BIO 1144 - Exam 1 Notes
BIO 1144 - Exam 1 Notes Bio 1144
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Date Created: 01/31/16
BIOLOGY II: NOTES FOR EXAM 1 Chapter 26 Taxonomy of Systematics Taxonomy – the study of classifying and grouping organisms o Based on hierarchy groups (taxon) o Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish naturalist 1754, put plants and organisms in groups by how similar they were. He created the binomial system of nomenclature 2 worded scientific name to describe an organism o Taxonomy is an “artificial” system 5 kingdom concept 1. Monera – prokaryotic cells (lack nucleus and lack membrane bound structure) 2. Protista – eukaryotic cells (nucleus and have membrane bound structure) 3. Fungi – eukaryotic cells (nucleus and have membrane bound structure) 4. Plantae – eukaryotic cells (nucleus and have membrane bound structure) 5. Animalia – eukaryotic cells (nucleus and have membrane bound structure) Taxonomy Hierarchy of the Gray Wolf o Kingdom Animalia o Phylum Chordata o Class Mammalia o Order Carnivora o Family Canidae o Genus o Species Canus lupis Systematics – biological diversity in evolutionary relationships o Molecular genetics and morphology o Phylogenetic trees o Clade – a group of similar species on phylogenic trees C A A D B E Chapter 27 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Diversity Kingdom Monera 2 domains (archaea & bacteria) Prokaryotic – lack nucleus and membrane bound structure Lack sexual reproduction Most abundant group Fossils from 3.5 billion years ago 2 Domains of Monera: o Archaea “Almost” nucleus Similar cytoplasm of eukaryotes Specialized membranes, but not membrane bound structures Found in harsh conditions o Bacteria – “pro” and “cyano” “Probacteria” – “true bacteria” “Cyanobacteria” – “blue greens” Produce food by capturing sunlight Transform nitrogen into something useful *Everything else we study is eukaryotic. Eukaryotic Cells o Have a nucleus o Have “compartments” or membrane bound structures o Creates an “internal membrane system” o More efficient and precise than prokaryotes Chapter 28 Kingdom Protista Earliest eukaryotes Most live in moist environments and are microscopic DNA – many separate groups within Protista 3 groups of Protista o Algae Plant like because they capture sunlight and make their own food (photosynthesis) Autotrophic – “self feeding” 10 groups of algae Some do ingest food Unicellular to multicellular o Protozoans “Animal like” Heterotrophic – “ingest feeding: Unicellular to multicellular o Fungi like Protists “Fungi like” Saprotrophic – “absorb feeding” (have no mouth with which to eat) Multicellular Movement of Protists o Flagella – swimming with taillike structures o Cilia – tiny hairs on outside of the body that slowly mores protest o Pseudopodia – false feet – extension of the cytoplasm, usually moving downhill o Gliding – glides along a soft surface Kingdom Fungi Largest living organisms in this kingdom Most fungus are found in the soil or in other material “Conspicuous portion” (part that you see) – mushroom or mold or yeast “Nature’s recyclers” because they break down and return to the earth Heterotrophic/saprotrophic Body of the fungus is called the mycelium –composed of filaments (hyphae) “Fruiting bodies” represent reproductive structures, the parts we can see coming out of the ground Spores – reproductive cells Rhizomorphs – water transporting filaments Cell wall – major component is chitin (hardening protein) to make the wall tougher Chapters 29 & 30 Kingdom Plantae Over 300,000 species Multicellular & eukaryotic Most are autotrophic ‘ “self feeding” (photosynthesis) Mostly terrestrial – grow out of the soil Starch – food storage compound Photosynthetic pigments – chlorophyll a & b, bcarotene; primary photosynthetic pigment is chlorophyll a Cell wall – cellulose (major component, internal support) 3 characteristics – plant kingdom, land plants o Green algae is ancestor o Fossils from 400 million years before present o Life on land – must get water from soil (roots) Roots 10 major groups of plants 1) Phylum hepatophyta (liverworts) 6500 species 2) Phylum anthocertophyta (hornworts) 100 species 3) Phylum bryophyte (mosses) 12,000 species i. Grouped together as “bryophyte” 4) Phylum lycopodiophyta (lycophytes) 1000 species 5) Phylum pteridophyta (ferns & allies) 12,000 species i. Grouped together as “pteridophytes” 6) Phylum cycadophyta (cycods) 300 species 7) Phylum ginkgophyta (ginkgos) 1 species 8) Phylum gnetiphyta (gnetophytes) 300 species 9) Phylum coniferophyta (conebearing trees) 500 species i. Grouped together as “gymnosperms” naked seeds” 10)Phylum anthophyta (flowering/fruiting plants) 300,000 species i. “Angiosperms” = enclosed seeds (within a fruit) Bryophytes – reproduce by spores, not seeds (can dry out easily) so they live in areas with high amount of moisture o Non vascular – lack conducting tissues o Smallest plants because they don’t have vascular tissue o Require external water for reproduction Pteridophytes – extensive fossil record o Small o Reproduce by spores, not seeds o Vascular tissue (conducting) Xylem – conduct water & minerals Phloem – conduct food “True” roots, stems, and leaves Gymnosperms – conebearing trees (mostly) o Oldest living organism – bristlecone pine o Biggest living organism – giant sequoia o Tallest living organism – redwood o Vascular – xylem & phloem tissues o “Naked seeds” Advanced character Inside the seed (exposed): embryo, stored food, protective covering (integument) Seed has “survival value” o Does not require external water for reproduction Pollen tube delivers sperm to egg location Angiosperms – “enclosed seeds” within a fruit/vessel o Vascular tissues – more advanced, most complex Conduct food & water even better o Seed – embryo, stored food, protective coverings (2 integuments) 2 integuments & enclosed seeds within a fruit provide an even better “survival value” o Flowers – attract pollinators o Fruits – enclose/protect the seed & assist with seed dispersal o Over 300,000 species o Does not require external water for reproduction Pollen tube delivers sperm to the egg location Kingdom Animalia 13 million species (half are insects) All came from one single ancestor – flagellated protest 35 animal phylum More genetic similarity within animal genomes than other kingdoms Characteristics Multicellular Lack cell walls Sexual reproduction – mobile, smaller sperm, & larger egg HOX genes determine the body axis during development Nervous tissue Cell junctions – anchoring, gap, & tight Proteins binding cells Classification/systematics Systematics: molecular genetics; classification: development (embryonic), morphology Body plans: 4 Body symmetry Number of tissue layers Presence/absence of a “true” body cavity Patterns of embryonic development Metazoans multicellularity + animal Parazoa (sponges) simple multicellular, eumetazoa (all others) true multicellular 4 Body Plans of Animals 1. Body symmetry – equal sides, proportions of the body Phylum porifera (sponges) lack symmetry Eumetazoa have radial symmetry: only one plain passing thru the central axis produces equal images Eumetazoa exhibit bilateral symmetry – only one line or cut produces mirror images 2. Tissue layers – the number of tissue present Tissue aggregation of functionally similar cells into a larger unit, higher the number the more complex the organisms will be o Metazoa (phylum porifera, sponges) – Parazoa don’t have organs or tissues, Eumetazoa have one or more tissue types or organs Animals that exhibit radial symmetry are diploblastic – 2 embryonic germ/tissue layers, *endoderm *ectoderm Animals that exhibit bilateral symmetry are triploblastic – 3 embryonic germ/tissue layers, *endoderm *ectoderm *mesoderm o Tissue layers develop during early development period – gastrulation 3. Body cavity – ONLY bilateral symmetrical animals Coelom – a fluid filled body cavity in animals o Advanced animals have a “true coelom” meaning the body cavity is completely lined with mesoderm or mesoderm derived tissues Acoelomate – “without coelom” no body cavity, not completely surrounded by mesoderm or mesoderm derived tissue Ex. – flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes) dome shape with flat bottom Pseudocoelomate – “false coelom” – body cavity is present and well developed, but not completely lined with mesoderm or mesoderm derived tissue o Ex. Roundworm (phylum nematoda) Eucoelomate – “true coelom” true body cavity and completely lined with mesoderm or mesoderm derived tissue o Advanced metazoan Ex. Earthworm (phylum annelid) 4. Embryonic development Cleavage – cells get smaller and smaller 2 mechanisms *protostomes *deuterostomes o Proto – first, deutero – secondary o Protostomes – 1 opening (blastopore) that develops that becomes the mouth Phylum Mollusca, annellida, arthropoda o Deuterostomes – 2 opening (blastopore) that becomes the mouth, delevops into the anus Phylum Echinodermata, chordata Other methods used to classift animals Skeletons are used to classify animals o Exoskeleton – most invertebrates o Endoskeleton – provide internal development, echinoderms, and vertebrates. Constant growth within the body without loss of protection Notochord – phylum chordate Metamerism – (segmentation) repition of body parts Cephalization – localization of sensory struds “brain” “head end” Molecular Views of Animal Diversity New techniques that look at *DNA, *ribosomal RNA, and *mitochondrial DNA o Advantages – can be tested, can test and document how closely organisms are related. Similarities between traditional and molecular phylogeny o Metazoan share common ancestor – protists o True difference between parazoa and eumetazoa (sponges and the rest of them) o True difference between radial and bilateral symmetry o Echinodermata and chordate are closely related Differences between these 2 methods o Protostomes – split into 2 clades (lines) based upon the genes o Body cavity – may not be a great character splitting groups Chapters 32 & 33 Invertebrates Fossils “Without backbone” 95% of animals species Phylum Porifera (sponges) Lack tissues or organs Multicellular Different cell types with different functions “Pores” – filter water and food Reproduction Hermaphroditism produced both eggs and sperms o Some sexual reproduction o Some asexual reproduction Phylum Cnidaria & Phylum Ctenophora Cnidaria – jellyfish, coral, and sea anemones, 9000 species Ctenophera – comb jellies, 100 species Both diploblastic (2 germ layers) *endoderm *ectoderm, not very complex Mostly marine Mesoglea – gelatinous coating on the outside of the animal’s body provides with protection, probably foul tasting Lack brain, but have a Nerve net – interconnected nerve cells Exhibit only one opening Gastro vascular cavity – not mouth or anus Protostomes Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms, flukes, tapeworms) Many parasites 20,000 species Triploblastic (3 germ layers) *endoderm *ectoderm *mesoderm Protostomes Simple but developed organs and organ systems Enhanced nerve net 2 cerebral ganglia – mass of nerve tissue (not brain) One opening and a gastro vascular cavity Reproduction sexual (hermaphrodites) and asexual (split) Phylum Rotifer – rotifers ( Spin in circles as they swim, move fairly quickly Corona crown Mostly freshwater Very simple brain Pseudocoelom 2000 species Alimentary canal 0 digestive tube (mouth to anus) Triploblastic – advanced group of protostomes Reproduction asexual and sexual (parthenogenesis) – egg develops without fertilization from the sperm Phylum Mollusca (snails, slugs, oysters, squid, octopus) 106000 species Protostomes Eucoelomate Mostly have a 3 “part” body Foot, visceral mass – where the internal organs are, mantle – thin fleshy layer inside the shell if a shell is present Reproduction mostly sexual (eggs/sperm released) Terrestrial (land) male transfers the sperm directly to the female Phylum Annelida Segmented – ringed worms Enhanced digestive and nervous systems Reproduction asexual and sexual (hermaphrodites) Protostomes Phylum Nematode (roundworms) Primarily buried in soil 20000 species Pseudocoelomate Cuticle – rubber coating they shed from time to time in order to grow, can be protection Complete digestive tract Protostomes Reproduction – primarily sexual Phylum arthropoda (insects, spiders, crustaceans) 1.75 million to 2 million species Segmented appendages Exoskeleton – skeleton on the outside Hardened cuticle – protein and chitin (hardening protein) reason why you have to have a tool to crack crab legs Can shed the skin (ecdysis) Protostomes Enhanced brain and nervous system and a complex digestive system Social insects have the most complex nervous system in all nonvertebrate animals Eucoelomate Phylum Echinodermata (sea stars, urchins, sea cucumbers) Deuterostomes first opening becomes anus, second becomes mouth 7500 species No brain, simple nervous system Reproduction mostly by sexual means Autonomy – the breaking off of body parts Endoskeleton series of plates Phylum Chordate Deuterostomes Endoskeleton Few invertebrates, most are vertebrate animals 4 critical innovations of chordate body design (found at some point of development) 1. Notochord – skeletal support (dorsal axis), replaced by jointed backbone (vertebral column). Remnants o notochord in discs because vertebrae 2. Dorsal hollow nerve cord – expanded at anterior end = brain. Enclosed, supported, and protected by vertebral column and/or notochord 3. Pharyngeal slits – (pharynx back portion of the mouth cavity) Water enters mouth and out the slits (gills no use on land). 4. Postanal tail – a. Only a few fishes actually exhibit all 4 of these developments b. Humans – notochord > replaced by series of bony elements (vertebra) with discs between each vertebrae so bone isn’t rubbing against bone. Nerve chord > hollow dorsal (spinal cord & brain) *largest brain capacity. Pharyngeal slits and postanal tail > only found in embryonic development. 1 vertebrae retained as tailbone (coccyx). 1 pharyngeal is slit retained as Eustachian tubes pair. Subphylum Urochordata Tunicates 3000 species Marine Invertebrates Filter feeders Looks like a vase Has pharyngeal slits and dorsal nerve cord Ex. Larvae – gill slits, tail, notochord, dorsal nerve cord Subphylum Cephalochordata Lancelets 25 species Marine Invertebrates Filter feeders Difference between “uro” & “cephalo” is within sexual organs Subphylum Vertebrata “Backboned” Vertebral column of bony elements or cartilage elements Endoskeleton – most calcified bone, either bone or hardened cartilage Cranium HOX genes – 2 clusters, more complexity in development Neural crest – cells “migrate” Breakdown of Classes Class Myxini Hagfishes Marine 30 species Jawless Nearly blind Coated in slime Skeleton – (weakest skeleton of all groups) have a skull but is not complete. Have notochord into adulthood Lack vertebrae? Very poorly developed vertebrae Class Cephalospidormorphi “Jawless” fishes, lampreys Lacks jaws, appendages (fins) Coated in slime Little over 40 species Marine and freshwater Many are parasitic, some are filter feeders Notochord in adults Cartilaginous vertebral column Class Chondrichthyes “Cartilaginous fishes” Well developed jaws and appendages Mostly marine Cartilaginous vertebral column, but better than above Notochord in adults Over 850 species of sharks, skates, and rays Class Osteichthyes “Bony fishes” Over 24000 species Bony skeleton or vertebrae (in most) Some with notochord or cartilaginous vertebrae in adulthood Jaws & paired appendages Very successful group in freshwater and marine Class Amphibia “Living a double life” First terrestrial vertebral group Most of them split their life between an aquatic and terrestrial stage Most lay eggs in water or moist areas can live on land, but are not completely separated from water *most are reproductively tied to water Amphibians are the first tetrapod group (4 leg or 4 foot) Frogs, salamanders, toads Around 4000 species Very thin, moist skin. Can dry out very easily Class Reptilia Turtles, crocodiles, lizards, snakes, dinosaurs Over 8000 species Enhanced and well developed kidneys, goal is to conserve water Much thicker skin than amphibians Larger brain Larger limbs and muscles, better at movement than amphibians Life away from water, truly terrestrial Amniotic egg – (began in reptiles) NOT laid in water, not reproductively tied to water. Advanced, shelled egg with 3 internal membranes o “Shell” with a shell membrane o Chorion – internal membrane #1, allows for gas exchange within the egg (oxygen in, CO2 out) o Allantois – internal membrane #2, embryonic waste flap o Amnion – internal membrane #3, encloses the embryo “indoor pond” because it has fluid. Rather than eggs be laid in water, it has its own water 3 Sexual Reproductive Modes: 1. Oviparous – condition of “egg laying” outside of the body. (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals) 2. Ovoviviparous – “livebearing” with retention of eggs but there is NO maternal connection (fish, reptiles) 3. Viviparous “livebearing” with retained eggs and a maternal connection (placenta – gas exchanges thru this) (reptiles, mammals) Class Aves Birds Think “Aves” – aviation Over 9000 species Most fly Evolved from small dinosaurs Fossils – 150 MYBP Feathers – also scales, something for protection Light weight skeleton – air spaces, for flight Air sacs (lungs) for gas exchange. Flight requires a lot of ATP, so they have a high requirement for oxygen and high metabolism. Endothermic – internal temperature. Birds and mammals have high body temperature (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles are ectothermic, meaning their body heat is determined by outside temp) Organ reduction Highly modified forelimbs = wings Oviparous – carrying around offspring would ad weight and affect their flight Class Mammalia Over 5000 species Reptilian ancestor (before birds) Mammals are the most complex, advanced group of animals Size range; smallest is 1.5 grams (bat), biggest is up to 100,000 kg (whale) Fishlike, birdlike, reptilelike mammals (3 species are egg layers) Hair – thickest integument, for good insulation (traps internal heat) endothermic Mammary gland (milk glands) for nursing the young Teeth – heterodont dentition – condition of having different kinds or types of teeth o Incisors, canines, premolars, & molars o Thecodont dentition – the condition where long rooted teeth are imbedded in sockets of the jawbones o Diphyodont dentition – condition of having two sets of teeth in a lifetime (baby teeth replace by adult teeth) Increased skull size (braincase) specifically the front part, nervous system o 55:1 (brain: spinal cord) largest difference Pinna – flap of cartilage and loose connective tissue to funnel sound waves into the outer ear o 3 middle ear ossicles Dentary – large single bone below your jaw Viviparous (except 3 species) (placenta) Order Primates Characteristics include: o Grasping digits o Flattened face o Flat nails rather rounded claws o Binocular vision o Complex learning behaviors o Enhanced sense of touch (hair) there are more sensory receptors in the skin of mammals than any other animal o Enhanced parental investment of offspring, longer term relationships with their young o Vision is typically better than the sense of smell o Increased ratio of brain to body size Taxonomy of Man Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordota Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Order Primates Suborder Anthropoidea Superfamily Hominoidae Family Hominidae Subfamily Homininae Tribe Hominine Genus Homo Species Homo sapiens “wise humans” Figure 32.3, Table 32.3, 33.8 EXAM 1!!!! PENCILS
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