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PHSY139 Stars and Constellation Identification

by: Jackie Warner

PHSY139 Stars and Constellation Identification PHYS 139

Marketplace > University of Delaware > Physics 2 > PHYS 139 > PHSY139 Stars and Constellation Identification
Jackie Warner
GPA 3.24

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These notes cover PHSY139 Stars and Constellation Identification, a one credit class at the University of Delaware. The purpose of this class is to learn how to identify stars and constellations so...
Stars and Constellation Identification
Dr. Henry Bouchelle
stars, Physics, Science, constellation, Recreation, UD, astronomy, constellations
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Jackie Warner on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PHYS 139 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Henry Bouchelle in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Stars and Constellation Identification in Physics 2 at University of Delaware.

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Date Created: 01/30/16
9/10 Finding Planets at Night • how to find a planet at night ◦ they don’t twinkle ◦ atmosphere has a surface, and if its smooth then you can see all the stars and nothing twinkles ◦ if the atmosphere is disturbed by something like a hot or cold front, light is coming in through moving wrinkles so the lights will twinkle ◦ stars twinkle bc they’re so far away they don’t have geometric points - you can only see one beam/photon at a time so it can seem like they’re twinkling ◦ planets are much closer and they have depth so they usually don’t twinkle • theres a lunar eclipse on the 27th and you can go to fox point to see it ◦ look at the moon - it makes the moon dark • on a clear night with a telescope you can see Jupiter's satellites or moons and you can tell that saturn isn’t a normal disk • venus is very bright ◦ mayans used venus to make their calendars, it casts a shadow in the mountains • most planets are very dim • uranus can be seen with the naked eye • neptune needs binoculars ◦ seem bluish green • mars is sometimes bright and sometimes not • mercury is VERY hard to see esp when you’re not close to the equator • telescopes can make finding the planet worse ◦ if its 10 power then its 10x harder to find the planet and if its 100 power its 100x times harder etc • why it’s hard to find one ◦ if its clear then nothing is twinkling ◦ planets aren’t always in the night sky ◦ planets might not be in our line of sight ◦ planets have different colors but so do stars ◦ some are really bright but others are dim ◦ 
 • suns gravity is enormous ◦ if you go fast enough you can go close enough to the sun that you can loop around and go right by without being pulled in • mercury can go around in 88 days to go around • pluto hasn’t gone around twice since columbus was here ◦ it takes it over 250 years for it to go around • galaxies spin like pinwheels, and as they spin they become thinner and flat • solar system is like a pizza ◦ yellow pepper in the middle with 9 pepperonis around it ◦ put it on a record player and turn it on - spins like the solar system ◦ the rind around the pepperoni spins like the moons and solar systems around it ◦ makes seeing a planet a very narrow path around the sun • Finding a planet ◦ ecliptic -the path that everything follows as it goes around the sun ▪ THE MOST IMPORTANT WORD IN THIS CLASS ◦ the planets will follow the same pattern as the sun - low in the east at dusk and low in the west near the morning ◦ the zodiacs are 12 planets/constellations are ecliptic ▪ they can tell you where the planets have to be ▪ half will be in the night sky and half will be in the daytime sky so you only see 6 at any one time • mars is in the constellation gemini ◦ two twin bright stars ◦ red planet 9/17 • Moon is a crescent • motions posture and position of the earth • 30 days in a “mo0nth” • 30 days into 360 degrees - so the moon makes one rotation every 12 days ◦ moves 12 degrees each day • everything in the solar system moves west • saturn will be higher and higher every morning because he starts in the east • i eat green cheese - jupiters moons ◦ io ◦ europa ◦ ganameed ◦ calista ◦ one is almost as big as mercury-we can see them through telescope • ecliptic/solar system is why the zodiac exists • lunar eclipse ◦ if its a full moon the sun and the moon have to be 180 degrees apart ◦ look for darkest time at about 7pm ◦ has info on it • questions on the star calendar on open book test ◦ you can tell its easiest to see more than one planet at a time when it says so on the left ◦ on left hand it tells you all about whats going on • zodical light ◦ middle weeks of september ◦ can see the dust particles orbiting the sun like planets ◦ in the early hours of the morning • stars and planets all move to west in the sky 9/24 Planetspheres • Super moon just means its a little bit closer and looks about 5-6% bigger • years with leap years lag a little bit in the • the sun will move 15 degrees in an hour ◦ YOUR pinky is about 1 degree wide ◦ the moon and the sun are both half a degree wide ◦ a planet will rise about 1 degree a day ◦ everything in the sky raises about 1 degree a night • the straight up is called the zenus ◦ people in london will see different stars on the zenus because they are on a diff part of the world thats always rotating • north star shines on the north pole so their zenus is the north star • in the summer the sun is higher and in the winter it is lower ◦ in the summer the sun only gets 26.5 degrees above the horizon ◦ in the winter the sun can be 73.5 degrees above the horizon ◦ the sun moves 15 degrees an hour or 15/60 ▪ in 30 min it moves 7.5 degrees ▪ 4 minutes for 1 degree ▪ takes 2 minutes for the sun to go its own diameter (half a degree) ▪ equator the sun will always set straight down so it sets faster ▪ on the north pole it takes months for the sun to set • can’t see the same zodiac stars every season • can see every night... ◦ draco the dragon ◦ ursa minor (has north star in it ) ◦ cepheus ◦ cassiopia 10/1 • ptolemy ◦ greek who made a star chart ◦ lived in eygpt?? ◦ verifiably more than 2,000 YO • the earth does not tilt the earth is tilted • the north star is at the top of the north celestial pole - the top of where the axis is • at the bottom of the south pole is the south celestial pole at the bottom of the southern axis • solstice means sun - summer solstice is the sunniest day with the most sunlight • equinox means equal night so there is an equal day and night • sirius is the brightest star in the winter • compass is exactly right in Chicago • any star that rises in the AS in east and ES in west is on the celestial equator and anyone can see them during the spring and fall esp • latitude of the equator is 0 • latitude of the poles are 90 ◦ between the east and the north halfway is 45 degrees 10/8 • if t takes mercury 88 days to go around the sun and it takes saturn 30 does it take longer because the circle is bigger or because it travels slower? • it takes about 3x as much as the diameter to go around a circle • the sun is 800,00 miles in diameter ◦ the earth is 8,000 miles in diameter ◦ can line up 100 earths across ◦ distance from the sun to the earth is one astronomical unit or 93,000,000 miles ▪ it will take 93,000,000 X 2 TO get the diameter ▪ 186,000,000 times three to see how many miles it takes to get around the sun ▪ 0ver 540,000,000 miles to get around the sun or travel in a year ▪ divide by 365 to find out how far we travel in a day ▪ 1479452 miles a day ▪ 61,000 miles an hour ▪ 17 miles a second • ON FINAL EXAM MAKE SURE YOU MULTIPLY BY TWO • there are limits on how fast rockets can be bc if its too fast then people will become human soup • jupiter ◦ 500,000,000 miles from the sun ◦ diameter is 1 billion miles ◦ multiple by three - 3 billion miles ◦ takes jupiter 12 years to go around ◦ divide by 12 then 365 ◦ 250000000 divide by 365 ◦ 684931 divide by 24 ◦ 28538 divide by 60 ◦ divide by 60 again ◦ goes about 8 miles per second ◦ so its both - it goes slower and the distance it has to travel is longer • moon ◦ 250,000 mi away ◦ 500,000 mi in diameter ◦ divide by 30 ◦ then by 24 ◦ then by 60 ◦ then by 60 ◦ it goes about a half a mile per second • go around the moon ◦ 2001 miles in diameter ◦ will take about 6000 miles to go around • the terminator is the separation of day and night ◦ sunset or sunrise on earth • the moons terminator moves fast enough that it goes around the moon in 30 days so we see the day and the night ◦ the terminator moves 200 miles a day ◦ 8 miles per hour • the moon has a lot of craters ◦ can use the craters to see where the terminator is moving ◦ can use the terminator to measure how big the craters are • the line of the terminator always moves to the east ◦ is it waxing - getting smaller ◦ waning - getting bigger ◦ can tell if its waxing or waning by where the line is 10/22 Binoculars, Moon, RA and DET • 10x 50 on it ◦ 10 power ◦ could see the four satellites of jupiter, rings of saturn ◦ nebula under belt of orion ◦ first number is the power ◦ if its 50 something its going to be about 2 inches ▪ want that to be as wide as possible bc then theres more light coming in ◦ the bigger the class the more time they have to spend grinding it ◦ everything is 10x bigger ◦ but ever twist and nudge is 10x worse ◦ 10 is a little bit too big ◦ 50is a good number ◦ coded lenses are good and bigger lenses are good • azimuth is the compass direction ◦ 0 is north ◦ altitude is the degree ◦ North is 0 ◦ E is 90 ◦ S is 180 ◦ W is 270 ◦ altitude is always an angle ▪ 50 135 ▪ 50 is its 50 degrees up in the sky ▪ 135 is the direction (se) • you can always find the celestial equator in your plane sphere will rise exactly east and set exactly west • right ascension is where we are standing on the equator is sideways • declination is up and down • our latitude is around 40 • the equator is the lowest point in the southern hemisphere that we can see the north star • the star chart pages ◦ the ones going side to side are declination from the cestial equator ◦ the lines going up and down is right assertion ◦ your view of the celestial equator is the compliment of your latitude ▪ so if it looks 45 degrees north its 45 degrees south ▪ if its +20 you’re +70 ◦ 
 • epoc - the year that they made it so uk how accurate the star chart is 11/5 The Moon • appears on the ecliptic • planets also appear on the ecliptic in the very early evening and morning • can see the moon in the daytime just like the sun • homework ◦ three tasks ◦ write on a piece of paper and bring to him next class ◦ 1) why is the moon important? why is it influential? why does it matter? ▪ tells you where the ecliptic is ▪ affects high and low tides in the ocean ◦ 2) What is special about august 11 2017 ▪ One of the reasons mars might be a desert is because mars doesn’t have a moon to make the water move and turn ▪ When you think about meteors crashing into the earth it almost doesn’t matter because everything in the solar system is made up of big rocks crashing into each other. The earth goes around the sun about 17 miles a second. If you rubbed your hands together that fast your hands would catch on fire and explode. Everything is still crashing into each other, when planets formed they were molten which explains why planets are almost perfectly circular because the forces of the liquid in the bubble are pulling on it equally. When it becomes part of a planet the molten is going to be in the middle, it is mostly iron and nickel which makes the magnetic field for the earth when we turn. The moon doesn’t have a magnetic field because its all dead inside. What happens over time is the planets like mercury and mars is they had a magnetic field at one time and as they slowly cooled and any iron around would lock itself into wherever the magnetic field happened to be. The magnetic field was all over the place - it was spinning and sometimes it was crooked - you can date fossils by dating is seeing which way the magnetic field pointed on the earth. about 4 billion years ago an object the size of mars a tad bigger than the moon and splashed parts of the earth and parts of the moon into space. all the particles still had gravity so it solidified into a molten ball and froze - when this happened the earth was spinning at a rate of 14 hours a day, the earth slowed down to 24 because once the moon formed tides formed and slowed the earth down. eventually the moon will be pushed so far away by the tides that at one point the moon will be more attracted to the sun than the earth and it will be like an extra planet. The moon attracted the water with its gravity and as it moves it kind of makes a drift. the moon doesn’t have to do very much because the water doesn’t have to move very much. the water is pretty much just chilling under the moon and the earth is actually moving, the shore is carrying you into the mound of water which is why it slows down the earth and pulls the moon away. one of the reason mars turned into a desert is possibly because the mars didn’t have a moon ◦ 3) romantic moonlight walks • takes a moonth for the moon to go around the earth - very slow • the only difference in rocks between here and moon is the rocks get wet from rain and stuff so they formed a little bit differently • the same side of the moon always faces the earth ◦ 
 • basalt is a rock that is mostly black and dark grey ◦ if you rub them together the sand is light grey ◦ • every crater on the moon is circular because when the rocks or meteors come in they come in really fast and explode ◦ about half the rocks come in shallow from the side and the other half come deep or straight on ◦ they’re coming like 20 mi/s ◦ even the big areas were once circular and now they overlap so they don’t look like circles anymore ◦ 
 • moons phases ◦ full moon ◦ quarter moon (in the shape of a half) in either direction ◦ cresent moon either direction ◦ new moon - can’t see it ▪ almost never does the moon pass in front of the sun but if it is between the moon and the earth it will be a new moon ◦ happens because of the way that the moon goes around the earth ▪ half of the moon is lit up when it faces the sun ▪ changes when it rotates around ▪ as the moon goes around it can go higher or lower which is why it doesn’t always block the sun totally ▪ hard to see the moon during the day bc it is in the way of the sun ▪ 
 ◦ the moon is almost predictable • gibbous moon is when a little bit is missing on the side • the moon takes 30 days to go around ◦ 360 degrees in a day ◦ 360/30 is 12 ◦ everyday the moon will be 12 degrees more full until the 7th day • 3) how is it possible that the same side of the moon faces the earth? • tuesday 7:30 name date and constellation stories • 11/12 Moon • Tides ◦ high and low are usually 45 minutes later each day ◦ bc the moon sets 45 minutes after the sun - its always going more slowly • fall equinox is equal day and equal night ◦ the sun should rise at 6am ◦ and set at 6pm • in the poles during summer the sun moves 23.5 degrees higher and higher in the sky ◦ 23.5 degrees is the same as the earths tilt • the moon has phases because in the position it is in between the sun and earth makes it that position and it can’t just based on anything else ◦ the moon is a slow poke and doesn’t move as fast as the sun ◦ doesn’t matter where it looks like it is in the sky it will always be the same phase • moon is mainly basalt • telling time with the moon ◦ 
 • half moon means that were talking about 90 degrees ◦ FLIP OVER THE PAPER ABOUT WHICH WAY THE SUN HAS TO BE ◦ it has to be west of the moon ◦ however many degrees it is • half moon is 90 • full moon is 180 • crescent moon is • checklsit ◦ is the sun east or west? ▪ if its a full moon they’re opposites 11/19 Light and The Sun • atoms have two parts ◦ nucleus (center that has to have at least one proton and maybe some neutrons) and electrons (outside) ◦ if there is one proton you need one electron - has to match up ◦ the # of protons tell you what the element is ◦ you can shock people bc if you drag your feet on the floor you can pick up electrons that you don’t need and will give them to someone else ▪ when you do this if its dark there will be a spark of light ◦ anytime an electron goes back where it wants to be it gives off light ◦ electrons make light - when we turn on a light the electrons are bouncing back and forth because they don’t know where else to go ▪ if you make it hotter then the light will be brighter ▪ if you want to make less light, like a dimmer, you can make it cooler ◦ when an electric stove turns on it turns red and when it gets colder it turns orange ◦ red is hot, orange is cooler and yellow is really hot, blue is hottest ◦ blue stars are hotter than red/yellow stars • orion ◦ in his armpit there is a star called betelgeuse (which means armpit) ◦ 
 • vega ◦ blue star ◦ can see at midnight on December 21 ◦ 
 • our star is yellow • red stars are bigger so its easier to see them ◦ betelgeuse is one of the biggest stars in the sky • red stars are near death ???? • to see a red star you have to be big • a rainbow is telling you the sun is hot ◦ white light is really a mix of all the colors • red light is cooler • the rainbow is a continuum of light and heat • the rainbow is all blended together in a smear of light • the sun is yellow ◦ 
 • why aren’t there any green stars? ◦ the sun is a green star ◦ it broadcasts most intensely in green ◦ the human eye just is not good at sorting out things like that - direct quote from Hank ◦ 
 • headlights are pale yellow ◦ the same kind of light we get from the sun • if you want to know what the temperature of the sun is put a thermomature inside of a headlamp because it produces the same color light so it must be the same temperature • there is a whole other spectrum - one that is not giving off as much heat that seems like it is more circular ◦ what is between the papers • mercury is in the light bulbs in the classroom and they’re on of the only elements you can see the light with • ultraviolet light is v powerful and can fade your carpets, damage your skin • red stars are really big so they can be seen from far away • size of dots on the star chart are telling you the brightness that they look like from where we are on earth ◦ relative brightness • H-R diagram ◦ optional homework ◦ they figured out how far away stars were ◦ this is the graph you get when you compare the distances - blue stars are hot and red stars are cooler ◦ there are some guys that are hot and dim ◦ there are some guys that are big and cool ◦ and some guys are hot and bright ◦ if a star is cool and red it should be dim • holographic grading paper can get it • delaware teacher center - about credits and hours for certification • hank will be preparing paperwork to host these credit hours - seeing whats in there and getting recommendation letter 12/3 Light • The rainbow proves that the sun is hot enough to see so it gives off a continuous spectrum ◦ the sun is average so its a continuous spectrum • emission spectrum will always tell you what something is made of • neon is orange - its spectrum is mostly red light , only neon can make that combination of colors • if we look at a stars emission spectrum we can tell what its made up of • the sun is made up of mostly hydrogen and some helium • the brightest color in the rainbow is green because green is the signature for a certain temp of the sun - hotter it would be more blue and cooler would be more red • m on the planet sphere means that it is a fuzzy star we can see it • gala means milk in greek • galaxy is a spiral and it looks like a pinwheel • pegasus will help you ◦ if you look for it you can see M31 and it looks bluish ◦ its easier to see blue, hotter stars bc they are brighter ◦ red is dimmer ◦ we can see 400 billion stars just in M31 • how to tell the brightness of the star ◦ color ◦ alpha, beta, etc • magnitude of stars ◦ -1, 0, 1, 2, 3 and on in infinity both ways ▪ THE LOWER THE NUMBER THE BETTER THE BRIGHTNESS ▪ our sun is about -26 and the moon is -12 ish ▪ sirius is about -1.5 from earth ▪ magnitude varies by your location in the universe • on planet sphere the size of the dot shows how big it is • hipparcus was the greatest astronomer of all time ◦ first one to keep track of stars with charts and maps ◦ made a scale for how bright the stars appeared ◦ made classes of stars all the way down to fifth class but he stopped there cause he couldn’t see any of the other babies in the sky • magnitude is like the number times 2.5 ◦ on exam!!!!!!!
if two stars have a difference of 4 magnitudes what is the difference in brightness? ◦ 2.5^4 ◦ 39 ◦ 2.5^magnitude • inherent - how bright it really is • absolute - comparing brightness if everyone was the same distance 12/10 • final will be half and half midterm and final materials ◦ maybe a little bit more of the recent stuff ◦ 40-50 questions • the line between the sun and the earth is called the ecliptic ◦ constellations on the ecliptic are the zodiac • we can expect to see in a quarter moon in half a month (15 daysish) • moon behind the sun/earth will be a full moon • moon in front of the sun/earth will be a new moon • a lunar eclipse and a solar eclipse have to happen about two weeks apart because of the way that the sun lines up with the moon on the ecliptic • a solar eclipse is a perfect new moon and a lunar eclipse is a perfect full moon • when a top spins it starts to tilt and wobble in like half a minute ◦ the earth does that too • motions, posture and position of the earth ◦ motions - rotates and revolves ◦ posture - on the axis, tilted by 23.5 degrees ◦ position - goes around the sun ▪ THE EARTH DOES NOT TILT THE EARTH IS TILTED AND THE AXIS ALWAYS ENDS AT THE NORTH STAR • the sun will be 23.5 degrees higher on the first day of summer than on the first day of spring • the sun is only straight up one day a year in havana cuba and sometimes two days further south • in winter it is 26.5 degrees • it changes 47 degrees from winter to summer • star on the right of the o in draco • your zodiac sign is your sun sign - its the one that is blocked by the sun • it takes the north celestial pole 26,000 years to circle one constellation ◦ it moves from one constellation every 2,500 years ◦ we are off about one constellation • if the earth is titled toward the sun it will look higher in the sky ◦ if the north is tilted towards the sun its first day of summer and away is first day of winter • if the earth wobbles in 13,000 years the date will be the same but summer will be cold and winter will be hot • what to look for if you want to discover a comet ◦ its more fuzzy


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