Elementary and Intermediate Latin
Elementary and Intermediate Latin
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verified elite notetaker
Popular in Latin
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NN1 LATIN FORMS AND SYNTAX Table of Contents Verb Properties person number tense mood voice 2 Verb Tenses conjugation and syntax 3 Indicative 3 Subjunctive 6 Imperative 7 Deponent verbs 8 Irregular verbs 8 In nitives 10 Subjunctive Syntax 11 Sequence of tenses 11 Conditional statements 12 Jussive 12 Purpose 13 Result l3 Indirect Question 13 Proviso 14 Jussive Noun Clause 14 Relative Clause of Characteristic 14 Fear Clause 15 Cum Clause 15 Verbal Adjectives 15 Participles 15 Passive Periphrastic 16 Gerundive 16 Verbal Nouns 16 Gerund 16 Gerund vs Gerundive 17 Supines 17 Noun and Adjective Declensions Syntax 1 8 Forms 19 Cases Genitive 19 Dative 19 Ablative 19 Place constructions 21 Time Constructions 22 Comparative Adjectives 22 Comparatives Adverbs 24 Questions 25 Demonstratives 25 Personal pronouns 26 NN2 VERB PROPERTIES Verbs are words used to express the action performed Verbs have 5 components person number tense mood and voice PERSON The person or thing performing the subject from the speaker s point of view 1 I we 2nd you 3rd he she it they NUMBER singular or plural subjects TENSE Two systems each with three tenses are used to express the time of an action Thus there are six tenses total The PRESENT present Present now Imperfect ongoing habitual Future subsequent time The PERFECT past Perfect completed considers consequences in present Pluperfect completed in distant past consequences in more recent past Future perfect will have been completed at some future point consequences on a more distant point MOOD There are three moods of verbs 1 The INDICATIVE mood is used for opinions facts and direct questions and statements 2 The SUBJUNCTIVE mood is for expression of possibilities outcomes indirect questions and statements A more extensive description of their usage will follow Their translation is dependent upon the main verb and type of clause it is 3 The IMPERATIVE mood is for direct commands VOICE Active the subject performs the action 0 Transitive takes a direct object o lntransitive doesn t take a direct object Passive the subject receives the action NN3 VERB TENSES coniugation and syntax In Latin each verb has four principal parts pp Each pp in the dictionary entry represents the form for the 1 person sg The stem is what is used for each conjugation The stem is formed by dropping the re from the 2nd pp Each pp is used for a certain tense Ie amo amare amavi amatum l Amo present active tenses present passive tenses 2 Amare in nitive 3 Amavi perfect active 4 Amatum present passive tenses There are four classes of verbs in Latin These can be determined by examining the first and second pp 0 First o are I Ceno cenare cenavi cenatum to eat dinner 0 Second eo ere long e Respondeo respondere respondi responsum to respond 0 Third consonanto ere short e Intellego intellegere intellexi intellectum to understand Third io io ere o Rapio rapere rapui rapitum to seize 0 Fourth io ire o Scio scire scivi scitum to know Below are the constructions and an example for each tense grouped by mood indicative subjunctinve imperative respectively The very common verb sum esse fui futurum to be is irregular Included in each tense is it s full conjugation Present ACTIVE Indicative System 1 principal part pp i I praise laudo 0 sum es est sumus estis sunt o l amp 2 o s t mus tis nt 0 3 amp 4 o is it imus itis unt ie The beautiful philosopher loves the book Bella philosophae librum amat p I will praise laudabo o ero eris erit erimus eritis erunt NN4 o l amp 2 bo bis bit bimus bitis bunt o 3 amp 4 am es et emus etis ent ie The beautiful philosopher will love the book Bella philosophae librum amabit Imperfect I used to praise laudabam I was praising I kept praising I oftenalways s usually praised o eram eras erat eramus eratis erant o l amp 2 bam bas bat bamus batis bant o 3 amp 4 ebam ebas ebat ebamus ebatis ebant ie The beautiful philosopher was loving the book Bella philosophae librum amabat Perfect ACTIVE Indicative System 3rd pp all conjugations follow this pattern Z I praised have praised laudavi o fui fuisti fuit fuimus fuistis fuERUNT o I isti it imus istis erunt ie The beautiful philosopher loved the book I Bella philosophae librum amavit Future Perfect I shall have praised laudavero I will have praised o fuero fueris fuerit fuerimus fueritis fuERlNT o suffix Fut Pres Esse ie The beautiful philosopher shall have loved the book I Bella philosophae librum amaverit Pluperfect I had praised laudaveram o fueram fueras fuerat fueramus fueratis fuERANT o suffix Imp Pres esse ie The beautiful philosopher shall had loved the book 0 Bella philosophae librum amaverat NN5 Present PASSIVE Indicative System 1 pp only transitive verbs are used in the passive what had been the object of the transitive active verb now becomes the subject of the passive verb sum esse does not have a passive form J I am being praised laudor o l amp 2 r ris tur mur mini ntur o 3 ampio or eris itur imur imini untur no macrons o 4 or IRIS itur imur imini untur macrons ie The book is being loved by the beautiful philosopher Liber ab bella philosophae amatur J I will be praised laudabor o l amp 2 bor beris bitur bimur bimini buntur o 3 io 4 ar eris etur emur emini entur macrons ie The book will be loved by the beautiful philosopher Liber ab bella philosophae amabitur Imperfect I was being praised laudabar I used to be praised o l amp 2 bar baris batur bamur bamini bantur o 3 io 4 ebar ebaris ebatur ebamur ebamini ebantur macrons ie The book was being loved by the beautiful philosopher Liber ab bella philosophae amabatur Perfect PASSIVE Indicative System 4th pp All conjugation types follow these constructions Z I have been praised laudatus a um sum I was praised o suffix adj dec agree in gender NOM pres Esse ie The book has been praised by the beautiful philosopher Liber ab bella philosophae amata est Future Perfect I will have been praised laudatus a um ero NN6 o suffix adj dec fut Esse ie The book have been praised by the beautiful philosopher Liber ab bella philosophae amata erit Pluperfect I had been praised laudatus a um eram o suffix adj dec imp esse ie The book had been praised by the beautiful philosopher Liber ab bella philosophae amata erat SUBJUNCTIVE Translation of subjunctive tenses varies by syntax and is dependent upon the main clause verb See Subjunctive syntax for translations PRESENT system ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Present lpp stem eml ea2 am3 ia4 endings o l dedicem dedices dedicet dedicemus dedicetis dedicent o 2 explea expleas expleat expleamus expleatis expleant o 3 cedam cedas cedat cedamus cedatis cedant o 4 mollia mollies molliat molliamus molliatis molliant o Irreg sumpossum I Sim sis sit simus sitis sint 0 Translation often times supply may but really it varies with clause type Imperfect 2pp active infinitive present sys suffix o Applies for all conjugations I le Laudarem laudares laudaret laudaremus laudaretis laudarent I Essem esses esset essemus essetis essent o ge used when main verb is past tense o supply were would or might for purpose clauses PRESENT svstem PASSIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Present lpp em ea am ia passive endings NN7 0 le amer ameris ametur amemur amemini amentur Imperfect 2pp in nitive passive sys suffix 0 le audirer audireris audiretur audiremur audiremini audirentur PERFECT svstem ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE no irregulars These apply for all conj Perfect 3pp eri suffix 0 le laudaverim laudaveris laudaverit laudaverimus laudaveritis laudaverint Pluperfect 3pp isse suffix 0 le laudavissem laudavisses laudavisset laudavissemus laudavissetis laudavissent PERFECT svstemz PASSIVE SUBJUNCTIVE I Perfect 4pp pres Subj of sum 0 le laudatus sim laudatus sis laudatus sit laudati simus laudati sitis laudati sint 0 Translation sometimes may haVe I Pluperfect 4pp imp subj of sum 0 le laudatus essem laudatus esses laudatus esset laudati essemus laudati essetis laudati essent 0 Translation sometimes might haVe IMPERATIVE Used for direct commands and only for the 2nd personl Sg stem ama love Pl stem te amate love NN8 DEPONENT VERBS Deponent verbs have passive endings but active meanings Thus they do not have any forms that translate to passive meanings The dictionary entry lacks a 4th pp since there s not passive meaning and the 2nd pp in nitive ends in I instead of re Deponent verbs are identifiable using the same pattems as regular verbs and use the same passive suffixes as regular verbs Just remember they have ACTIVE MEANINGS I Profiscor proficisci profectus sum to set out start 4th I Imperfect indicative active 0 Profiscebar profiscebaris profiscebatur profiscebamur profiscebamini IRREGULAR VERBS E0 ire ii itum to go 0 Mostly irregular but some regular conjugation pattems apply 0 Stem i o INDICATIVE I Present stem changes to e when its before a o u E0 is it imus itis eunt I Imperfect Ibam ibas ibat ibamus ibatis ibant I Future Ibo ibis ibit ibimus ibitis ibunt o SUBJUNCTIVE I Present 4th conjugation follows regular pattem use lpp Eam eas eat eamus eatis eant I Imperfect inf suffixes Irem ires iret I Perfect follows pattem Ierim ieris ierit I Pluperfect follows pattern Issem isses isset NN9 Fero ferre tuli latum to bear carry 0 O 0 Third conj ago Stem vowel doesn t appear sometimes Only present tense and 2nd3rd person passive are irregular Present active indicative I Fero fers fert ferimus fertis ferunt Present passive indicative I Feror ferris fertur ferimur ferimini feruntur Volo velle volui to wish want be willin will 0 O 0 Third conj ago Irregular infinitive velle No passive future active in nitive or participle imperative Perfect system is regular IRREGULAR forms only in PRESENT IND And PRESENT SUBJ I Present ind volo vis vult vulumus vultis volunt I Present subj velim veils velit velimus velitis velint sim sit imperfect subjunctive uses the normal construction infsuff1x Nolo and malo not to wish to be unwilling to want something more prefer O 0 These verbs are similar to volo explained above Nolo non volo I Just the present indicative active is irregular Nolo nonvis non vult nolumus non vultis nolunt o Malo magis volo I Present indicative active Malo mavis mavult mavultis malunt Fio fieri factus sum to occur happen be done be made 0 Can also be used as the passive of facio facere NN10 0 Looks deponent but it can still have active meaning due to its definition to occur happen 0 The 41 pp of facio facere factus sum is used for the perfect of fio fieri 0 Fit passive facio o Conjugates like a 4th audio INFINITIVE SYSTEM agree with subject of esse 1 subject 2 complementary infinitive 3 indirect speech inf acc subj supply TL with that after TLing the head verb convert inf clause into a regular clause tense of inf is relative to main verb ie she said the he was she says that he is ACTIVE 0 Present 2pp are ere ere ire I Agere to lead 0 Perfect 3pp perfect stem ISSE I Egisse to have led 0 Future 4pp future active participle ESSE I Acturus a yum esse to be about to lead to be going to lead PASSIVE 0 Present 2pp ari eri i iri I Agi to be led 0 Perfect 4pp perfect passive participle ESSE I Actus a um esse to have been led 0 Future 4pp supine umiri hardly used NN11 Actum iri to be about to be led SUBJUNCTIVE SYNTAX all subj are used in subordinate clauses EXCEPT Jussive But first we will cover sequence of tenses since subjunctive are always in subordinate clauses and their tense is dependent upon the main Verb Sequence of tense In sentences with multiple clauses sometimes the time of action will Vary Thus there are two sequences used to determine which tense is appropriate 1 Primary sequence Sequence Main Verb Subordinate Subj tense Primary Present or Future Present if axn is same or after Perfect if axn is prior Secondary Past tenses Imperfect if axn is same or after Pluperfect if axn is prior PRIMARY They ask what the philosopher is reading 0 Rogant quid philosophae legat I Main tense present subj present I Primary sequence since rogant is present And since subordinate action is occurring at same time we use present subjunctive SECONDARY they asked what the philosopher was reading 0 Rogaverunt quid philosophae legeret I Main tense perfect subj imperfect subj Secondary sequence since rogaverunt is perfect And since subordinate subj is simultaneous to the main Verb we use the imperfect subj CONDITIONS NN12 condition protasis subordinate si i nisi if not unless conclusion apodosis main clause FACTUAL more likely to be realized CONTRAFACTUAL less likely to be realized Conditionconclusion are contrary to the actual situation FACTUAL CONTRAFACTUAL Present If present indicative Si lego librum felix sum If I read the book I am happy If were jing would imperfect subjunctive Si legerem librum felix essem If I were reading the book I would be happy assumes the subject to be unhappy Past If ed ed perfect indicative Si legi librum felixfui If I read the book Iwas happy If had ed would have ed pluperfect subjuctive Si legissime librum felixfuissem If I had read the book I would have been happy Future If will future indicative Si legam Carthaginem felix ero If I read the book lwill be happy If were toshould would present subjunctive Si legam Carthaginem felix sim If I shouldwere to destroy Carthage I would be happy Jussive Command in 1 or 3rd person 0 Recognition main verb is subjunctive ut ne 0 Translation Let him OR mayshould they 0 le let the beautiful philosopher explain the book I Bella philosophae librum expleat NNl3 Purpose subordinate clause answers WHY the action in main clause is performed 0 Introduced by ut or ne 0 Suggestive of a reason 0 Ie the beautiful philosopher reads the book in order to explain well I Bella philosophae librum legit ut bene eum expleat I Main tense present subj Result subordinate clause shows RESULT from the main clause s action 0 Recognition introduced by ut like wpurpose clause I Distinguish from purpose main clause will contain adverb or adj indicating degree le Tam tantus I Suggestive of a result I Negative still has ut but also another negative word 0 Translation Subj verb as an indicative Wo auxiliary maymight I May or might only when there s an idealized result 0 ie the beautiful philosopher read the book so often that she explained it well I Bella philosophae librum tam saepe legebat ut eum bene expleret I Main tense imperfect subjunctive Indirect Questions reports an indirect question ie they asked what you liked 0 Recognition subj verb I Introduced by interrogative words or adj le quisquid quiquae quod Quam quando cur ubi unde uter utrum Ne I Main verb is usually a mental sense activity 0 Translation TL as an indicative in the same tense I no auxiliary 0 ie they asked what the philosopher was reading NN14 I Rogaverunt quid philosophae legeret Pl 0ViSO subj in the subordinate clause introduced by dummodo provided that 0 Ne is used to introduce negatives 0 She will explain the book provided that she reads it I Librum expleabit dummodo eum leget JUSSIVE NOUN CLAUSE Indirect command indirect statements Uses subjunctive Serves as the object of the main verb Certain words are associated with JN C such as hortor impero moneo I These can get confused with purpose clause but we differentiate them since JN C answers what was ordered requested advised I The teacher demanded that we read this 0 Magistra librum imperavit ut hoc legamus RELATIVE CLAUSE OF CHARACTERISTIC o Indicative verbs are used in relative clauses to describe some factual description of its antecedent and actual person or thing 0 Subjunctive verbs are used in relative clauses that would describe a generality or assumption about some quality of its antecedent Thus we have the relative clause of characteristic Recognition subjunctive verb with a generalized antecedent Often times accompanied with sunt qui there are people who qui est qui who is there who nemo est qui there is no one who 0 le They were accustomed to believe her the type of person who reads philosophy 0 Soliti sunt ea credere qui philosophiae legere NN15 FEAR CLAUSES A statement that expresses fear or apprehension uses a subjunctive verb introduced by 0 Ut that not for statements of something you re afraid of not happening 0 Vereor ut id credant I am afraid that they will not believe this 0 Ne that for statements of something you re afraid will happen 0 Timeo ne id credant I feat that they will believe this CUM CLAUSES o INDICATIVE subordinate verb temporal 0 Cum whenwhile 0 Cum tum not only but also 0 SUBJUNCTIVE subordinate verb 0 Circumstantial describes general circumstances when main action occurs I When the philosopher read the book she was laughing a lot Cum philosophae librum legebatego multum ridebat o Causal explains cause of main action I Since the philosopher loves knowledge she reads books Cum philosophae scientia amat libros legat o Adversative describes circumstance that may have obstructed or opposed main action I T amen is sometimes used nevertheless still I Although the book was bad she nevertheless read it Cum liber malo est tamen eum legat PARTICIPLES Verbal adjectives refers to something in the MAIN CLAUSE o Verb tense is relative to main verb The principal part that makes the stem indentifies which tense and mood of the participle Suffix indicates which adjcase 3rd dec or us a um 5 cases gender tense voice NN16 1 R PLWC PRESENT lpp stem ns 3rd dec ie cenans cenantis dining PERFECT 4pp us a um ie cenatus a um having been dined FUTURE 4pp urus ura urum lpp ndus nda ndum ie cenaturus ura urum ie cenandus nda ndum about to dine going to dine about to be dined deserving to be dined PASSIVE PERIPHRASTIC this construction uses participles Future passive participle esse conveys necessity obligation or appropriate action ndus a um ie idem credo tibifaciendum esse I believe that the same thing must be done by you THE GERUNDIVE Verbal adjective Passive meaning Future Passive Participle lpp ndus nda ndum 0 see participles for usage Deserving to be ed about to be ed worthy of being ed THE GERUND Verbal noun Active meaning Resembles gdive but only has NEUTER SG GEN DAT ACC ABL cases 0 GEN laudandi ducendi sequendi audiendi NN17 o DAT laudando ducendo sequendo audiendo same as acc 0 ACC laudandum ducendum sequendum audiendum I Only used with adup to near to o ABL laudando ducendo sequendo audiendo same as dat No nominative case If need be use INFINITIVE o Ie errare est humanum TO ERR is human I USING THE GERUNDIVE IN PLACE OF THE GERUND Can t use the gerund as a direct object of a verb So use the gerundive instead Transform the GD into GDIVE and change the accusative object compounded with the GD to the same case that the GD was in the first place Ie she loved this about reading books 0 De legendo libros hoc amata est gerund I literal She loved this about reading books 0 De libris legendis hoc amata est gerundive GWE USE THIS construction but it will translate into what the gerund means I literal she loved this about the books about to be read SUPINES Defective fourth declension VERBAL NOUN Based on the same stem for PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE Only has the ACC and ABL singular cases 0 Ab of respect tells us how something is o whatever the verb is 0 ie mirabile lectu marvelous to read 0 Ace of motion used with verbs to indicate purpose 0 ie she was going to rome to read the book I Ibat Romam lectum librum NOUN amp ADJECTIVE DECLENSIONS Nouns and accompanying adjectives must agree in CASE NUMBER sgpl and GENDERmfn There are 6 cases in Latin Case syntax English preposition Nominative Subject Genitive Possession whole description Of subjective Dative Indirect Object Tofor Accusative Direct Object motion obj of Toward into after behind preposition Ablative Time separation place duration of By with from time accompaniment manner means comparison absolute agent obj of prep vocative Direct address NNl8 There are 5 cases Each are identifiable by examining the genitive singular suffix The stem is also found by dropping the suffix from the genitive sg case 1 Feminine ae 2 Masculine and Neuter i 3 mfn is a the nominative case usually doesn t have the same stem as the rest of the cases b Special istems exist and are determined by examining the syllables i Parasyllabic syllable in nom syllable in gen 1 Hostis hostis sg hostes hostium pl ii Monosyllabic nom case has one syllable 1 WE nom sg ends in s or x amp stem ends in 2 consonants a ars artis sg ares atrium pl 2 N nom sg ends in al ar e NN19 Abl sg i nom pl ia acc pl ia Voc pl ia 4 mostly M us 5 All fem except 1 n ei Case 15 F 2 M N 3 mfn istem 4 M N 5 f Nom sg A User um Varies us u ei Gen sg Ae I I is us us ei Dat sg Ae o o i ui u ei Ace sg Am um em um u em Abl sg A O o e i u u e Voc sg A eer um Varies us u ei Nom pl Ae I a es ia us ua es Gen pl Arum Orom um ium uum uum erum orum Dat pl ls Is is ibus ibus ibus ebus Acc pl ae Os a es ia us ua es Abl pl ls Is is ibus ibus ibus ebus Voc pl ae I a Varies us ua ei GENITIVE I Gen of Description 0 Describes a noun by indicating its character quality or size 0 Ie the philosopher of much knowledge DATIVE Employed to indicate the person or thing that is indirectly affected by the action I Philosophae magnae sapientiae Ie the book was read to him I Dative with adjective to him would be the indirect object thus in the dative case NN20 0 Indicates the direction to toward or for I Dative with verb 0 Indicates attitude or relationship to which the action is directed upon 0 Ie noceo dat to do harm to I Dative of Reference or Interest 0 Indicates a person or thing from whom the statement is referring to o Ie To him that philosopher is beautiful I Philosophae bellam est sibi I Dative of Agent 0 used with the passive periphrastic 0 used instead of ablative of agent ABLATIVE o Abl of COMPARISON O The first element being compared will be in the nominative or acc Omit quam Second element will be in ablative o The philosopher is prettier than the teacher I Philosophae est belliora magistra Abl of description 0 Describes some physical trait of the noun 0 Ie the soldier with the strong hand I Miles f1rma manu Abl of time o Tells When or within which 0 Doesn t use a preposition 0 English TL use at on within in Ablative of place 0 Tells where something occurred 0 Prepositions I In in on at NN21 I Pro in front of on behalf of I Sub below beneath under o Ablative of accompaniment o Tells with whom or what the subject performed the action o Prepositions cum with o Ablative of manner o Describes an abstract way the action was performed I ie with love cum amore o Preposition cum with 0 OR no preposition if used with an adj I ie wrote with great love magna amore o Ablative of Means o Describes how the action was performed Via some tangible instrument o NO PREPOSITION o Ablative of Absolute o A clause separated from the sentence and is not referred to in the main sentence I le Roma Visa Viri gaudebant Rome having been seen men were happy 0 Ablative of Agent 0 Uses the preposition ab 0 Tells who the action was performed by Place Constructions p313 No prepositions in Latin but must supply in English TL These constructions are used with proper nouns of places and with domus humus rus o 1 LOCATIVE CASE the place where I lst2nd dec sg use sg Genitive case form I 12 plural all 345dec use ablative case form I Visus est R0mae1 Ephesz392 Athem39s 1 pl et Carthagz39ne3 NN22 He was seen at Rome Ephesus Athens and Carthage o 2 PLACE TO WHICH accusative no prep I bit Romam Ephesum Athenas et Carthaginem He will go to Rome Ephesus Athens and Carthage o 3 PLACE FROM WHICH ablative no prep I it Roma Epheso Athenis et Carthagine He went from Rome Ephesus Athens and Carthage Time constructions Ablative of duration of time 0 Indicates how long a period of time an action occurred 0 Sometimes for is needed for English TL 0 Natus is used to indicate age I Paucas horas 2 manebit He will remain at home for a few hours Bolded is the ablative of duration of time o Domus is a fourth dec f noun but possesses irregularities and sometimes takes the 2nd dec forms 0 In this context it is indicating place where thus locative 0 So it will take the form of 2nd dec gen sg COMPARATIVE ADJ ECTIVES Positive Degree Adjectives modify nouns and agree with the noun it modifies in case and gender Ie the beautiful philosopher bella philosophae Comparative degree comparing the noun to one other thing 0 Base ior mf ius n ioris gen 0 Ie the more beautiful philosopher bellior philosophae Superlative degree comparing to two or more NN23 0 Base issimus issima issimum 0 Ie the most beautiful philosopher bellisima philosophae Some adjectives are compared by adding magnis more and maxime most to the positive Declining comparative adjectives o Superlatives follows declension of magnus a um I Bellisima bellisimae bellisimae etc o Comparatives these are twoending adjectives of third declension BUT not istems These must be memorized I Sg mf bellior bellioris belliori belliorem belliore I Sg n bellius bellioris belliori belliorius belliore I Pl mf belliores belliorum bellioribus belliores bellioribus I Pl n belliora belliorum bellioribus belliora bellioribus Translation 0 Comparative ior ius I Moreer rather too 0 Superlative I Moreest very With quam o Quam follows a comparative degree adjective 0 Links the two nouns translates as than IRREGULAR COMPARATIVE 21nd SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES lrregularity arises in adj ending in er and lz39s Comparative forms the same 0 le gracilis gracile I Gracilior ius thinner Superlative suffix limus lima limum 0 le gracilis gracile slender thin I Gracillimus a um thinnest NN24 Even more irregularity arises in suppletion good better best These also must be memorized Positive Comparative Superlative Bonus a um good Melior ius better Optimus a um best Magnus a um great Maior ius greater Maximus a um greatest Malus a um bad Peior ius worse Pessimus a um worst Multus a um much plus more Plurimus a um most Parvus a um small Minor minus smaller Minimus a um smallest Prae pro in front of Prior prius former Primus a um first Superus a um that above Superior ius higher Summus a um highest furthest supremus a um highest last COMPARATIVE ADVERBS Adverbs modify verbs adjectives or other adverbs Usually precede the word they modify Positive Degree o 1 and 2nd declension stem e I avarus avara avarum greedy avare greedily 0 3rd declension I diligens diligentis diligent diligentiter diligently IREGULAR COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADVERBS refer to the irregular comparative adjective chart above to form the COMPARATIVE adverb stem ius 0 thus they look like neuter singular accusative to form the SUPERLATIVE adverb superlative e NN25 QUESTIONS I DIRECT o ne num none LEADING QUESTIONS I Asking a question and expecting a yes or no response will have a particular sentence construction I Expecting yes none I expecting no num o guis guid interrogative pronoun o ubi cur interrogatives DEMONSTRATIVES Adjectives and pronounts that point to things near or far Declension follows magnus magna magnum I hic this these proximal I ille that those well known distal I iste that near you that of yours 0 follows ille M E 2 M Hic A E E HLWS HLWS HLWS E HLR HLR HLR amp 1 1 E a111 E E M E 2 lIojm Illa Q E Lills Lills Lills E ii Li Li amp 111L111 111 A NN26 algt1 M E 2 Ni Iste Ii J E Istlus Istjius Istjius 1Sti 1Sti 1Sti E Istum Istl J abl Isto Ii ii PERSONAL PRONOUNS These are used to express the subject Thus they must agree in case number and gender Use the nominative pronouns ego tu etci when you want to stress the subject I Don t use the genitive personal pronoun to show possession Instead use the possessive adj ectives O O O O Meus mea meum my Noster nostra nostrum our Tuus tua tuum your Vester vestra vestrum yours I BUT you still use gen for 3rd pl possession 1 person g 1 Nom E o I Nos we Gen Mei of me Nostrum of us Nostri of us 1 Mihi to me Nobis tofor us 1 Me me Nos us abl Me by me Nobis by us 239 person sg pg Nom Tu ou en m 0 you es rum G T 39 f V t 1 E Tibi to me i 1 Te to you 1 abl Te by you E THIRD PERSON PRONOUN IS EA 11 NN27 These take the place of the third person The stem is mostly e Declines like magnus a um It is used just like the noun its replacing singular M E n Ni Is he this man Ea she this woman Id it this thing i Eius of him his Eius of her her Eius its 1 Eigto him Eigto her Eigtoitg E Eum him Eam her Id it abl E0 by him Ea by her E0 by it 1311411 M E 2 lI0m Ei ii a Mjum mjum Eorum EiS EiS EiS amp E M algt1 EiS EiS eiS
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