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BIO 101, Course Notes

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BIO 101, Course Notes Bio 101-003

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These notes consist of the entire course work including a final exam study guide.
General Biology
Dr. Georgianna Saunders
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This 59 page Bundle was uploaded by Teaira Notetaker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 101-003 at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Georgianna Saunders in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Missouri State University.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
BIO101 8/25/15 Chapter 2: Biological Molecules - Skip pages 22-27 in Chapter 2 (will not be on test)! - Refer back to Objective sheet when studying for the test. The objective sheet is the study guide! - Chapter 2 key concept hw will be available soon (no points) - take advantage of the study area on MasteringBiology Practice Using Information Question #1 – True or False 1. Energy is needed for atoms to do any work within a cell. TRUE 2. Energy is needed for atoms to do any work within a molecule. FALSE 3. Molecules are made up of multiple cells. FALSE (cells are made up of multiple molecules) 4. Atoms help make up cells. TRUE 5. Molecules work to make energy for whatever they are part of. FALSE ***ENERGY COMES FROM THE SUN MOSTLY! Molecules, atoms, etc can NOT make energy. Question #2 – Water, salts, and many acids and bases are? a) organic compounds b) inorganic compounds--- something must have one than more carbon to be organic!! c) hydrophobic d) hydrophilic Question #3 – The blood contains chemicals called _____ that maintain a stable pH. a) lipids b) proteins c) buffers d) base Question #4 – Which food contains hydrophobic compounds? a) cucumber b) steak – the fat in steak is hydrophobic c) salad oil d) b and c Question #5 – Molecules that have a carbon-carbon bond are classified as ___________. a. compounds b. organic compounds c. inorganic compounds d. electrolytes Question #6 –Why is there so much hype about trans fats? A & B: They contain a bond that doesn’t naturally occur and they are being phased out. Question #7 – ________ reactions allow dietary nutrients to be absorbed into the body. a. dehydration synthesis--- “making up” b. hydrolysis---“breaking down” ---->hydro: water & lysis: breaking something down into smaller pieces to be absorbed c. lubricating d. colloid Question #7 – Which of the following transports oxygen and some CO(2) in the blood & can also protect the body against foreign substances and invading pathogens? a. lipids b. protein---antibodies are proteins & hemoglobin which transports oxygen, etc are protein. The proteins are the “hardworking parts of the cell.” c. nucleic acid d. salt Question #8 – one difference between a saturated fat and an unsaturated fat is: a) a saturated fat is solid at room temp b) an unsaturated fat is solid at room temp c) a saturated fat is hydrogenated d) an unsaturated fat is hydrogenated ---transfat Unit 1 Objectives for Exam 1 Describe the properties of life common to all living things. 1. Reproduction – all organisms reproduce their own kind.  2. Growth & Development – information carried by genes controls the pattern of growth in all  organisms. For example, male elephants grow tusks as they age. 3. Energy Use – every organism takes in energy, converts it to useful forms, and expels energy. 4. Order – Each living thing has a complex but well­ordered structure. 5. Cells – all living organisms consists of cells. Some living organisms have just one cell, but others have  trillions. 6. Response to the Environment – all organisms respond to changes in the environment. Many of these  responses help to keep an organism’s internal environment within narrow limits even when the external  environment changes a lot.  Ex: elephant taking a bath, which helps keep its body temperature steady. 7. Evolution – Individuals with traits that help them survive and reproduce pass the genes for those traits  to offspring. Over many generations, such adaptations drive the evolution of populations.  Differentiate among the hierarchical levels of biological organization studied by biologists. ­ Biosphere ­ Ecosystem ­ Community ­ Population ­ Organism  ­ Organ System ­ Organ ­ Tissue ­ Cell ­ Organelle ­ Molecule ­ Atom The most comprehensive unit into which life on Earth is classified is the domain. Biologists recognize  three domains, organized by the type of cell found in each. The first two – Bacteria & Archaea – consist  of single­celled organisms with relatively small and simple prokaryotic cells (prokaryotes). The third  domain – Eukarya – consists of single­celled and multicelled organisms that have relatively large and  structurally eukaryotic cells (eukaryotes).  Outline the basic methodologies used by scientists to investigate the natural world.   The Scientific Method is a rough “recipe” for discovery, a series of steps that, if followed, may help a  scientist understand an observation. Scientists use the scientific method as a guideline, but it need not to  be followed rigidly. When scientists make verifiable observations, take careful measurements, and gather data – even in the  absence of a hypothesis – they are performing discovery science. Discovery science provides data used to  describe the natural world. Hypotheses vs. Theories – a hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observation. A valid hypothesis  must be testable, and the results of such tests will either support or refute the hypothesis; a theory is  much broader in scope than a hypothesis. It is much more comprehensive, it has not been shown false,  and it already explains great observations. Theories are supported by a large and growing body of  evidence. To investigate a hypothesis, a scientist may choose to perform a controlled experiment in which a test is  run multiple times with one variable changing – and, ideally, all other variables are constant. The use of a  controlled experiment allows a scientist to draw conclusions about the effect of one variable that did  change. Natural selection – individuals with traits that make them well suited to compete for available resources  will have, on average, more offspring. Secondly, Darwin proposed that over many generations,  continuous natural selection within a population will result in “descent with modification,” – Evolution.  Adaptation – the accumulation of favorable traits in a population over time. Artificial selection – the  selective breeding of domesticated crops and animals.  Describe the basic structure and components of atoms and reactions essential to life.   All matter is composed of atoms. But atoms themselves are composed of even smaller subatomic particles.  Two of these particles: neutrons and protons have about equal mass and are located in the nucleus at the  center of the atom. The number of protons in an atom determines its chemical element. Particles of the third  type: electrons have very little mass and orbit the nucleus at high speeds. Electrons orbit at specific locations called electron shells. ***ENERGY COMES FROM THE SUN MOSTLY! Molecules, atoms, etc can NOT make energy. Describe the significance of carbon in forming the basis of the four classes of biologically important   organic molecules .    ­ Molecules that have a carbon-carbon bond are classified as organic compounds. - Water, salts, and many acids and bases are inorganic compounds. *** Question #4 – Which food contains hydrophobic compounds? steak & salad oil a) cucumber b) steak – the fat in steak is hydrophobic c) salad oil d) b and c *** Biological molecules are synonymous to organic molecules...  Differentiate between hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions as processes of metabolism.   - Hydrolysis Reactions – allows dietary nutrients to be absorbed into the body; chemical reaction in which macromolecules are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers. A hydrolysis reaction is the opposite of a dehydration reaction; in lame terms: using water to break something down. - Dehydration Synthesis Reaction – A chemical reaction in which a monomer is joined to another monomer or polymer, forming a larger molecule and releasing a molecule of water. - Your metabolism is the sum total of all the chemical reactions that take place in your body. Describe in specific terms the forms and functions of the four classes of biologically important   molecules .    Four Categories Of Biological Molecules: Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates – are molecules that contain mostly carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: they are the primary fuel for running all of the cellular machinery and also form much of the structure of cells in all life forms. Sometimes they contain atoms of other elements, but they must have carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen to be considered a carbohydrate. Further, a carbohydrate generally has approximately the same number of carbon atoms as it does H O un2ts.; examples – cellulose & glucose Lipids – which include fats and steroids, are a diverse group of molecules with one feature in common: Unlike other biological molecules, they do not mix well with water. A look at a fatty acid, the building block of fats, shows why. Most of the molecule consists of a highly nonpolar, or hydrophobic, hydrocarbon chain (composed only of hydrogen and carbon), which does not mix with polar (hydrophilic) molecules. Vinegar-and-oil salad dressing is a common example of the immiscibility of hydrophobic (“water-fearing”) and hydrophilic substances ;examples – coconut oil & cholesterol Proteins – are versatile macromolecules that serve as building blocks. Examples – hexokinase & keratin Nucleic acids –examples – DNA & RNA ***Vitamins are organic molecules|Minerals are inorganic molecules Organic molecules all contain: - Carbon skeleton - Some hydrogen atoms Monomers/Polymers Glucose (monomer), starch (polymer) Protein (monomer), amino acid (polymer) Nucleotide (monomer), DNA (polymer)  Discuss the importance of proper nutrition and problems associated with nutritional imbalances.   ­ 8 of the 20 amino acids are essential amino acids and cannot be made by the body, so must be consumed in the diet. ­ Complete proteins contain all 8 essential amino acids, while incomplete proteins do not.  ­ Acetaldehyde is a poison that is used to make plastics and tanning of leather. Similar to  formaldehyde. Effects on the body: 1. Premature aging of skin 2. Causes cancer 3. Damages liver and brain Identify reactants and products in a chemical equation x      +     x     =>      x    +    x       Reactants    =>      Products The composition of living matter is constantly changing through chemical reactions. During a chemical  reaction atoms remain whole, but they are swapped as molecules are broken down and built up. Chemical  reactions are written with the reactants (starting matter on the left) and the products (ending matter on  the right). pH Scale – Acids vs. Bases An aqueous solution is one that contains a substance dissolved in water.  The pH scale runs from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic), with 7 as neutral. Each number in the pH scale represents a tenfold change in H+ ion concentration. An acid is a chemical that, when dissolved in water, releases H+ ions. Acids have a pH between 0 and 7.  Acid Examples – battery acid, lemon juice, strawberries, and tomatoes. Neutral example (7) – purified water  A base is a chemical that, when dissolved in water, removes H+ ions from a solution, usually by  combining them with OH^(­) to form water molecules. Bases have a pH between 7 and 14.  Base Examples –ammonia, household bleach, and lye. Most cells regulate their pH through the use of buffers, chemicals that minimize changes in pH by  accepting H+ ions when they are present in excess and donating H+ ions when they are in short supply. Identify the major organic compounds (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates) that are  found in living systems and identify their dietary sources & Explain why each of the four major  categories of organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins) is required for living  systems - Carbohydrates are a class of important organic molecules that provide energy and structure. o Sugars are the building blocks of carbohydrates. o There are 4 types of complex carbohydrates found in animals or plants. - Lipids are a large class of hydrophobic organic molecules. o Triglycerides (typically called fats) are made of glycerol plus fatty acids; saturated fats have been linked to heart disease. o Phospholipids contain a polar group and are amphipathic; they form cellular membranes. o Steroids have a characteristic ringed structure; they include cholesterol and sex hormones. - Proteins are crucial to life and perform a wide range of functions. o Amino acids are the building blocks of polypeptide chains which fold to form proteins. o Shape is critical for protein function and creates specific regions called domains; a protein that is denatured loses its domains and the ability to function. o Protein denaturation causes proteins to unfold and clump in a random configuration; understanding the denaturation process helps in understanding the structure of intact proteins. o Proteins can combine with other macromolecules to form lipoproteins and glycoproteins. - Nucleic acids are the primary information-bearing molecules of life. o Nucleotides, the building blocks of nucleic acids, are also important as energy carriers. o The nucleic acid DNA is composed of two chains of nucleotides in a helical structure; RNA is a similar nucleic acid of equal importance.  Describe how the metabolism of living things is a series of chemical reactions that  transfers energy  and atoms between molecules The digestive system breaks down the macromolecules you eat into the monomers that make them up.  The cells then use the monomer building blocks to construct new polymers.  Identify the diverse roles proteins play on the cellular level (enzymes, structure, communication,  transport, etc.) All proteins are polymers made by joining amino acid monomers together.  Transport – Hemoglobin, found within red blood cells, carries oxygen as it is transported through the  body. Defense – Antibodies are proteins within your immune system that label foreign invaders for destruction.  Structure – Keratin is an important component of hair, skin, and fur. Enzymes – Lactase is an enzyme within your digestive system that breaks down the milk sugar lactose. Apply an understanding of a molecule's 3­dimensional shape to molecule function (e.g. tertiary  protein structure to enzyme function) Proteins are formed by linking individual amino acids together with a peptide bond, in which the  amino group of one amino acid is bonded to the carboxyl group of another. Two amino acids  joined together is a dipeptide, and several amino acids joined together is a polypeptide.  Discuss the basic concepts of chemistry that are related directly to the function of a cell as a living  system. (ex. Since the cell membrane is made of phospholipids, steroid hormones can easily pass  into the cell, but water cannot easy escape). Every living cell is surrounded by a membrane that helps regulate the passage of materials into and out of  the cell. These membranes are phospholipid bilayers: that is, they are made by stacking two layers of a  molecule called a phospholipid. Each phospholipid contains a phosphate group in its hydrophilic (“water­ loving”) head, and two long hydrophobic tails.  Identify the structure and function of macromolecules common to all organisms and the chemical  processes of synthesis and hydrolysis of these complex molecules The majority of your body weight is water. Most of the rest consists of macromolecules, large molecules  that can have complex structures. Although the different classes of macromolecules vary in structure and  function, they are all built up and broken down via similar chemical reactions. Hydrolysis Reactions – most of the organic macromolecules in living cells are polymers, large  molecules made by joining many smaller molecules called monomers. Polymers can be broken down  into the monomers that make them up via hydrolysis reactions.  Dehydration Synthesis Reactions – monomer building blocks are linked together to form larger  polymers through a chemical reaction called a dehydration synthesis reaction. As each new monomer is added to a chain, a hydrogen atoms (H) from one monomer and a hydroxyl group (OH) from another  monomer are removed, creating a new chemical bond between the two monomers and releasing a  molecule of water. One molecule of water is released for each monomer added to the chain. Dehydration Synthesis reaction – “builds up polymers” Hydrolysis Reactions – “breaks down polymers” BIO101 8/27/15 Reminder: Last lecture before Unit 1 Test on Tuesday, September 1 st Test Preparation: - There will be 40-50 questions –all multiple choice questions - Look over the objectives sheet & know the objectives. **All Q’s will be from objectives! - Look over the 4 power points - Practice for Chapter 2 is available to go through (study the book and notes first and then attempt it) Chapter 2 Notes: Energetics & Enzymes Review: Biological molecules are synonymous to “organic molecules.” To be a biological molecule, something must have one carbon bonded to another carbon! C – C If it’s on the periodic table, it is NOT a biological molecule. It’s an element. The Biological Molecules (organic molecules) listed on this Nutrition Facts are: ­ Carbohydrates ­ Proteins ­ Fat ­ Fiber ­ Cholesterol (our body makes testosterone and hormones from cholesterol) ­ Protein ­ Vitamins Cellulose – is the plant cell wall. Cellulous is “fiber” in my diet. Macromolecule Assembly – monomers v. polymers Monomer – individual pieces ... put them together & they make larger things. Lipids do not have monomers and polymers. Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis dehydration synthesis reaction – A chemical reaction in which a monomer is joined to another monomer or polymer, forming a larger molecule and releasing a molecule of water. Hydrolysis Reaction – chemical reaction in which macromolecules are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers. A hydrolysis reaction is the opposite of a dehydration reaction; in lame terms: using water to break something down. Enzymes get reactions started – they are called catalysts. Some enzymes bring things together & others take things apart, but they only have “one” job... How many different types of reactions can one enzyme catalyze? One Enzymes are like “”...they’re gonna try to put two things together, but they aren’t gonna get involved.   By coupling favorable, energy-releasing reactions to unfavorable, energy-requiring reactions. Catabolic Reactions release energy. Anabolic Reactions require energy input. “ATP” is a nucleic acid that holds energy. We don’t need to know the structure! Energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed (broken down) to ADP. ATP is restored from ADP and an input of energy. ATP’s energy is used to drive endergonic (energy-requiring) reactions. Self- Check 1. What are the four categories of biological molecules? - Lipids - Proteins - Carbohydrates - Nucleic acids 2. List a type of monomer and the polymer associated with that monomer. - Glucose (monomer), starch (polymer) - Protein – amino acid (polymer) - Nucleotide (monomer), DNA (polymer) 3. Which type of biological molecule is responsible for the structure of cell membranes? - Phospholipids 4. Give one example of an enzyme? Enzymes are proteins, but not all proteins are enzymes ... so protein isn’t one. Example: lactase – “lactose” is the sugar hydrochloric acid is NOT an enzyme. More Practice ... 1. Why is carbon such a special atom that it can form the backbone of biological molecules? - Carbon can bond with 4 different atoms at the same time, unlike most other atoms. Therefore molecules that have a backbone of carbon can have a wide variety of structures. 2. Why do molecules in meat undergo irreversible changes when they are cooked? - Meat contains many proteins. Proteins have complex structures due to chemical bonding. These bonds and structures are broken down by the heat used in cooking. Even More Questions... 1. Why can some people’s bodies metabolize alcohol but other people’s bodies cannot? - Enzymes! When your body takes in alcohol, there’s a series of reactions that takes place. 2. There are _____ amino acids that are essential to get from your diet. Why is this so? - 8 of the 20 amino acids are essential amino acids and cannot be made by the body, so must be consumed in the diet. Complete proteins contain all 8 essential amino acids, while incomplete proteins do not. 3. Why do people innately prefer to eat high fat foods rather than low fat foods? - Energy! A single gram of carbohydrates stores about four calories of energy, while the exact same amount of fat stores about 9 calories. - It tastes better! BIO101 9/3/15 Unit 2: Animal Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 11 Notes Homework: Read chapter 11, pgs. 248-295, so read 12 pages at a time over the next 4 days. Create a document with 3 columns: Column 1 – make a list of the terms that you know Column 2—a list of terms that you don’t know Column 3 – The big... What is a system? - Your body is made of several systems What is athletic cheating?  Steroids  Illegal drugs  Legal – deer antler extract; something legal but not allowable  HGH – human growth hormone  Caffeine – some are legal & are okay in sports What are some ways that athletes enhance their performance using chemicals? 1. Narcotics 2. d 3. d 4. Endurance enhancers - Increase number of 5. Muscle builders - increase muscle mass and/or strength 6. Diuretics - lose weight & flush drugs from body Steroids belong to the biological molecule: lipid What function do hormones have in the body? Examples? - How do molecules travel into individual cells? -  Transport proteins are shaped uniquely for molecules they function with (lock and key enzymes...) Anabolic v. Catabolic Anabolic steroids – requires energy - Testosterone - “The Clear” Catabolic steroids – releases energy - Endurance requires substantial oxygen transfer to contracting muscles. - Low oxygen stimulates ______ cell production. Three Kinds of “Blood Doping”  EPO raises red blood cell count  blood transfusions  synthetic oxygen carriers Human Growth Hormone (HGH) - location of the hypothalamus and pituitary - too little (underproduction) = too short - too much (overproduction) = too tall The Future of Athletic Cheating  The future is genetics... The ACTN3 muscle gene ___________ BIO101 9/8/15 Reminders: Unit 2 exam – September 17 (next Thursday) Unit 2: Animal Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 11 Notes Focus Questions: - How do animal body structures reflect their functions? Skeleton: gives structure to the body Teeth: eating, biting, chewing Hands: grab things Esophagus: contracts to break your food down Pupil: dilates Tongue: helps move things around to your teeth; helps you eat Alveoli: gas exchange Skin: waterproof; protects your internal organs Eyelashes/eyelids: keep dirt from getting in your eyes - How do animals regulate their internal environment? Homeostasis - How does homeostasis work? Depends on the exchange of substances between the environment and body’s cells; This explains why the inside surface area of your lungs have 80 times more surface area than the outside of your body. - Cells are compartments: functional and physical Our blood cells stay within the system. - System Questions 1. Which systems work to support the body and to move it? Skeletal and muscular 2. Which systems work to exchange materials with the Respiratory and digestive 3. Which systems work to transport materials throughout the body and to defend the body from...?Circulatory, Lymphatic, and Intugamentary System (Skin) 4. Endocrine and Nervous Systems 5. Reproductive System Homeostasis does not just refer to temperature! - Osmoconformers - Osmoregulators Are these examples of negative and positive feedback? 1. Blood Clots: a damaged blood vessel releases chemicals that attract platelets, while pile up and release chemicals until a clot is formed. - Positive feedback –because of the pile up, the results are intensified and you end up with a clot. 2. Thirst During Exercise: your body uses water in cellular process and sweats to cool itself. - Negative feedback – your body is trying to get itself back in balance 3. Blood Glucose Levels: eating causes blood glucose levels to rise. In response, the pancreas releases insulin. If glucose levels are too low, the pancreas releases glucagon, which causes the liver to release glucose, previously stored as glycogen, into the bloodstream. - Negative feedback – your trying to get the body back into balance. Positive feedback: “when your body intensifies it” Negative feedback: “when your body wants to stop it” BIO101 9/8/15 Reminders: Unit 2 exam – September 17 (next Thursday) Unit 2: Animal Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 11 Notes Focus Questions: How do animal body structures reflect their functions? Skeleton: gives structure to the body Teeth: eating, biting, chewing Hands: grab things Esophagus: contracts to break your food down Pupil: dilates Tongue: helps move things around to your teeth; helps you eat Alveoli: gas exchange Skin: waterproof; protects your internal organs Eyelashes/eyelids: keep dirt from getting in your eyes How do animals regulate their internal environment? Homeostasis How does homeostasis work? Depends on the exchange of substances between the environment and body’s cells; This explains why the inside surface area of your lungs have 80 times more surface area than the outside of your body. Cells are compartments: functional and physical Our blood cells stay within the system. Systems Questions 1. Which systems work to support the body and to move it? Muscular and skeletal 2. Which systems work to exchange materials with the external environment? Digestive, respiratory, excretory (urinary) 3. Which systems work to transport materials throughout the body and to defend the body against invasions? Circulatory, Lymphatic, Skin (Integumentary) 4. Which systems work to control and coordinate the body’s functions in order to maintain homeostasis? Nervous, Endocrine 5. Which system has the primary responsibility for producing offspring? Reproductive Homeostasis does not just refer to temperature! - Osmoconformers - Osmoregulators Are these examples of negative and positive feedback? 1. Blood Clots: a damaged blood vessel releases chemicals that attract platelets, while pile up and release chemicals until a clot is formed. - Positive feedback –because of the pile up, the results are intensified and you end up with a clot. 2. Thirst During Exercise: your body uses water in cellular process and sweats to cool itself. - Negative feedback – your body is trying to get itself back in balance 3. Blood Glucose Levels: eating causes blood glucose levels to rise. In response, the pancreas releases insulin. If glucose levels are too low, the pancreas releases glucagon, which causes the liver to release glucose, previously stored as glycogen, into the bloodstream. - Negative feedback – your trying to get the body back into balance. Positive feedback: “when your body intensifies it” Negative feedback: “when your body wants to stop it” BIO101 9/10/15 Reminder: go over Chapter 11 study guide before class on Tuesday...Test is Thursday! Mastering Biology Assignment is due next Thursday (day of test) Chapter 11 Cont’d... - The lining of your digestive system is outside your body; it’s a type of epithelial tissue. Neurotransmitter: Definition: a chemical secreted into the synaptic cleft by a neuron from the synaptic terminals. Function: excites or inhibits the firing... Heart & Tissue A heart attack is caused by blockage of a coronary artery. Arteries are tissues of the circulatory system. Aids & Lymphatic System When you get an infection, your lymph nodes get larger. HIV causes the immune system to fail. Activity: Make inferences about their function of body parts from their forms. Fruit Bats v. Insectivorous Bats Notice that the fruit bats don’t need big ears to hear insects, because they eat fruit unlike the insectivorous bats. True or False – Physiology: “the way the body works” 1. All the blood in our body is filtered through the kidneys 400 times every day. TRUE 2. Eating asparagus makes everybody’s urine odiferous, but only ~25% of us have the gene to smell it. TRUE 3. Urinating on a jellyfish sting is not an effective remedy. TRUE If you see a soccer ball coming and move to kick it, what is happening in your nervous system? 1. The sensory neuron has been activated – Your brain has processed some information. – sensory input 2. A motor neuron was used to kick the ball. – motor output Neurons Dendrites: receives signals – like a sensory neuron in a sense Cell body: output; integrates the information – contains the nucleus and other cellular machinery found in eukaryotic cells – “integration” Axon: transmits impulses away from the cell body and can extend over very long distances Q: What is a neuron and how do neurons communicate with one another? Neurons produce and transmit nerve impulses – electrical impulses Dendrite – bring information into the cell body Cell Body Axon – carries impulses away from the cell body Dendrite: reception Cell Body: integration Axon: transmission Q: Do electrical impulses jump the synaptic cleft? NO Synapses - Chemical neurotransmitters are released by one cell and received by another. - The effect on receiving the neuron is excitatory, inhibitory or no change. Neurotransmitters in Your Life • Dopamine – lack of this causes Parkinson’s disease – dopamine is inhibitory • Depression may be caused by low levels of Serotonin or norepinephrine. – anti-depressants work with neurotransmitters. • Caffeine reduces the effect of inhibitory neurotransmitters -- caffeine itself is not a neurotransmitter but it reduces the effect of melatonin. • A nerve signal involves a temporary reversal of the polarity, caused by ions flowing into and out of the axon. Sensory Perception • Sensory organs absorb stimuli and turn them into action potentials that are processed by the brain • Senses: touch, vision, smell, taste, hearing, equilibrium and proprioception. • Video shown of someone with the loss of proprioception: sense of self...this man had to retrain his brain to be able to have balance when walking, etc. Contrast the Nervous System with the Endocrine System Nervous System – – Electrical and chemical signals – Rapid response, short duration of action – Signals stay in the system – Only target cells are affected Endocrine System – – Chemical signals – hormones – Slower response, long duration of action – Signals sent through circulatory system – Cells throughout the body may be affected Hormones – Messengers of the Endocrine System – Steroid Hormones influence the cell by getting into the nucleus and changing chemical production – Peptide Hormones (peptide means protein) influence the cell by binding to a receptor on the cell membrane. Endocrine System: Important Players Hypothalamus o Control center of the endocrine system Pituitary o Receives signals from the hypothalamus Parathyroid glands o Help regulate blood calcium levels Thyroid gland o Regulates oxygen consumption, metabolism, blood calcium levels, and body temperature Pancreas o Regulates blood glucose levels through the secretion of hormones Adrenal glands o Regulate metabolism and responses to stress Testes (males) or ovaries (females) o Growth and development, promote sexual characteristics, and regulate reproduction * Negative feedback loop works to reduce the deviation from the normal situation. * Without proper regulation by insulin, cells cannot obtain enough diabetes. BIO101 9/15/15 Unit 2 Test Review Day In- Class Writing Questions 1. Describe how birth is an example of a positive feedback system. Positive feedback means that something happens and that it is intensified. Birth is a positive feedback loop. The Process... 1. The baby pushes against the cervix, causing it to stretch. 2. Stretching of the cervix causes nerve impulses to be sent to the brain. 3. The brain stimulates the pituitary to release Oxytocin. 4. Oxytocin causes the uterus to contract If we had negative feedback, the baby would never be born. 2. Your cells excrete waste, what happens to it? The Lymphatic System runs close to the circulatory system throughout the body and plays a supporting role in the process of circulation. Lymphatic system – immune & waste distributor Interstitial fluid – between cells, where the waste is Thoracic duct connects to a vein. Waste gets pumped back into your blood! What happens when you sprain an ankle? Your ankle swells up because of the extra blood that ran to it. The extra interstitial fluid is what “swelling” is. The Lymphatic System takes care of that. 3. List the ways that your epithelial tissue keeps you well.  Sweat, saliva, and tears are all antibacterial  Hair blocks things from entering your lungs and ears.  Cilia sweeps particles out of the lungs.  Mucus traps particles.  Acid kills invaders.  Oils on the skin limit bacterial growth. 4. How do vaccinations affect your immune systems? Innate vs. Adaptive Defenses: Innate Adaptive • Immediate, rapid response  Slower response (a few days) • Physical barriers or inflammation  Invader recognition • Generalized response, nonspecific  Repeated exposure to molecules will cause increased responses Battling Invaders: Clonal Selection An antigen will activate lymphocytes with matching receptors, stimulating rapid multiplication. Two cell types are produced: 1. Effector Cells, which provide an immediate response. 2. Memory Cells, which provide long-lasting protection. In-Class Writing Assignment Create an analogy for the way the immune system works with recognizing and battling invaders using modern police tactics. Your immune system protects against pathogens using a huge number and variety of defenses. These include: – External barriers – The inflammatory response – Complement system proteins – White blood cells and the lymphatic system - The cells of a damaged tissue release chemicals (such as histamine) that trigger the inflammatory response. - Blood vessels weaken, causing swelling. - White blood cells called phagocytes engulf and destroy bacteria. • Proteins of the complement system assemble on the surface of an invading bacterial cell, forming a hole. • This causes the bacterial cell to swell and eventually burst. There are two types of white blood cells. • Innate cells are pre-made and ready to attack. • Lymphocytes are produced after contact with a specific invader. • The lymphatic system is a branching network filled with lymph fluid. • Invading microbes are swept into lymph nodes, where they are attacked by lymphocytes (white blood cells). 5. What substances are found in the lymph system? What substances are in the lymph fluid?  Since the lymph is derived from the interstitial fluid, its composition continually changes as the blood and the surrounding cells continually exchange substances with the interstitial fluid – such as all the types of cells in the immune system.  Lymph returns proteins and excess interstitial fluid to the bloodstream  Lymph may pick up bacteria and bring them to lymph nodes where they are destroyed.  Mestastic cancer cells can also be transported via lymph.  Lymph also transports fats from the digestive system. ** Cancer cells can be found in the lymph system... Unit 4 Notes – Reproduction of Different Kinds of Organisms th Exam: Tuesday, October 20 New Exam Date: Thursday, October 22nd 10/6/15 Chapter 5: pgs. 80-99, 114-115 Chapter 6: pgs. 116-119 Chapter 8: pgs. 186-189 Chapter 9: Chapter 11: Class Question: Is sex necessary (for reproduction)?  Do bugs have sex? Yes  Do trees have sex? Yes  Do bacteria have sex? Yes  Can organisms reproduce without sex? Yes  What is sex? Exchanging genetic material Bacteria reproduce asexually. Some bacteria can reproduce (divide) every 20 minutes, exponentially. Prokaryotic cells take on asexual cell reproduction.  The process is called binary fission (binary meaning two & fission meaning break)  Requires DNA replication  Synthesis of more cytoplasm  Simpler than in eukaryotic cells  The mechanism for growth in bacteria Compare & Contrast: Mitosis vs. Meiosis  Mitosis occurs during asexual cell reproduction  Mitosis is the process of dividing the nucleus. To do this you have to make 2 sets of DNA.  Dividing the cytoplasm and cell membrane = Cytokinesis  Mitosis & Meiosis only deal with eukaryotic cells. - More complex because eukaryotic cells must divide the nucleus and make more organelles. - Cell division in animal cells leads to growth of an organism Unrestrained asexual reproduction is cancer... - Cell multiplication unrestrained = cancer - Stopping the uncontrolled cell division can stop cancer growth. Cell Division in plant cells leads to growth OR vegetation reproduction Vegetation Reproduction: asexual cell reproduction No cleavage furrow in rigid plant cell Aspen stand of clones means asexual reproduction predominates. Some organisms other than plants can reproduce asexually...  The Whiptail Lizard is an example of an organism that does so.  The process is called Parthenogenesis. Risky Reproduction - What is risky about honeybee sex? The drone dies after its penis breaks off; the drone is male. The drone doesn’t gather nectar. - Why is sex a good idea for a species even if it is risky? The biological purpose of life is to reproduce. If sex is not necessary for reproduction, why is it a good idea?  If the young have new combinations of genes (from both mom and dad), they may be able to survive when the parents can’t. Cell Division Why do cells divide? - Growth and Repair (Mitosis) - Somatic cells (all cells in the body except for the gametes) - Reproduction (Meiosis) - Sex cells (gametes) Meiosis is not the same as Mitosis!! There’s an “e” in sex, and an “e” in Meiosis  Mitosis is necessary in asexual reproduction of eukaryotic organism, growth, replacement of cells and repair of injuries. Purposes of Meiosis  Reduction of Chromosomes in gametes  Genetic variation o Recombination (cross-over) o Independent Assortment o Random Fertilization Spermatogenesis – produces mature sperm cells --> spermatids Oogenesis – produces an egg; the other things that are produced are polar bodies Cancer Questions 1. What is cancer? Human cancer is human cells... It is a lot easier to get rid of a foreign cell, than a cell of your own... Abnormal cell division; unrestrained asexual cell reproduction 2. Why do people get cancer? Hereditary Radiation (environmental pressures) 3. Is there a link between Cancer and Viruses? You cannot catch cancer from someone else, but you can however catch a virus from someone else. Non-Cancerous Cells vs. Cancerous Cells Normal cells stop dividing when they come into close enough contact with other cells. Cancer cells have NO CONTACT INHIBITION. Normal cells can divide a finite number of times...eventually they are no longer able to divide. Cancer cells never lose their ability to divide and continue to do so indefinitely. Cancer & Mitosis  Benign Tumors: cells in these tumors are surrounded by an outer surface that inhibits the tumor form growing too large. Ex: Moles, uterine fibroids  Some benign tumors can become malignant: colon polyp, precancerous lesions of the cervix  Malignant Tumors: Out of control cell division Cells don’t “age and die” (most normal cells can only divide about 50x before they die) Cancer kills by taking all the resources of the other cells (space, nutrients, oxygen) Metastasis: if cancer has spread  Treatment -Remove the tumor -Stop cell division by giving poison (chemotherapy) - common side effects? Losing hair, nausea, tired, etc. 10/8/15 Using Concept Maps to form sentences... Cells all contain DNA, which replicates during mitosis. Mitosis occurs before Cytokinesis. Mitosis is in eukaryotic cells. DNA replicates during binary fission in prokaryotic organisms, which contains one circular chromosome. DNA is organized into chromosomes in a cell. Humans contain 46 chromosomes. A genome is all the chromosomes. Concept Map #2 Reproduction can be sexual or asexual in eukaryotic organisms. Reproduction can be asexual, which is binary fission, when it takes place in Bacteria and Archae. Reproduction can be sexual in eukaryotic organism, which includes Plants, Animals, Fungi, and Protista. Reproduction with eukaryotic organisms requires meiosis and cytokenisis to reduce chromosome number by half... Asexual reproduction (eukaryotic) happens using m Eukaryotic organisms for repair including replacement of body parts called regeneration. Eukaryotic organisms for reproduction through parthenogenesis, is reproduction from unfertilized eggs, which creates clones of the mother. Reproduction through vegetative reproduction is cloning of a plant. Chapter 5: Cell Birth & Death ~ Did you know? Between 50 & 70 billion of your cells die each day...  Is your body making any new cells right now? What kind? o Yes, hair cells, skin cells, etc.  Are certain types of cells replaced faster? What might be examples? o Yes, the ones we just named.  Are certain types of cells never replaced or slowly replaced? What might be examples? o Brain cells, egg cells, nerves in your spinal column Mitosis and Meiosis Compared Meiosis Mitosis Reproductive All body cells Where does it occur? organs: Ovaries/Testes Varies; from puberty until death in males. When is it needed? Starts before birth, completes Throughout between lifetime; puberty and Asexual menopause. reproduction Sexual reproduction 4 Unique 2 Identical How many/type offspring cells? haploid diploid cells (haploid/diploid) gametes (half the DNA) How many rounds of cell divisions? 2 rounds 1 round Mitosis and Cancer Cells Telomeres: a protective cap at the end of each chromosome Every time a cell divides, the telomere gets shorter. After a critical number of cell divisions, functional DNA is lost, which means almost certain death for the cell. At birth, telomeres in most human cells are long enough to support about 50 cell divisions! Cancer cells do not lose their telomeres and we don’t know why! Chromosomes Karyotype: a picture showing the complete set of chromosomes. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes. Why are they numbered the way that they are? The size of the chromosomes... You can survive with only one X chromosome, but you can’t survive with only one Y chromosome. You’re a female if you have one X – Turner Syndrome. Effects of Turner Syndrome: short, web of skin connecting neck and shoulders, sterile and underdeveloped sex organs, and normal intelligence. Super Male Syndrome (Jacob’s Syndrome) – often taller than average, moderate to severe acne, and intelligence may be slightly lower than average. Metafemales Syndrome (Triple-X) – mainly normal; may be sterile, no obvious physical or mental problems Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY) – underdeveloped testes and some feminine features. You can survive with more than 46 chromosomes Trisomy 21 – a condition in which a person has 3 copies of chromosome 21 (instead of the usual –2) for a total of 47 chromosomes. Trisomy 21 produces – down syndrome Trisomy 15/18 – leads to fetal death Definition of Male vs. Female Female produces larger gametes (XX). Male produces smaller gametes (XY). Birds In birds, the mother determines the sex in a way that is similar to how fathers determine sex in humans. Birds – two same chromosomes means you’re male. Two different chromosomes means you’re female. Ants, Bees, and Wasps In ants, bees, and wasps, sex is determined by the number of chromosome sets an individual posses. Female = 2 (diploid) | Males = 1 (haploid) Turtles In most turtles, sex is determined by the temperature at which the eggs are incubated... higher temperature = female | Lower temperature = male 10/15/15 th Reminder: Exam 4 is on Tuesday, October 20 ! Guest Speaker Reproduction Gamete size is the differentiating factor between male and female. Large gametes: female | Smaller gametes: male Eggs & Sperm 1 egg= 15-20% of body mass | entire season’s sperm < 5 % of body mass Sperm are cheap! What limits the reproductive success of males and females? Females – number of eggs and quality of offspring Strategy: choose mating partners that benefit Males: The number of females he can fertilize. Strategy: Mate with as many females as possible – Competition Strategies for Success: Male Competition  Large male body size (strength)  Male weapons – example shown: a male platypus has venomous spur on hind limb  Being persistent  Having structures that protect them during combat – example shown: elephant seals battle  Structures for grasping females – example shown: a horned club-tail Clasper and pincer’s of a Horseshoe crab that are specialized to grasp onto females.  Priming Pheromones – example shown: courtship gland on a salamander, plethodon jordani  Characteristics that attract females from a distance – examples shown: fireflies, Anole lizard, Indian bullfrog, frigate bird, and red-legged grasshopper  Sensory mechanisms to detect females and their reproductive condition – examples shown: Lion’s Flehmen Response video & asian longhorn beetle  Sperm competition: competition w/ female reproductive tract between the ejaculates of rival males – multiple Inseminations – example: lion’s mate 20- 40x a day  Produce lots of sperm per ejaculate – large testes Gorilla – little competition within group | Chimpanzee – lots of competition within group  Mate guarding: staying with females after they’ve mated with them for a long time – examples shown: love bugs (flies) also Sperm Removal (example: Dragonflies) Female Choice Strategies  Choose males with the best resources  Choose healthy males  Choose males with higher fertility – example shown: female guppies prefer males with orange coloration  Choose males with good genes – example shown: peacock with a higher number of eyespots  Don’t mate with kin – example shown: pedigreed animals are prone to health & developmental problems  Choose males with ornaments: they can survive despite these “handicaps” – example shown: Mandarin ducks; the brighter they are, the more attractive they are to females 10/20/15 New Exam Date: Next class, October 22 nd - Use Unit 4 Charts & fill out Review before test next class... Eggs or sperm – haploid – only having one set of chromosomes Haploid & diploid vary. Zygote – diploid Basis of Sexual Reproduction After Meiosis, organisms are haploid. After Fertilization, organisms are diploid. Mitosis is doubling the number of chromosomes & nucleus, and splitting the cell Mitosis & Cytokinesis is how a diploid zygote grows. Gametes are formed by Mitosis – gametes – sperm & egg (haploid) Ferns, Bryophytes, etc... In ferns & bryophytes, there is an extra step. Female cones grow in the upper branches where they may be fertilized by pollen blown on the wind in the male cones. Male cones spread pollen, while female cones gather it. Chromosome Questions  The typical chromosome number for most cells in a human being is 46.  Sperm and egg cells have typically 23 chromosomes. Males & females both produce, store, and deliver gametes Despite their external differences, both sexes share the following similarities:  A pair of gonads, the organs that produce gametes  A system of ducts that store and deliver gametes  Structures that facilitate copulation (sexual intercourse) 11.17 Male Reproductive Anatomy Urine and sperm are conveyed through a tube called the urethra. The penis contains erectile tissue that when filled with blood, produces an erection. The male gonad is the testes. The scrotum is an external sac that holds the testes and keeps them slightly cooler than body temperature. 11.17 Female Reproductive Anatomy The ovary is the female gonad, where eggs are produced and released. The uterus is the site of pregnancy where an embryo develops into a baby. The vagina, or birth canal, is where sperm enters and a baby exits. The oviduct (fallopian tube) is the site where egg meets sperm. The vulva is the collective name for all of the external female reproductive structures. 11.17 A sperm is a haploid cell formed by the division of a diploid cell 11.17 An egg is a haploid cell formed by the division of a diploid cell Within the ovary, during the process of Oogenesis, a mature haploid egg called an ovum develops (23 chromosomes). 1 fertilized egg, but end up with twins = identical twins 2 fertilized eggs, 2 sperm = fraternal twins 11.17 The Female Reproductive Cycle Ovulation, the release of an egg cell from the ovaries, occurs around day 14. Everyone’s cycle is different though, so it’s not day #14 for every female. Menstruation (days 0-4) --> thickening (days 6-14) --> ovulation (days 14-28) Women that have painful periods may have endometriosis. Endometriosis is a major cause of infertility... High estrogen – when a woman will be most interested in sexual intercourse. When progesterone drops, PMS will occur. 11.18 You, and every human, developed from a single cell – Development - The time from human fertilization to birth takes about 38 weeks. - 50% of all zygotes don’t develop into embryos. 11.18 The fetus progresses until birth... - First trimester is marked by organ formation. During this trimester, the woman is tired most of the time, because most of her energy is going into the baby. - Second trimester is time for growth. - Third trimester is preparing for birth. - Childbirth is brought about by labor, a series of uterine muscle contractions. 11.19 Contraception is the deliberate prevention of pregnancy - Contraception methods vary based on male and female anatomy. - Female contraception includes preventing the formation of gametes – use of birth control pills or patches - Birth control pills trick your body into thinking you’re pregnant, which is why you gain weight. There’s a higher risk of stroke while taking these pills. Infertile – that is, they are unable to conceive a child despite one year of trying. 11.19 STDs are spread by sexual contact and represent several organism types  Gonorrhea Bacteria  Herpes Virus  Trichomoniasis Protist  Candidiasis Yeast Nearly 99% of all plants & animals reproduce sexually. Why? Because of Genetic Variation! Meiosis is the reason for genetic variability. We want diversiy, so we don’t want to produce asexually. Unit 5 Notes – Evolution & the Nature of Science Exam: Thursday, November 5th New Exam Date: Thursday, November 12 thon Chapter 7 10/27/15 Homework: Read Chapter 7 and watch videos posted. No class Thursday. Be prepared for quiz next class, Tuesday, November 3 . rd Science  Science is a way of knowing. Science uses senses to gather evidence. – Sight, taste, sound, smell, and sight.  There are many ways of knowing that are not limited to the senses. – Philosophy, Psychology, History, Political Science, Languages, and Religion.  Religion is not bound by just the senses, but Science is.  The findings of Science cannot be proven. Ideas of Science can be supported by evidence though.  When we see, hear, taste, etc things in our world, which is evidence. Example: How do we know that germs cause disease? Evidence: The microscope allows us to look at a person’s red blood cells & analyze if there are parasites found. Malaria is caught from mosquitoes. We can take a mosquito and examine it’s blood to see that Malarian parasites are found. Great Scientists Discussed in Book Gregor Mendel – genetics & pea plants Charles Darwin – “father of evolution” The Language of Science  Some words have different meanings in science...  Hypothesis – there’s more than one type of hypotheses: predicted & explanatory - Hypothesis – a proposed explanation of a phenomenon  Theory in everyday speech – a proposed explanation of a phenomenon  Theory in science – an explanation that is supported by a great deal of evidence and not contradicted by evidence. - Examples: Germ theory of disease. It is supported by evidence but not contradicted by evidence. - Evolution is a scientific theory. Observations vs. Inferences  Observations are descriptions made using the senses.  Inferences are explanations of observations. An explanatory hypothesis is an inference.  Observations are facts, while inferences are not facts, so therefore explanations are not facts. Scientific Theory vs. Scientific Law  Scientific Theories do not become facts or Scientific laws.  A Scientific law is a description of a phenomenon. A law allows us to make predictions. Example – Law of Gravity  A law allows us to make predictions. Laws describe but they do not explain.  A Scientific Theory is an explanation of a phenomenon. The Rules of Science  Natural events must be explained by natural causes.  Nature works uniformly. The way things happen now is the same way they happened in the past.  The same evidence must be available to all scientists. “Cold Fusion” – scientist found a way to cause a nuclear chemical reaction to happen that would get more energy out of it than the energy put into it. None of the other scientists could replicate it. Defining Biological Evolution – Chapter 7  Biological Evolution - means changes in the genetics of organisms - describes how organisms change over time - happens to populations over generations, does not happen to individuals - is not about the origins of life (a hypothesis)  Biological Evolution is supported by scientific evidence Natural Selection – the consequence of certain individual organisms... Change in Populations - A change in the relative frequency of alleles (different forms of genes) in a population. Our book discusses the “gene pool” of a population – Microevolution - This change is a fact. An Old Idea - From the ancient Greeks to the 1800’s it was written that all species had been created separately and were unchanging. Two definitions of Species... Common Definition: A group of individuals having some characteristics in common - Scientific Definition: A group of individuals who are related to each other and interbreed in nature successfully. 11/3/15 * Quiz today * Evolution Notes Macroevolution v. Microevolution  Microevolution changes the species but doesn’t affect reproduction, while macroevolution does affect reproduction. Mutation Misconceptions  Mutations are not developed in response to a change in the environment.  Mutations do not develop because the organism needs them to survive.  The same mutation may be harmful or helpful or neutral under different environmental conditions. Natural Selection  Phenotype traits are physical traits but cannot necessarily be seen. Example: Diabetes; we can detect it but we can’t see this with naked eye.  ***Organisms cannot biologically adapt to their environment after they are born! Case Study Example  Initial Population o Large, four legged animals that eat leaves on trees  Natural Selection Process o There’s a lack of competition for the animals with the longer necks, being that they can get to the leaves easier. o The environment might have changed so that there weren’t any plants that had leaves on the lower portion of the trees.  Resulting Population o Large, four legged animals that eat leaves on trees and have very long necks in proportion to their bodies.  Traits selected FOR: long necks  Traits selected AGAINST: short necks  What are we talking about? Giraffes Sickle-Celled Anemia: Example of Mechanisms of Change in Allele Frequencies  Sickle-Cell Anemia is caused by a mutation.  Sickle cells hold less oxygen than normal cells. Disease is painful and can be fatal.  How could such a harmful mutation persist in a population? 11/5/15 Reminders: Next test coming up on Thursday, 11/12; also Mastering Biology assignments are due on test day as well. Theories of Evolution What is a Species?  Biological definition: Species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups.  Earth’s organisms are so varied that this definition doesn’t apply to all of them: only to organisms that multiply through sexual reproduction.  This definition doesn’t apply to Bacteria and Archae, which produce through simple cell division Common Descent with Modification  Within the theory of evolution, a key principle is that of common descent with modification.  This principle describes the process by which species of living things can undergo modification over time, with such change sometimes resulting in the formation of a new, separate species.  Common ancestry – at some point, we all shared a common ancestor because we are humans. This is the idea that all humans share a common ancestor Primates gorilla Human chimpanzee Mechanisms of Evolution Speciation (macroevolution)  Biological definition: Species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups.  process by whi


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