New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 13 Lecture Notes

by: Carly Rasmussen

Chapter 13 Lecture Notes Chem 1066

Marketplace > University of Minnesota > Chemistry > Chem 1066 > Chapter 13 Lecture Notes
Carly Rasmussen
U of M
GPA 3.93
Chemical Principles II
Dr. Driessen

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Here's the collection of Chapter 13's online lecture notes for everyone who doesn't have the time/motivation to watch through them all. Let me know if you need anything else!
Chemical Principles II
Dr. Driessen
75 ?




Popular in Chemical Principles II

Popular in Chemistry

This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Carly Rasmussen on Friday February 6, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Chem 1066 at University of Minnesota taught by Dr. Driessen in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles II in Chemistry at University of Minnesota.


Reviews for Chapter 13 Lecture Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/06/15
What is a solution 1 Important Terms a Solute portion of the solution that is in the smallest quantitiessolid stuff that you are dissolving b Miscible mix in any proportion and are soluble no separate phases or layers which ever one is in the higher proportion is the solvent lower is the solute c Solubility S maximum amount of solute that we can dissolve in the solvent 2 Energyenthalpy considerations and IMF a Types of Bonds i Iondipole 40600kjmol dipole means that the molecule is polarpermanent separation of charge 1 Ex water even though it is covalently bonded 2 Which part of the molecules have opposite charges 3 Unique not a pure substanceljonly when it dissolves in a liquid with a dipole ii Hydrogen bonding 1040kjmol two separate molecules where each molecule contains a hydrogen bonded to a nitrogenoxygen uorine iii Dipoledipole525 dipole in both substances may be pure may not be iv Ioninduced dipole 315kjmol molecule can t be polar nonpolar moleculesljslight distribution of charges 1 Has an ion that causes a polarity in the nonpolar 2 Increases the normal small dispersion forces v Dipoleinduced dipole a nonpolar molecule gains an instantaneous dipole that bonds it with a dipole moleculepolar covalent vi Dispersion 220kjmol no dipole or charge Like dissolves like Ex Alcohol chains SH20 molkg solvent polar SHexane molkg solvent very nonpolar CH3OH Infinitemiscible 1 2 most polar CH3CH2OH infinite Infinite CH3CH22OH infinite Infinite CH3CH23OH 1 1 Infinite CH3CH24OH 03 Infinite CH3CH250H 0058 infinite least polar 0 Hydroxyl has extra strong hydrogen bonding and dipole forces 0 Carbon chain has dispersion forces Changing composition of molecules causes changes in solubility BP Kmeasure of intermolecular forces takes more energy to pull them apart which increases the boiling point and solubility Element Boiling Point K Solubility in H20 M He weakest IMF 42 42 gtlt104 Ne 271 66 gtlt104 N2 774 104 gtlt104 co 816 156 gtlt104 02 902 218 gtlt104 NO strongest IMF 1214 327 gtlt104 Considerations for things dissolving 1 Enthalpy considerations I like a reaction but physical 2 Enthalpy changes during the solution process solidliquidgas solute and liquid solvent 3 A Hsolution A Hsolute A Hsolvent A a Solute break the intermolecular attractionsseparate solute particles i Soluteheatsolutesep ii A Hsolute lendothermic b Solvent particles separate i Solventheatsolventsep ii A Hsolvent lendothermic c Mix i A Hmixmre A Hmix lexotheu r ii Solutesepsolventseplsoluti 4 Ionic compounds in water a A thdrvery exothermic A Hsolvent A Hmix H 20 i Ion g Ion aq ii Charge densities higher charge density higher value A thdr more exothermic and Vice versa b A Hsolute lattice energy A Hlat ceendothermic c If A Hsolvent A Hmix is exothermicl reaction is always solubleexothermic Solving for Heat of Solution Hess s Law Entropy 1 Entropy what pushes sodium chloride over edge compared to silver chloride a Entropy and Solubility are both S entropy is usually A S b Energy dispersal orderliness i S gasgtSliqgtSsolid SsolutiongtSpure substances generally true Solubility as an Equilibrium Process 1 Review of Terms a Saturated met solubility limit and have excess solute dynamic process with the dispersed particles colliding with the solid pulled into solution and crystallizing total amount of particles in solid and solution the same b Unsaturated up to saturated solubility limit of the solid being dissolved c Supersaturated more solute in solution than the solubility limit heating up drives more particles into the solution then cooled and mixture has more solute 2 Effect of Temperature on Solubility H 2 0 a Ionic solids NaClsheat NaClaq reactant when A Hsolu omdissolu on gt0 b Adding more heat Le Chatlier s principle drive reaction towards the products c More soluble at higher temperatures generally 3 Effects of Temperature on Gas Solubility a Less soluble as we increase temperature because entropy is so high b Heat of solution is usually exothermic because A Hsolute is so low while A thdr is always negativeexothermic H 2 O c 02g 02aqheat i This causes thermal pollution decrease the oxygen in water by decreasing the solubility of oxygen 4 Effects of pressure on solubility a liquids and solids impacted little by P b gases are impacted strongly by P c 02gD02aq i Equilibrium of gas above the solution and in the solution ii Henry s Law Sgas molLKHmolL time atm x Pgs above solution atm Concentration Terms 0 Molarity M most popular method mols of solute1 L solution I temperature dependent 0 Molality m moles of solute1 kg solvent 0 35g of CaCl in 515 g H20 find m 0 Parts of soluteparts of solution by mass of solute per solution 0 Mass percent mass of solutemass of solution solventsolute times 100 0 Ppm or ppb parts per millionbillion 0 Parts per volume 0 Volume O vvvolume solutevolume solution time 100 health care 0 Mole fraction X O Moles of solutemoles of the solute moles of the solvent Converting Between Different Concentration Terms EX 1 Convert 0907M PbN032 to molality dsolu on1252gml Molar Mass of PbN0323312gmol 1 What is the end goal molality mol of solutekg of solvent 2 Find mass of solution PbN032 1252 gsolution X 1000 mL solution 1252 g solution 1 mL of solution 1 L of solution 1 L of solution 3 Find mass of solute 0907 moleNo32 3312 ngNO 32 3004ngNo32 x 1 Lof solution 1mol Pb NO 3 2 1 L of solution 4 Find mass of solvent H20 1252 g solution 3004 g solute 9516 g solvent X 0952 kg solvent 8 5 Divide moles by mass of solvent 0907 moleNo32 0953m PbN032 0952 kg solvent EX 2 Convert 0273KClm to molarity Dsolu on1011 gL MM KC1 746gmol l 6 What is the end goal molarity mol of solute1L of solution Find grams of solute 0273 molKCl X 2 4 K I lmolKCl 0 g C Find grams of solvent 1000gH20 1k H20 g X 1kgH20 Find total mass of solution solute solvent 1000 g H 2 0 204 g KCl 2 10204 g solution Convert grams of solution to liters using the density of solution 1009L 1L 10204 l t39 gso u lOl lX 10mg Divide moles of solute by the obtained liters 0273 mol KCl 20270 M 1009 L solution Colligative Properties 1 Overview How the physical properties of a solution change a of solute particlesconcentration not identity b Only considering nonvolatile nonelectrolyte solutions i Non volatile solute will always be in the solution that we started withwon t vaporize ii Non volatile don t change their compound when put in water 2 Phase diagram dotted lines represents changes due to added solute 3 Vapor pressure lowering a Vapor pressure pressure of particles of gas above liquid that have broken free dependent on temperature b Solute dissolved disruptschanges in the IMF and block where the molecules can escape into the vapor phaselimits of atoms in the vapor phase decrease vapor pressure c Molecules escaping into vapor is purifying this is less entropy than solution so is not favored d Raoult s Law P A P P X P0 solvent Po solvent X solvent solvent solute solvent e Change in X solute mass solventmass solute moles solvent Xsolvemwill always be less than 1 Psolvemwill always be less the P of the pure substance EX Find vapor pressure lowering water When 5 67g of glucose is dissolved in 252g of water at 25 C VP H20238mmHg at 25 C A P X P osolvent solvent solute 1 mol glucose solute 567 g glucose X 00315 mol glucose 180 g glucose solvent 252gH20 x 14 molH20 Xmlvem 00315 mol glucose 2 0022 003115 mol glucose l 4 mol H 2 O A Psalm 2 Xmm P cm 2 0022 238 mmHg 052 mmHg 4 Boiling point elevation a Boiling pressure When vapor pressure above a liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressureboiling b Dependent on vapor pressuremore heat is necessary to vaporize solvent pressures to match With atmospheric pressure AszKbm O A Tb B P eleveation K b BP constant m molality m EX An aqueous solution of a molecular compound boils at 100086 C Find the molality of the solution C 1920512 m A Tb 100086 C 100 C 0086 C 0086 C 0512 m m017m 5 Freezing point depressing a Added problem of pulling water particles away from the solute b Made more difficult because it is purifying once again With crystal structures of the pure solvent causing a decrease in enthalpylowering temperature needed to freeze ATfZKfm O C A T FP depressioanZ FP constant m molality m EX Determine the freezing point of a solution prepared by dissolVing 0915 g S8 in 1000g of HC2H302 92359 0 m FF 2 1700 C 1m0lS8 0915g 58x 20003567 mol 58 2565 g58 0003567 mol S 8 01kgHC2H302 200357 m A Tb359Cx00357m0128 C 1700 C 0128 C 17128 C H 6 Osmotic temperature a H 0lt molarity H MRT moles solute b39 Vsolution Mmolarity Rgas constant Ttemperature looks like rearrangement of PVnRT c Solvent ows towards the solution sidellsolution has higher entropy WEI Higher entropy only allows solvent through


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.