Soci 201 Chapters Outlines
Soci 201 Chapters Outlines SOCI 201
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Sociology Study Guide Chapter 1 1/31/16 2:30 PM What is Sociology? • Sociology: the systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society and of the consequences of difference o We influence and are influenced by the world around us, Sociology studies those influences • Sociological Imagination: our recognition of the interdependent relationship between who we are as individuals and the social forces that shape our lives o Enables us to see how factors such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, class, and level of education shape our preferences, perceptions, and opportunities o Private troubles: problems we face in our immediate relationships with particular individuals in our personal lives o Public issues: problems we face as a consequence of the positions we occupy within the larger social structure The Study of Sociology • Sociologists are committed to investigating, describing, and explaining such interrelationships • Sociologists collect empirical data through systematic research • Sociological research is both qualitative & quantitative o Agency: the freedom individuals have to choose and to act ex: professional athlete as a “free agent” because he has the power to negotiate with other teams • Sociology does more than just describe our structure, culture, and interaction; it also looks at how economic, social, and cultural resources are distributed • Social inequality: a condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power • “Sociology teaches how groups function and how to make use of the laws governing the way they function so as to try to circumvent them” Sociology & The Social Sciences • Science: the body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation o Sociology involved the organized, systematic study of phenomena (human behavior) in order to enhance understanding • Natural Science: the study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change • Social Science: the study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change Sociology and Common Sense • Common sense: the knowledge we get from our experiences and conversations (sometimes accurate, but not always reliable) o Sociologists do not accept something as fact just because “everyone knows it” • Theory: in sociology a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior Social Order th • Early 19 century: Aristocracy was on the decline while democracy was spreading • Two themes o Social order o Social inequality • Emile Durkheim o Anomie: the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective § Increases the likelihood of loneliness, isolation, and despair How Interaction Shapes Our Worlds • Macrosociology: sociological investigation that concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations • Microsociology: sociological investigation that stresses the study of small groups and the analysis of our everyday experiences and interactions Three Sociological Perspectives • 1. Functionalist Perspective: a sociological approach that emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability ex: public punishments reinforce the social order • 2. Conflict Perspective: a sociological approach that assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power or the allocation of resources, including housing, money, access to services, and political representation ex: laws enforce the positions of those in power • 3. Interactionist Perspective: a sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole ex: people respect laws or disobey them based on their own past experience Personal Sociology • The process of recognizing the impact our individual position has on who we are and how we think and act, and of taking responsibility for the impacts our actions have on others Applied & Clinical Sociology • Applied sociology: the use of discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations • Clinical sociology: the use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering organizations or restricting social institutions Sociology = Verb • Globalization: the worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas Review • What is sociology? o Sociology is a way of seeing that joins theory and research to investigate the relationship between the individual and society and the impact unequal distribution of resources has on opportunity • How do sociologists look at the world? o Sociologists developed theories to provide windows into our lives, including three primary perspectives: functionalist (emphasizing social order), conflict (focusing on inequality), and interactionist (highlighting the significance of our everyday relationships and exchanges) • How might someone practice sociology? o Sociology can provide a pathway to a career in a related applied, clinical, or academic context. But more than that, we can practice sociology in our everyday lives by utilizing the sociological imagination to better understand ourselves and others Sociology Study Guide Chapter 2 1/31/16 2:30 PM Steps in the Research Process • Sociology at its core represents a conversation between theory and research • Scientific Method: a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures max objectivity and consistency in researching a problem o Five Basic Steps: § 1. Define the problem ú Theory plays a central role in our definition of the problem § 2. Review the literature ú Investigating previous research conducted by sociologists and others regarding the concepts we want to study § 3. Formulate the hypothesis ú Variable: a measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions ú Operational Definition: transformation of an abstract concept into indicators that are observable and measurable ú Hypothesis: a testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables ú Causal Logic: a relationship exists between variables in which change in one brings about change in the other ú Independent Variable: the variable in a causal relationship that causes or influences a change in a second variable ú Dependent Variable: the variable in a causal relationship that is subject to the influence of another variable ú Correlation: a relationship between two variables in which a change in one coincides with a change in the other (correlation DOES NOT equal causation) § 4. Select research design and then collect and analyze data ú Sample: a selection from a larger population that is statistically representative of that population ú Random Sample: a sample for which every member of an entire population has an equal chance of being selected ú Validity: the degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study ú Reliability: the extent to which a measure produces consistent results § 5. Develop the conclusion ú Control Variable: a factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable Major Research Designs • Research Design: a detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically • Survey: a study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, that provides researchers with information about how people think and act o Interview: a face-to-face or telephone questioning of a respondent to obtain desired information o Questionnaire: a printed, written, or computerized form used to obtain information from a respondent • Quantitative Research: research that collects and reports data primarily in numerical form o Mean: a number calculated by adding a series of values and then dividing by the number of values o Median: the midpoint, or number that divides a series of values into two groups of equal numbers of values o Mode: the single most common value in a series of scores • Qualitative Research: research that relies on what is seen in field or naturalistic settings more than on statistical data • Observation: a research technique in which an investigator collects information through direct participation and/or by closely watching a group of community • Ethnography: the study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation Experiments • Definition: an artificially created situation that allows a researcher to manipulate variables • Experimental Group: the subjects in an experiment who are exposed to an independent variable introduced by a researcher • Control Group: the subjects in an experiment who are not introduced to the independent variable by the researcher • Hawthorne Effect: the unintended influence that observers of experiments can have on their subjects Use of Existing Sources • Secondary Analysis: a variety of research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data • Content Analysis: the systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale o Using content analysis, Erving Goffman (1979) conducted a pioneering exploration of how advertisements portray women Research Ethics • Code of Ethics: the standards of acceptable behavior developed by and for members of a profession • One of the most common techniques used to protect subjects is to promise them confidentiality Value Neutrality • Definition: Max Weber’s term for objectivity for sociologists in the interpretation of data Feminist Methodology • Feminist theorists have also drawn attention to researchers’ tendency to overlook women in sociological studies Review • What steps do sociologists take when seeking to answer why people think and act the way they do? o They need to define the problem, review existing literature, formulate a hypothesis, collect and analyze data, and develop a conclusion • What techniques do sociologists use to collect data? o Research designs used to collect data include surveys, observation, experiments, and use of existing sources • What ethical concerns must sociologists consider while conducting research? o They have a responsibility to follow the ASA Code of Ethics, particularly respecting confidentiality, revealing research funding, maintaining value neutrality, and overall, treating their subjects with respect Sociology Study Guide Chapter 3 1/31/16 2:30 PM Culture and Society • Culture: everything humans create in establishing our relationships to nature and with each other o We need culture in order to interact and survive, therefore we both preserve it and pass it along to others • Society: the structure of relationships within which culture is created and shared through regularized patterns of social interaction Cultural Universals • Definition: a common practice or belief shared by all societies o Not only does the expression of cultural universals vary from one society to the other, but it can also change dramatically over time • Sociobiology: the systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior Innovation • Definition: the process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture through discovery or invention o Humans have the freedom and ability to create new things • Discovery: the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality • Invention: the combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not exist before o Results when existing cultural items are combined into a form that did not exist before • Diffusion: the process by which some aspect of cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society Elements of Culture • We can categorize it into three primary types: material, cognitive, and normative • Material Culture o Definition: our physical modification of the natural environment to suit our purposes o Technology: a form of culture in which humans modify the natural environment to meet particular wants and needs o Cultural Lag: a period of adjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions • Cognitive Culture o Definition: our mental and symbolic representations of reality o Language: a system of shared symbols; it includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions th § During the 20 century, other language inventors, driven in part by a desire to come to terms with globalization and increased contact across cultures, combined various aspects of existing languages § Once created, language does more than simply describe reality; it also shapes what we see § Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: the idea that the language a person uses shapes his or her perception of reality and therefore his or her thoughts and actions § Nonverbal Communication: the use of gestures, facial expressions, and other visual images to communicate § Value: a collective conception of what is considered good, desirable, and proper- or bad, undesirable, and improper-in a culture Normative Culture • Definition: consists of the ways we establish, abide by, and enforce principles of conduct • Norm: an established standard of behavior maintained by a society o Formal Norm: a norm that generally has been written down and that specifies strict punishments for violators § Laws: formal norms enforced by the state o Informal Norm: a norm that is generally understood but not precisely recorded Folkways: norms governing everyday behavior, whose violation raises comparatively little concern o Mores: norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society o People do not follow norms, whether mores or folkways, in all situations o Acceptance of norms is subject to change as the political, economic, and social conditions of a culture are transformed o Sanction: a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm Cultural Variation • Dominant ideology: a set of cultural beliefs and practices that legitimates existing powerful social, economic, and political interests • Subcultures o Definition: a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society o Argot: specialized language used by members of a group or subculture o Counterculture: a subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture o Culture Shock: the feelings of disorientation, uncertainty, and even fear that people experience when they encounter unfamiliar cultural practices • Ethnocentrism o Definition: the tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represent what’s normal or are superior to all others § Coined by sociologist William Graham Sumner (1906) § Develops because it contributes to a sense of solidarity by promoting group pride Cultural Relativism • Definition: the viewing of people’s behavior from the perspective of their own culture • Stresses that different social contexts give rise to different norms and values Review • Why do humans creature culture? o Humans lack the complex instincts present in other animals, and as such they must construct a relationship to nature and with each other. We do this through the construction of shared culture. • What does culture consist of? o There are three primary elements of culture. Material culture consists of our modification of the physical environment. Cognitive culture is the thinking part of culture, including language, values, beliefs, and knowledge. Normative culture provides rules for behavior. • How does culture both enable and constrain? o Although culture provides us with the knowledge, rules, and artifacts we need to survive, it also limits our options. Words enable us to see, and tools enable us to make things, but both are designed for particular purposes and shield us from alternative possibilities. Further, with ethnocentrism, we cut ourselves off from new possibilities from different cultures. Sociology Study Guide Chapter 4 1/31/16 2:30 PM The Role of Socialization • Socialization: the lifelong process through which people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture • Sociologists argue that the language we speak, the values we believe in, and the rules we follow have less to do with our DNA than with the cultural context into which we emerge Sociological Approaches to the Self • Self: our sense of who we are, distinct from others, and shaped by the unique combination of our social interactions • Looking-glass Self: a theory that we become who we are based on how we think others see us • I: the acting self that exists in relation to the Me • Me: the socialized self that plans actions and judges performances based on the standards we have learned from others • The Me plans. The I acts. The Me judges. • Significant Other: an individual who is most important in the development of the self, such as a parent, friends, or teacher • Mead’s three stage process of self-development o Preparatory stage- children merely imitate the people around them § Symbol: a gesture, object, or word that forms the basis of human communication o Play stage- children begin to pretend to be other people such as a doctor, teacher, or superhero § Role taking: the process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint o Game stage- child learns to more fully appreciate that they are involved in interconnected and interdependent relationships § Generalized Other: the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behavior • Dramaturgical Approach: a view of social interaction in which people are seen as actors on a stage attempting to put on a successful performance • Impression Management: the altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences • Face-Work: the efforts people make to maintain a proper image and avoid public embarrassment • Cognitive Theory of Development: the theory that children’s thought progresses through four stages of development Agents of Socialization • Family o Our families are our most important agent of socialization o Gender Roles: expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitude, and activities of males and females • School o Schools teach children the values and customs of the larger society because that shared culture provides the glue that holds us together as a society • Peer Groups o Within the peer group, young people associate with others who are approximately their own age and who often enjoy a similar social status • Mass Media & Technology o Among teens, 95% use the Internet compared to 52% of those age 65 and older o Access to media can also increase social cohesion by presenting a common, more or less standardized view of culture through mass communication • The Workplace o Learning to behave appropriately in an occupation is a fundamental aspect of human socialization • Religion and the State o Increasingly, social scientists are recognizing the growing importance of government and the continued significance of religion as agents of socialization Socialization Throughout the Life Course • Rite of Passage: a ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another • The Life Course o Life Course Approach: a research orientation in which sociologists and other social scientists look closely at the social factors that influence people throughout their lives, from birth to death o One result of these staggered steps to independence is that in the US, unlike some other societies, no clear dividing line exists between adolescence and adulthood • Anticipatory Socialization and Resocialization o Anticipatory Socialization: processes of socialization in which a person “rehearses” for future positions, occupations, and social relationships o Resocialization: the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life o Total Institution: an institution that regulates all aspects of a person’s life under a single authority, such as a prison, the military, a mental hospital, or a convent o Degradation Ceremony: an aspect of the socialization process within some total institutions, in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals • Role Transitions During the Life Course o Midlife Crisis: a stressful period of self-evaluation that begins at about age 40 o Sandwich Generation: the generation of adults who simultaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their children Aging and Society • Due to advances in areas such as health care, nutrition, and working conditions, life expectancy has risen significantly both in the US and around the world • Understandably, all societies have some system of age stratification that associates certain social roles with distinct periods in life • Adjusting to Retirement o Gerontologist Robert Atchley identified several phases of the retirement experience: § Preretirement § The near phase § The honeymoon phase § The disenchantment phase § The reorientation phase § The termination phase Perspectives of Aging • Gerontology: the study of the sociological and psychological aspects of aging and the problems of the aged • Disengagement Theory o Definition: a theory of aging that suggests that society and the aging individual mutually sever many of their relationships o Some gerontologists have objected to the implication that older people want to be ignored and put away- and even more to the idea that they should be encouraged to withdraw from meaningful social roles • Activity Theory o Definition: a theory of aging that suggests that those elderly people who remain active and socially involved will have an improved quality of life o Accumulating medical research also points to the importance of remaining socially involved • Ageism & Discrimination o Ageism: prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s age o To more fully understand issues regarding aging, we must also consider the impact of social structure on patterns of aging o As a group, elderly people in the US enjoy a standard of living that is much higher now than at any point in the nation’s past • Death & Dying o Hospice Care: treatment of the terminally ill in their own homes, or in special hospital units or other facilities, with the goal of helping them to die comfortably, without pain § Hospice workers seek to improve the quality of a dying person’s last days by offering comfort and by helping the person to remain at home, or in a homelike setting at a hospital or other special facility, until the end o We encounter some of the most difficult socialization challenges (and rites of passage) in these later years of life Review • How do we become ourselves? o We are born with innate tendencies, but we depend on the socializing influences of others with whom we interact to provide us with the cultural tools necessary for our survival • Who shapes our socialization? o Although almost anyone with whom we interact can have a significant influence on use, particularly important to our development are the family, school, peer group, mass media, religion, and the state. • How does our development change over time? o We learn new things at various stages of our life course, experiencing significant transitions as we pass from childhood to adulthood and again from adulthood into retirement. At each stage, the kinds of things expected of us by others shift significantly. Chapter 5 Outline 1/31/16 2:30 PM I. Social Interaction • Definition: a reciprocal exchange in which two or more people read, react, and respond to each other • Self and Society o We seek to make sense of our interactions as they occur and then respond accordingly o George Herbert Mead- individuals can only exist if they are in relationships with other people • Social Construction of Reality o Peter Berger and Thomas Luckman- used the phrase to describe the relationship in which we create society and then become products of it II. Elements of Social Structure • Definition: the underlying framework of society consisting of the positions people occupy and the relationships between them • Structure helps us better understand ourselves and others • Elements that make up social structure: o Statuses o Social roles o Groups o Social networks o Virtual worlds o Social institutions • Statuses o Ascribed status frequently influences our achieved status o Malcom X: ascribed status: African American; achieved status: career path • Social Roles o Definition: a set of expected behaviors for people who occupy a given social status o With each social status, come role expectations o Role exit: the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s self-identity in order to establish a new one • Groups o Definition: any number of people with shared norms, value, and goals who interact with each other o Primary and Secondary Groups § Primary group: a small group characterized by face to face association ú Example: family, religious groups, teammates § Secondary group: large impersonal group with little social intimacy ú Examples: social clubs, classes o In-group: category of people who share a common identity and sense of belonging (ex: jocks) o Out-group: category of people who do not belong or do not fit in (ex: geeks) o Reference group: any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior § Two basic purposes: ú Set and enforce standards of conduct and belief ú Perform a comparison function by serving as a standard against which people can measure themselves and others • Social Networks o Definition: a web of relationships through which people interact both directly and indirectly to accomplish formal and informal goals § Most basic building block: dyad (direct link between two people) o Online social networks § Makes it possible to make and maintain connections with people much farther away from us • Social Institutions o Definition: integrated and persistent social networks dedicated to ensuring that society’s core needs are met o Functional prerequisites: functions that a society must perform if it is to survive o Five major institutions: § Family § Education § Religion § Economy § Government III. Bureaucracy- Example DMV • Definition: an organization that uses rules and rankings to work efficiency • Characteristics o Ideal type: the perfect example of that particular phenomenon (poster child) o Division of labor: specialized experts perform specific tasks o Hierarchy of authority: each position is under the supervision of a higher authority o Written rules and regulations: offer employees clear standards for an adequate performance § Goal displacement: getting caught up in the political nature of a bureaucracy and lose sight of what the real goal is o Impersonality: intent is to ensure equal treatment for each person o Employment based on technical qualifications: hiring is based on skill and not favoritism, and performance is measured against specific standards • Bureaucratization o Definition: the process by which a group, organization, or social movement increasingly relies on what makes the most sense when making a decision o McDonaldization: the process by which principles shape organization and decision making o Iron law of oligarchy: no matter what organization you are in, there are always going to be a select few ruling at the top (Michels) • Bureaucracy and Organizational Culture o Classical theory: views workers as being motivated only by economic rewards o Human relations approach: emphasizes the significance of interaction and small group behavior to maintain the structure of an organization IV.Social Structure in Global Perspective • Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft- by Tonnies o Gemeinschaft: small community in which people have similar backgrounds and life experiences o Gesellschaft: an impersonal mass society • Mechanical and Organic Solidarity o Organic solidarity: when various components of society recognize how much they need one another (no one capable of surviving alone) o Mechanical solidarity: most individuals perform the same basic tasks; shared experiences result in shared perspectives and common values • Technology & Society o Lenski defines technology as “cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires” o As technology changes, new social forms arise o Hunting-and-gathering society: people rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available o Horticultural societies: where people plant seeds and crops rather than depend on available foods (members are much more nomadic) o Agrarian society: engaged in the production of food, but technological innovations allow crops to increase (continue to rely on the physical power of humans and animals) o Postindustrial society: economic system is engaged in the processing and control of information • Postmodern Life o Postmodern society: technologically sophisticated, globalized, and interconnected (characterized by explosion of mass media) • Networks o All corners of the globe are linked into an interrelated social, cultural, political, and economic system • Preindustrial>industrial>postindustrial>postmodern Chapter 6 Outline 1/31/16 2:30 PM I. Social Control • Definition: the techniques and strategies used to prevent unacceptable or morally wrong behavior in any society • Social control contributes to social order • Conformity and Obedience o Conformity: going along with peers (individuals of our own status who have to special right to direct our behavior) o Obedience: meeting rules and regulations with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure (ex: recruit entering the military service) • Informal and Formal Social Control o Informal social control: control carried out by ordinary people through laughter, smiles, and ridicule o Formal social control: control carried out by authorized agents (police officers, judges, school administrators, employers, etc) • Law and Society o Laws are a form of governmental social control o Reflect continually changing standards of what is right and wrong o Control theory: suggests that our connection to other members of society leads us to conform systematically to society’s norms II. Deviance • Definition: behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society o Social deviations: more serious acts such as cheating on a test o Social diversions: minor acts such as tattooing, piercings, participating in fads • Deviance and Social Stigma o Stigma: used to describe the labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups (ex: short people, blondes) § Erving Goffman III. Crime • Definition: a violation of law for which some governmental authority applies formal pentalties o Consensus crimes: very harmful (murder) o Conflict crimes: crimes that state defines as legal, but the definitions are controversial in the wider society (drug use) • Official Crime Reports o FBI Index Crimes: § Murder § Forcible rape § Robbery § Aggravated assault § Burglary § Larceny-theft § Motor vehicle theft § Arson Victimization survey: a questionnaire or interview given to a sample of the population to determine whether people have been victims of crime • White-Collar Crime o Definition: illegal acts committed by affluent “respectable” people in the course of business activities (ex: income tax evasion, stock manipulation) • Victimless Crimes o Definition: acts involving the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services (ex: drugs or prostitution) • Organized Crime o Definition: the work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities (ex: prostitution, gambling, smuggling and sale of drugs) o Dominated world of illegal business o Provided a means of upward mobility for groups of people struggling to escape poverty • International Crime o Transnational Crime: crime that occurs across multiple national borders (ex: slavery, drug trafficking, stolen art & antiques) IV. Sociological Perspectives on Deviance and Crime • Functions of Deviance o Durkheim’s Theory of Deviance: nothing is criminal or worth of condemnation unless we decide it is § Example: we do not regard killing in self-defense or in combat in the same way we view killing in cold blood o Merton’s Theory of Deviance § Strain Theory of Deviance: views deviance as an adaptation of socially prescribed goals or of the means governing their attainment, or both § Merton suggested a disconnect can exist between a society’s goals and the means people have to attain them • Interpersonal Interaction and Defining Deviance o Cultural Transmission: a school of criminology that argues criminal behavior is learned through social interactions (describes not only techniques of law-breaking, but motives and drives of the criminal) o Differential Association: process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to the violation of rules (ex: smoking, binge drinking, cheating) o Social disorganization theory: theory that attributes increases in crime and deviance to the absence of breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions o Anomie: the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective • Race and Class o Differential justice: differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups such as race or class or gender o Such dramatic differences in social treatment may lead to heightened violence and crime Chapter 7 Outline 1/31/16 2:30 PM I. Global View of the Family • Substance: What a Family Is o Substantive definition: definition of the family based on blood and law o Kinship: the state of being related to others o Family is a household unit, but kin do not always live together or function as a whole o Most societies give preference to one side of the family while tracing descent o Patrilineal descent: father’s relatives are significant o Matrilineal descent: mother’s relatives are significant o Nuclear family: a married couple and their children living together • Types of Marriage o Monogamy: one woman and one man are married only to each other § Serial monogamy: several spouses in lifetime, but only one at a time o Polygamy: several husbands or wives simultaneously § Polygyny: man married to more than one woman at the same time § Polyandry: woman married to more than one husband at the same time • Functions: What Families Do o Functionalist definition of families: focuses on how families provide for the physical, social, and emotional needs of individuals and of society as a whole § Ogburn identified six primary functions: ú Reproduction ú Socialization ú Protection ú Regulation of sexual behavior ú Affection and companionship ú Provision of social status • Conflict: Who Rules? o Historically, the way power is distributed within the family is shaped by gender o Patriarchy: society in which men dominate in family decision making (ex: Iran) o Matriarchy: society in which women dominate in family decision making (ex: Native American Tribes) o Seen rise of 3 rdtype of authority pattern § Egalitarian family: authority pattern in which spouses are regarded as equals ú Men and women hold authority in different spheres o Engels maintained that the family was the ultimate source of social inequality o Stephanie Coontz suggests that marriage today is better than ever II. Marriage and Family • Courtship and Mate Selection o Endogamy: the restriction of mate selection to people within the same group § We need to pick partners who are the same age, race, ethnicity, education and religion o Exogamy: requirement that people select a mate outside certain groups o Incest taboo: prohibition of sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives (i.e. we cannot marry our siblings, or first cousins) o Homogamy: the conscious or unconscious tendency to select a mate with personal characteristics and interests similar to one’s own § Example: internet dating to find matches • Variations in Family Life and Intimate Relationships o Within the US, social class, race, and ethnicity create variations in family life o The subordinate status of racial and ethnic minorities in the US affects their family lives (ex: lower income for African & native Americans, etc.) § Suffer from many negative and inaccurate stereotypes o Machismo: sense of virility, personal worth, and pride in one’s maleness o Familism: pride in the extended family, expressed through strong ties to kinfolk outside of immediate family • Child Rearing Patterns o Caring for children is a universal function of the family o Alice Rossi identified four factors that complicate the transition to parenthood and the role of socialization § There is little anticipatory socialization for the social role of caregiver § Only limited learning occurs during the period of pregnancy itself § The transition of parenthood is quite abrupt § Our society lacks clear and helpful guidelines for successful parenthood o Adoption: a process that allows for the transfer of the legal rights, responsibilities, and privileges of parenthood to a new legal parent or parents o Single-parent family: family which only one parent is present to care for the children § In recent decades, the stigma attached to unwed mothers and other single parents has significantly diminished o Studies suggest that children raised in families with stepmothers are likely to have less health care, education, and money spent on their food than children raised by their biological mothers III. Diverse Lifestyles • Marriage is no longer the presumed route from adolescence to adulthood • Cohabitation o Definition: conventionally defined as the practice of a man and a woman living together in a sexual relationship without being married • Lesbian and Gay o In most US states, gay and lesbian couples are not allowed to marry o Domestic partnership: two unrelated adults who share a mutually caring relationship, reside together, and agree to be jointly responsible for their dependents, basic living expenses, and other common necessities § People register their domestic partnerships to provide legal protection for their unions IV. Divorce • Factors Associated with Divorce o Greater social acceptance of divorce is a major factor o Some findings show that divorce can benefit children by reducing their exposure to conflict Exam 3 Outline 1/31/16 2:31 PM Chapter 10- Social Class Understanding Stratification • Systems of Stratification o Stratification: a structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society § Shapes individual opportunity based on the layer or stratum that one occupies in the system § Four major systems: slavery, caste, estate, and class § Slavery: a system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by others as property ú The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which is binding on all members of the United Nations, prohibits slavery, although it still occurs § Caste: a hereditary rank, usually religiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immobile ú Ex: India § Estate system: a system of stratification under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services, aka feudalism § Class system: a social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristic can influence social mobility ú Upper class- smallest and most exclusive ú Upper-middle class- composed of business executives and upper-level management, doctors, lawyers, architects, and other professionals ú Middle class- less affluent professionals, owners of small businesses, and a sizable number of clerical workers ú Working class- hold jobs that involve manual labor such as electricians, or blue collar jobs ú Under class- “the poor”, limited access to the paid labor force, lacks wealth, and is too weak politically to exert significant power o Social inequality: a condition in which members of society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power § Race is the ascribed status that most influences a person’s wealth and social class position • Social Mobility: movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society’s stratification system to another o Sociologist distinguish between stratification systems that are open versus closed to indicate the degree of social mobility in a society § Open system: a social system in which the position of each individual is influenced by his or her achieved status § Closed system: a social system in which there is little or no possibility of individual social mobility (ex: caste system) o Sociologists also distinguish between mobility within a stratum vs movement between levels § Horizontal mobility: the movement of an individual from one social position to another of the same rank ú Ex: a bus driver becoming a hotel clerk § Vertical mobility: the movement of an individual from one social position to another of a different rank ú Ex: a bus driver becoming a lawyer ú Can involve moving upward OR downward § Intergenerational mobility: changes in the social position of children relative to their parents ú Ex: a plumber whose father was a physician (downward) or a film star whose parents were factory workers (upward) § Intragenerational mobility: changes in social position within a person’s adult life ú Ex: a teacher’s aide becomes superintendent (upward) or a man who becomes a cab driver after his accounting firm goes bankrupt (downward) Sociological Perspectives on Stratification • Marx on Class o Marx’s view: social relations during any period of history depend on who owns the means of production, such as land, factories, machines, and tools § Theory of Dominant Ideology: certain classes control the means of capitalist production in a society, and ideas promoted within a society through religion, education, and the media § Capitalism: an economic system in which people pursue economic activity for the accumulation of profit § Bourgeoisie: Karl Marx’s term for the capitalist class, comprising the owners of the means of production § Proletariat: Karl Marx’s term for the working class in a capitalist society, who lack ownership of the means of production § Exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie will inevitably lead to the destruction of the capitalist system, according to Marx § Class consciousness: in Karl Marx’s view, a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change § False consciousness: a term used by Karl Marx to describe an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position • Weber on Power o Argued that Marx’s conception of power was too narrow, because it focused almost exclusively on ownership of the means of production and that power was multidimensional with three critical components: class, status, and party § Class: a group of people who have a similar level of economic resources § Status group: people who share the same perceived level of prestige § Party: the capacity to organize to accomplish some particular goal • Bourdieu on Culture o Pierre Bourdieu introduced the concept of cultural capital § Cultural capital: our tastes, knowledge, attitudes, language, and ways of thinking that we exchange in interaction with others ú Rooted in our perception of reality itself o Sociologist Jessi Streib found that, already by age four, children had adopted cultural conventions based on their social class positions • Material, Social, and Cultural Resources o Material resources: economic resources that we own or control, including money, property, and land o Social resources: include prestige based on the position we occupy and connections based on the social networks we are a part of § “Who you know” o Cultural resources: our tastes, language, and way of looking at the world Social Class in the United States • Status and Prestige o Prestige: the respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society o Esteem: the reputation that a specific person has earned within the occupation o Socioeconomic status (SES): a measure of social class that is based on income, education, occupation, and related variables o Income: money received over some period of time § Middle class incomes have remained steady or even fallen over the past 40 years § Income of those in the top quintile, especially the top 5%, increased substantially § Health care costs have risen dramatically § Cost of college education has gone up even faster ú Struggles of middle class families: • Disappearing opportunities for those with little education • Global competition and rapid advances in technology • Growing dependence on the temporary workforce • The rise of new-growth industries and nonunion workplaces o Wealth: the total value of all material assets minus debts at a single point in time • Poverty o Absolute poverty: a minimum level of subsistence that no family should be expected to live below o Relative poverty: a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nation as a whole o Since world war II, an increasing proportion of the poor people in the US have been women, many of whom are divorced or never-married mothers o Underclass: the long-term poor who lack training and skills • Social Mobility o Education plays a critical role in mobility and is a critical factor in the development of cultural capital o Sociologists documented the fact that the class system is more rigid for African Americans o Women’s employment opportunities are much more limited than men’s Life Chances • Class matters, and Max Weber saw class as being closely related to people’s life chances o Life chances: the opportunities people have to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences • Digital divide: the relative lack of access to the latest technologies among low-income groups, racial and ethnic minorities, rural residents, and the citizens of developing countries Exam 3 Outline 1/31/16 2:31 PM Chapter 11- Global Inequality Perspectives on Global Stratification • The Rise of Modernization o Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim believed that all societies would evolve along an eventually common path, ending up in some shared version of the good society o Modernization: the far-reaching process by which nations pass from traditional forms of social organization toward those characteristic of post-industrial Revolution societies o Characteristics of modern societies § The have improved educational levels and health conditions § They tend to be urbanized and industrialized • The Legacy of Colonialism o Colonialism as a model for better understanding the expansion of our interconnected world § Can be defined as rule by outsiders o The Industrial Revolution led to the emergence of the inequality of global wealth in the past few centuries o Colonialism: the maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a foreign power for an extended period § The long reign of the British Empire of North America, parts of Africa, and India is an example of colonial domination § Colonial domination had established patterns of economic exploitation that continued even after nationhood was achieved o Neocolonialism: continuing dependence of former colonies on foreign countries o Immanuel Wallerstein views the global economic system as being divided between nations that control wealth and nations from which resources are taken (created world systems analysis) o World systems analysis: a view of the global economic system as one divided between certain industrialized nations that control wealth and developing countries that are controlled and exploited § Periphery: poor developing countries such as Asia, Africa, and Latin America §
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