus the light.  As the light passes through the lens, the image is flipped upside down and inverted.  The focused inverted image projects on the retina, which is like a screen on the back of your eye. On this screen are specialized neurons that are activated by the different wavelengths of light o Step 3 Transduction: transduction refers to the translation of incoming stimuli into neural signals and occurs when light activates the neurons in the retina. The 1 st layer of cells is directly activated by light.  Cones: cells that are activated by color; cones are concentrated toward the center of the retina  Rods: cells that respond to black and white; rods outnumber cones  Fovea: an indentation at the very center of the retina which contains the highest concentration of cones  If enough rods and cones fire in an area of the retina, they activate the next layer of bipolar cells. If enough bipolar cells fire, the next layer of cells, ganglion cells, is activated. The axons of the ganglion cells make up the optic nerve that sends these impulses to a specific region in the thalamus called the lateral geniculate nucleus. From there, the messages are sent to the visual cortices located in the occipital lobes of the brain.  The spot where the optic nerve leaves the retina has no rods or cones, so it’s referred to as the blind spot. The optic nerve is divided into two parts.  The spot where the nerves cross each other is called the optic chiasm. o Step 4 In the Brain: the visual cortex of the brain receives the impulse from the cells of the retina, and the impulses activate feature detectors.  David Hubel (1926-present) and Torsten Wiesel (1924-present): discovered that groups of neurons in the visual cortex respond to different types of visual images.  The visual cortex has feature detectors for vertical lines, curves, motion, and many other features of images. What we perceive visually is a combo of these features.  Theories of Color Vision o Trichromatic Theory: hypothesizes that we have three types of cones in the retina: cones that detect the different colors blue, red, and green (the primary colors of light). These cones are activated in different combos to produce all the colors of the visible spectrum. It cannot explain some visual phenomena, such as afterimages and color blindness o Opponent-Process Theory: states that the sensory receptors arranged in the retina come in pairs: red/green, yellow/blue, and black/white. If one sensor is stimulated, its pair is inhibited from firing. If color sensors do come in pairs and an individual is missing one pair, he or she should have difficulty seeing those hues.  Hearing o Sound waves are created by vibrations, which travel through the air, and are then collected by our ears. These vibrations then finally of through the process of transduction into neural messages and are sent to the brain. Sound waves have amplitude and frequency.  Amplitude: height of the wave; determines the loudness of the sound  Frequency: the length of the waves; determines pitch o Sound waves are collected in your outer ear or pinna. The wave travel down the ear canal (also called the auditory canal) until they reach the eardrum or tympanic membrane (this is a thin membrane that vibrates as the sound waves hit it. This membrane is attached to the 1 in a series of 3 small bones collectively known as the ossicles. The eardrum connects with the hammer (or malleus), which is connected to the anvil (or incus), which connects to the stirrup (or stapes). The vibration of the eardrum is transmitted by these three bones to the oval window, a membrane that is attached to the cochlea, a structure shaped like a snail’s shell filled with fluids. As the oval window vibrates, the fluid moves. The floor of the cochlea is the basilar membrane; it is lined with hair cells connected to the organ of Corti, which are neurons activated by movement of the hair cells. When the fluid moves, the hair cells move and transduction occurs. The organ of Corti fires, and these impulses are transmitted to the brain via the auditory nerves.  Pitch Theories o Place theory: the hair cells in the cochlea respond to different frequencies of sound based on where they are located in the cochlea. Some bend in response to high pitches and some to low. o Frequency Theory: describes how hair cells sense the upper range of pitches but not the lower tones. Lower tones are sensed by the rate at which the cell fire. We sense pitch because the hair cells fire at different rates (frequencies) in the cochlea.  Deafness o Conduction Deafness occurs when something goes wrong with the system of conducting the sound to the cochlea. Nerve (or sensorineural) Deafness occurs when the hair cells in the cochlea are damaged, usually by loud noise; much more difficult to treat since no method has been found that will encourage the hair cells to regenerated.  Touch o Pain is a useful response because it warns us of potential dangers. Gate-control theory helps explain how we experience pain the way we do; explains that some pain messages have a higher priority than others. When a higher priority message is sent, the gate swings open for it and swings shut for a low priority message, which we will not fell. Endorphins: pain killing chemicals in the body swing the gate shut; controls pain  Chemical Senses o Taste (or Gustation): the nerves involved in the chemical senses response to chemical rather than an energy.  Chemicals from the food we eat are absorbed by taste buds on the tongue. Taste buds are located on papillae, which are bumps you can see on your tongue. Taste buds are located all over the tongue and some parts of the inside of the cheeks and roof of the mouth. Humans sense 5 different types of taste: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami (“savory”). Some taste buds respond more intensely to a specific taste and more weakly to others. The more densely packed the taste buds, the more chemicals are absorbed, and the more intensely the food is tasted. o Smell (or Olfaction): molecules of substances are drawn into our nose, the molecules settle in a mucous membrane at the top of each nostril and are absorbed by receptor cells located there. The exact types of these receptor cells are not yet known, as they are for taste buds.  100 different types of smell receptors may exist. These receptor cells are linked to the olfactory bulb, which gathers the messages from the olfactory receptor cells and sends this information to the brain. Nerve fibers from olfactory bulb connect to the brain at amygdala & then to the hippocampus, which make up the limbic system- responsible for emotional impulses and memory. The impulses from all the other senses go through the thalamus 1 before being sent to the appropriate cortices.  Body Position Senses o Vestibular Sense: tells us about how our body is oriented is space. Three semi- circular canals in the inner ear give the brain feedback about body orientation. The canals are basically tubes partially filled with fluid. When the position of your head changes, the fluid moves in the canals, causing sensors in the canals to move. The movement of these hair cells activate neurons, and their impulses go to the brain. You probably experienced the nausea and dizziness caused when the fluid in these canals is agitated. o Kinesthetic Sense: gives us feedback about the position and orientation of specific body parts. Receptors in our muscles and joints send information to our brain about our limbs. This information, combined with visual feedback, lets us keep track of our body. o Senses and Associated Receptors Energy Vision Rods and Cones (in Retina) Hearing Hair cells connected to the organ of Corti (in cochlea) Senses Touch Temperature, pressure, pain nerve endings (in the skin) Chemical Taste Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami taste buds (in papillae on the Senses tongue) Smell Smell receptors connected to the olfactory bulb (in the top of the nose) Body Vestibular Hair like receptors in 3 semicircular canals (in the inner ear) Position Sense Kinesthetic Receptors in muscles and joints Sense  Threshold o The absolute threshold is the smallest amount of stimulus we can detect o Stimuli below our absolute threshold is said to be subliminal o In fact, a truly subliminal message would not, by definition, affect behavior at all because if a message is truly subliminal, we do not perceive it! Research indicates come messages called subliminal can sometimes affect behavior in subtle ways, such as choosing a word at random from a list after the word was presented subliminally. o The difference threshold sometimes called just-noticeable difference, is the smallest amount of change needed in a stimulus before we detect a change. o Ernst Weber: Weber’s Lawstates that the change needed is proportional to the original intensity of the stimulus. The more intense the stimulus, the more it will need to change before we notice a difference.  Perceptual Theories o Signal Detection Theory: investigates the effects of the distractions and interference we experience while perceiving the world. This area of research tries to predict what we will perceive among competing stimuli. Signal detection theory takes into account how motivated we are to detect certain stimuli and what we expect to perceive. These factors together are called response criteria/ receiver operation characteristics. Signal detection theory tries to explain and predict the different perceptual mistakes we make. A false positive is when we think we perceive a stimulus that is not there. A false negative is not perceiving a stimulus that is present. o Top-Down Processing: we perceive by filling in gaps in what we sense. For ex., I _ope yo_ _ike _e. Top-down processing occurs when you use your background knowledge to fill in gaps in what you perceive. Our experience creates schemata, mental representations of how we expect the world to be. Our schemata influence how we perceive the world. Schemata can create a perceptual set, which is predisposition to perceiving something in a certain way. o Bottom-Up Processing: is also called feature analysis, is the opposite of top-down processing. Instead of using our experience to perceive an object, we use only the features of the object itself to build a complete perception. We start our perception at the bottom with the individual characteristics of the image and put all those characteristics together into our final perception. The feature detectors in the visual cortex allow us to perceive basic features of objects, such as horizontal and vertical lines.  Gestalt Rules: we normally perceive images as groups, not as isolated elements. o Proximity: objects close together are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group. o Similarity: objects that are similar in appearance are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group o Continuity: objects that form a continuous for are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group o Closure: similar to top down processing. Objects that make up recognizable image are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group even if the image contains gaps that the mind needs to fill in.  Constance: our ability to maintain a constant perception of an object despite changes o Size constancy: objects closer to our eyes will produce bigger images on our retina, but we take distance into account in our estimations of size. We keep a constant size in mind for an object and know that it does not grow or shrink in size as it moves closer or farther away. o Shape constancy: objects viewed from different angles will produce different shapes on our retinas, but we know the shape of an object remains constant. For example, the top of a coffee mug viewed from a certain angle will produce an elliptical image on our retinas, but we know the top is circular due to shape constancy. Again, this depends on our familiarity with the usual shape of the object. o Brightness constancy: we perceive objects as being a constant color even as the light reflecting off the object changes. For example, we will perceive a brick wall as brick red even as the daylight fades and the actual color reflected from the wall turns gray.  Perceived Motion o Our brains are able to detect how fast images move across our retinas and to take into account our own movement. The stroboscopic effect, used in movies or flip books, is when images in a series of still pictures presented at a certain speed will appear to be moving. The phi phenomenon is a series of lightbulbs turned on and off at a particular rate will appear to be one moving light o The autokinetic effect, is as if a spot of light is projected steadily onto the same place on a wall of an otherwise dark room and people are asked to stare at it, they will report seeing it move.  Depth Cues o Eleanor Gibson: used the visual cliff experiment to determine when human infants can perceive depth. Gibson found that an infant old enough to crawl will not crawl across the visual cliff, implying the child has depth perception. o Monocular Cues: depth cues that do not depend on having two eyes.  linear perspective, relative size cue, interposition cue, texture gradient, shadowing (implies depth and position of objects) o Binocular Cues: cues that depend on having two eyes  Binocular disparity: each of our eyes sees any object from a slightly different angle. The brain gets both images. The closer the object is, the more disparity there will be between the images coming from each eye.  Convergence: as an object gets closer to our face, our eyes must move toward each other to keep focused on the object. The brain receives feedback from the muscles controlling eye movement and knows that the more the eyes converge, the closer the object must be. States of Consciousness  Levels of Consciousness o The mere-exposure effect occurs when we prefer stimuli we have seen before over novel stimuli even if we do not consciously remember seeing the old stimuli. o Priming: research participants respond more quickly and/or accurately to questions they have seen before, even if they do not remember seeing them o Blind spot: some people who report being blind can nonetheless accurately describe the path of a moving object or accurately grasp objects they say they cannot see. Levels Description Conscious The info about yourself and your envirnment you are currently aware of. Your conscious level right now is probably focusing on these words and their meaning. Nonconsci Body processes controlled by your mind that we are not usually (or ever) aware ous of. Right now, your nonconscious is controlling your heartbeat, reparation, digestion, and so on. Preconscio Info about yourself or your environment that you are not currently thing about but us you could be. If I asked you to remember your favorite toy as a child, you could bring that preconscious memory into your conscious level. Subconsci Info that we are not consciously aware of but we know must exist due to behavior. ous The behaviors demonstrated in examples of priming and mere exposure effect suggest some info is accessible to this level of consciousness but not to our conscious level Unconscio Psychoanalytic psychologists believe some evets and feeling are unacceptable to us our conscious mind and are repressed into the unconscious mind. Many psychologist object to this concept as difficult or impossible to prove.  Sleep: sleep is one of the states of consciousness. Sleep is a state of consciousness because, while we are asleep, we are less aware of ourselves and our environment than we are when we are in our normal awake state.  Sleep Cycle o Circadian rhythm: during a 24-hour day, out metabolic and thought processes follow a certain pattern. EEG machines can record how active our brains are during sleep and describe the different stages of sleep we progress through each night. The period when we are falling asleep is called sleep onset. This is the stage between wakefulness and sleep. o Our brain produces alpha waves when we are drowsy but awake. Stage Alpha and Theta waves (high frequency, progressively slower, higher in amplitude) 1 Stage Theta waves; sleep spindles (short bursts of rapid brain waves) 2 Stage Delta Waves (slow-wave sleep) 3 Stage Delta Waves 4 REM Rapid eye movement, paradoxical sleep, brain waves appear as active and intense as they do when we are awake; dreams usually occur in REM sleep  Sleep Disorders o Insomnia: affecting up to 10% of the population; problems getting to sleep or staying asleep at night; treated with suggestions for changes in behavior: reduction of caffeine or other stimulants, exercise at appropriate times during the day, and maintaining a consistent sleep pattern; doctors and researchers encourage insomniacs to use sleeping pills only with caution. o Narcolepsy: occurring in less than 0.001% of the population; suffer from periods of intense sleepiness and may fall asleep at unpredictable and inappropriate times; narcoleptics may suddenly fall into REM sleep regardless of what they’re doing at the time; treated with medication and changing sleep patterns. o Sleep apnea: causes a person to stop breathing for short periods of time during the night; the body causes the person to wake up slightly and gasp for sir, and then sleep continues; this process robs the person of deep sleep and causes tiredness and possible interference with attention and memory; overweight men are at higher risk for apnea; treated with a respiration machine. o Night terrors: sitting up in bed in the middle of the night and scream and move around the room; most children do not remember what happened; somnambulism (sleep walking)  Dreams o Sigmund Freud: emphasizes dream interpretation as a method to uncover the repressed info in the unconscious mind; dreams were wish fulfilling meaning that in our dreams we act out unconscious desires o Manifest content is the literal content of our dreams. Latent content is the unconscious meaning of the manifest content. During sleep, our ego protected us from the material in the unconscious mind (protected sleep) by presenting these repressed desires in the form of symbols. o The activation-synthesis theory: looks at dreams first as biological phenomena; proposes that perhaps dreams are nothing more than the brain’s interpretations of what is happening physiologically during REM sleep. The information-processing theory: stress during the day will increase the number and intensity. Dreams may be a story made up by a literary part of our mind caused by the intense brain activity during REM sleep.  Hypnosis o Posthypnotic amnesia: when people report forgetting events that occurred while they were hypnotized o Posthypnotic suggestion: a suggestion that a hypnotized person behave in a certain way after he or she is brought out of hypnosis. o Role theory states that hypnosis is not an alternative state of consciousness at all; some people are more easily hypnotized than others, a characteristic called hypnotic suggestibility. o State theory: hypnotist seem to be able to suggest that we become more or less aware of our environment o Ernest Hilgard dissociation theory: hypnosis causes us to divide our consciousness voluntarilyone part/level of our consciousness responds to the suggestions of hypnotist, while another part/level retain awareness of reality; demonstrated the presence of a hidden observer, a part/level of our consciousness that monitors what is happening while another level obeys the hypnotist’s suggestion.  Drugs o Blood-brain barrier: the brain is protected from harmful chemicals in the bloodstream by thicker walls surrounding the brain’s blood vessels o The drugs that mimic neurotransmitters are called agonists. The drugs that block neurotransmitters are called antagonists. Other drugs prevent natural neurotransmitters from being reabsorbed back into a neuron, creating an abundance of the neurotransmitter in the synapse. o Tolerance: a physiological change that produces a need for more of the same drug in order to achieve the same effect. Tolerance will eventually cause withdrawal symptoms which vary from drug to drug. Drug Examples Categories Stimulants Speed up body processes (increase heart and respiration Caffeine, cocaine, rate); a sense of euphoria; feel extremely self-confident amphetamines, and invincible; all stimulants produce tolerance, nicotine withdrawal effects, etc. (disturbed sleep, reduced appetite, increased anxiety, and heart problems) Depressants Slows down body processes; a euphoria accompanies the Alcohol, depressing effects of depressants, as does tolerance and barbiturates, and withdrawal symptoms ; slows down our reactions and anxiolytics judgement by slowing down brain processes; causes (tranquilizers or behavioral changes antianxiety drugs) Hallucinogen Cause changes in perceptions of reality, including sensory LSD, peyote, s hallucinations, loss of identity, and vivid fantasies; psilocybin reverse tolerance: 2 nddose may be less than the 1 but mushrooms, cause the same or greater effect marijuana Opiates Acts as agonist for endorphins; powerful painkillers and Morphine, heroin, mood elevators; cause drowsiness; rapidly change brain methadone, chemistry and create tolerance and withdraw symptoms codeine Learning  Classical Conditioning o People and animals can learn to associate neural stimuli with stimuli that produce reflexive, involuntary responses and will learn to respond similarly to the new stimulus as they did to the old one o Ivan Pavlov: studying digestion in dogs; dogs learned to pair the sounds in the environment where they were fed with the food that was given to them and began to salivate simply upon hearing the sound. o Unconditioned stimulus(US or UCS): the original stimulus that elicits a natural, reflexive response o Unconditioned response (UR or UCR): the involuntary response o Conditioned response (CR): a response created by a neutral stimulus o Conditioned stimulus (CS): a neutral stimulus o Learning has taken place one the animals respond to the CS without a presentation of the US. This learning is also called acquisition since the animals have acquired a new behavior. o Trace conditioning: the presentation of the CS, followed by a short break, followed by the presentation of the US o Simultaneous conditioning: CS and US are prestnted at the same time o Backward conditioning: US is presented 1 and is followed by the CS; ineffective method o Extinction: the process of unlearning a behavior; when the CS no longer elicits the CR o Spontaneous Recovery: after a conditioned response has been extinguished and no further training of the animals has taken place, the response briefly reappears upon presentation of the CS. o Generalization: the tendency to responds to similar CSs o Discriminate: subjects can be trained to tell the difference between various stimuli o John Watson and Rosalie Rayner: Little albert experiment paired a white, fluffy rat with a loud noise which taught Albert to cry when he saw the rat (the loud noise=US, fear/crying=UR, rat=CS, crying=CR) o Aversive conditioning: conditioned to have a negative response to a stimulus o Second-order/ Higher-order conditioning: Using the CS as a US in order to condition a response to a new stimulus Classical Conditioning Before Conditioning UCS (food) CS (bell) Elicits UCR (Salivation During Conditioning USC (food) + CS (bell) Elicits UCS (Salivation) After Conditioning CS (bell) CS (bell) Elicits CR (Salivation) First Order Conditioning Training: Presentation of bell + food = salivation Acquisition: Presentation of bell = salivation Second Order Conditioning (after first order conditioning has occurred) Training: Presentation of light + bell = salivation Acquisition: Presentation of light = salivation  Biology and Classical Conditioning o Learned taste aversions is if you ingest an unusual food or drink and then become nauseous, you will probably develop an aversion to the food or drink. Learned taste aversions are interesting because they can result in powerful avoidance responses on the basis of a single pairing. The responses are adaptive (helpful for the survival of the species) because it helps us learn to avoid dangerous things in the future. o John Garcia and Robert Koelling performed a famous experiment illustrating how rats more rapidly learned to make certain associations than others. They used four groups of subjects in their experiment and exposed each to a particular combo of CS and US. The rats learned to associate noise with shock and unusual-tasting water with nausea. However, they were unable to make the connection between noise and nausea and between unusual-tasting water and shack. Again, learning to link loud noise with shock and unusual-tasting water with nausea seems to be adaptive. The ease with which animals learn taste aversions is known as the Garcia effect. Garcia and Koelling’s Experiment Illustrating Biological Preparedness in Classical Conditioning CS US Learned Responses Loud Noise Shock Fear Loud Noise Radiation (nausea) Nothing Sweet Water Shock Nothing Sweet Water Radiation (nausea) Avoid water  Operant Conditioning: a kind of learning based on the association of consequences with one’s behavior o Edward Thorndike: conducted a series of famous experiments using a cat in a puzzle box. The hungry cat was locked in a cage next to a dish of food. The cat had to get out of the cage in order to get the food. He found that the amount of time required for the cat to get out of the box decreased over a series of trials. The amount of time decreased gradually; the cat did not seem to understand, suddenly, how to get out of the box. This finding led to an assertion that the cat learned the new behavior without mental activity but rather simply connected a stimulus to a response. o The law of effect states that if the consequences of a behavior are pleasant, the stimulus-response (S-R) connection will be strengthened & the likelihood of the behavior will increase. If the consequences of a behavior is unpleasant, the S-R connection will weaken and the likelihood of the behavior will decrease. o Instrumental learning: the consequence was instrumental in shaping future behaviors o B.F. Skinner: invented a special contraption, aptly named a Skinner box, to use in his research of animal learning. A Skinner box usually has a way to deliver food to an animal and a lever to press or disk to peck in order to get the food. The food is called a reinforcer, and the process of giving the food is called reinforcement. Reinforcement is defined by its consequences; anything that makes a behavior more likely to occur is a reinforcer. There are two kinds of reinforcement.  Positive reinforcement refers to the addition of something pleasant  Negative reinforcement refers to the removal of something unpleasant o Escape learning: terminating an aversive stimulus o Avoidance learning: enables one to avoid the unpleasant stimulus altogether. o Punishment: anything that makes a behavior less likely  Positive Punishment: the addition of something unpleasant  Omission training/Negative Punishment: the removal of something pleasant Reinforcement = A Consequence That Increases the Likelihood of a Behavior Types Mechanism Examples Positive Reinforcement Adds something pleasant Give a present Negative Removes something Excuse from household chores unpleasant Punishment = A Consequence That Decrease the Likelihood of a Behavior Types Mechanism Examples Positive Punishment Adds something negative Give extra chores Omission training Removes something pleasant Take away cell phone o Punishment is most effective if it is deliver immediately after the unwanted behavior and if it’s harsh. However, harsh punishment may also result in unwanted consequences. As a result, most psychologists recommend that certain kinds of punishment be used sparingly if at all. o Shaping reinforces the steps used to reach the desired behavior o Chaining: subjects are taught to perform a number of responses successively in order to get a reward o Using the Skinners Box as an Example:  Acquisition occurs when the rat learns to press the lever to get the reward. Extinction occurs when the rat ceases to press the lever b/c the reward no longer results from the action. Spontaneous Recovery occurs if, after having extinguished the bar press response and without providing any further training, the rat began to press the bar again. Generalization would be if the rat began to press other things in the Skinner box or the bar in other boxes Discrimination would involve teaching the rat to press only a particular bar or to press the bar only under certain conditions o Primary Reinforcers: reward (ex. Food, water, rest whose natural properties are reinforcing) o Secondary Reinforcers are things we have learned to value such as praise or to play a video game o Money is a special kind of secondary reinforcer, called generalized reinforcer because it can be traded for virtually anything. o One pract


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