CIS 200 Course Study Guides/Notes
CIS 200 Course Study Guides/Notes CIS 200
Popular in Critical and Creative Thinking Using IT
Popular in Computer Science and Engineering
This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Teaira Notetaker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CIS 200 at Missouri State University taught by Michael Albritton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Critical and Creative Thinking Using IT in Computer Science and Engineering at Missouri State University.
Reviews for CIS 200 Course Study Guides/Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/31/16
CIS Test Review Day 1. A claim is a written or spoken statement that someone makes about a topic. 2. An argument is a series of claims that support a particular conclusion. 3. Deductive Reasoning takes an argument from general observations to a specific conclusion. Ex: A man is mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. 4. A sound argument is one that logically follows its true premises. 5. If an argument is valid and the premises are true, then the conclusion would be true. 6. An assumption is a proposition or claim that is taken for granted, as though it were known to be valid. 7. Familiarize yourself with the obstacles to critical thinking on pg. 58 of book 8. A fallacy is an invalid argument that is presented to appear valid. Ex: strawman, slippery slope 9. Slippery slope fallacy: it asserts that if one event happens, another event will inevitably occur as a result. 10.An Inductive Argument is one that makes general conclusions based on specific instances or observations. 11.The Composition Fallacy assumes that if a part of something has a particular quality, the whole shares that quality. (Ex: if you go to the restaurant and you get something that’s terrible and say that the restaurant is terrible.) 12.Group Dynamics are how people work and interact with each other. 13.Divergent Thinking is used to generate ideas. 14.The goal of Convergent Thinking is to narrow possible options to a manageable set. 15.Majority Rule is a good decision making technique when deciding between two alternatives. 16.Group Think is when members of a group avoid presenting ideas that fall outside the group’s comfort zone. 17.The purpose of an action plan is to summarize the activities the group agrees to perform. Why do we wanna have this? It helps us to stay organized, keep people accountable, and reduce unrealistic expectations. 18.Successful teams allow time for socializing, when the group first meets. 19.A decision support system helps you identify, solve problems, and make decisions. 20.A model is a numeric representation of the situation. 21.Know how to find the arithmetic “mean --- value of a set of data is usually referred to as the average. Sum the values in your data and divide by the number of items that you counted. 22.When do we use the “mode?” When we have widely varied numbers. 23.Know what a cell reference is in Excel and what it’s used for – pointing to the data in that cell. 24.Line charts show trends overtime. 25.Know what a pie chart looks like. Teaira Miller 9/9/15 Unit 1 Exam Study Guide CIS200 1. What is a problem? Problem: The difference between current state and goal state. As you begin problem solving... 1. Identify yourself as a problem solver 2. Recognize problems 3. Select an intuitive approach for solving problems “Intuition”: your proknowledge of something; your knowledge of something without having to discover or learn it, and it is typically your first reaction to a problem or question. 4. Select a systematic approach for solving problems When you are systematic, you solve a problem in a methodical and organized manner. It’s appropriate for larger, more complicated problems or situations that involve a lot of risk. 5. Make decisions Decisions are choices you make when faced with a set of options or alternatives. 2. What are the basic steps of problem solving? (p.3.) 1. Identify the problem 2. Gather information 3. Clarify the problem 4. Consider possible solutions 5. Select the best option 6. Make a decision and monitor the solution Remember: You don’t accept the first solution that arises in a problemsituation Analyzing Problems Teaira Miller 9/9/15 1. Look for deficiencies 2. Interview & gather data 3. Observe as much as you can 4. Ask what, not who – Investigating problems makes people apprehensive, and they might withdraw as a consequence. Resource Type of Information Electronic General info on Websites, databases, or CDs Print Background info available in books, newspapers, and periodicals Primary Direct observations, interviews, questionnaires Informal Organization files, conversations with colleagues, informal surveys 3. What is a stakeholder? Someone who is affected by a problem or needs to be involved to solve it. 4. When you’re problem solving for someone else... You shouldn’t let the stakeholders find their own solution – that’s your job. 5. Purpose of a problem statement? To describe a single problem objectively, not to find a cause, assign blame, or define the solution. ProblemStatement: a clear, concise description of the problem and the effect you expect from the solution. 6. The 5 Why’s Technique Determining Causes 1. Differentiate between symptoms & causes 2. Look for more than one cause 3. Consider the cost 4. Use the 5 Whys Technique A popular approach used to uncover and define problems. This involves looking at a problem and asking “why?” or “what was the cause of this situation?” at least 5 times. 5. Create a causeandeffect diagram Teaira Miller 9/9/15 Complicated problems typically grow out of many related issues. A popular way to visualize a complex problem is by creating this... ** Root cause analysis – a study that determines the real basis for the problem. 7. Know what a causeandeffect diagram shows (p.11) (like a river with tributaries) Write the main problem in a box, and then draw a horizontal line from the box across the page like a spine of a fish. Identify related factors that contribute to the problem by drawing lines from the spine and labeling each. Include as many factors as you can. 8. When you’re dealing with complex problems, what should you do with them? Break it down and look at the smaller problems (delegate sub problems) 9. What should we do with sub problems? Rank the sub problems according to importance – ask yourself which problem is causing the most significant deviation from what you want or expect. 10. What is the definition of risk? Risk: an exposure to a chance of loss/damage 11. Know the type of riskrewardratio that is best in solution problems? Low riskhigh reward 12. What are the problem solving traps (p.16) 1. Avoid the positive outcome bias – be aware of the symptoms of overconfidence 2. Avoid “not invented here” – the tendency to develop a strong sense of ownership in your own ideas and opinions might lead you to overlook potential solutions from other sources. Don’t prejudge ideas or opinions; instead, evaluate all available info with an open mind. 3. Avoid the need for quick closer – To reduce the associated anxiety, you might try to accelerate the process and grasp at unlikely alternatives. Use simple timemanagement approaches and planning the solution process objectively will help you to overcome this common trap. 4. Avoid the bandwagon effect – When working in a company with a strong set of cultural norms, it is easy to adopt popular opinions and follow the expectations of others. 5. Avoid selfserving bias – This is anything that leads you to see the data as you most want it to appear. When you start to work on a problem, ask yourself if a particular Teaira Miller 9/9/15 outcome/solution is especially appealing to you. If so, try to be aware of it as you proceed. 13. Know the symptoms of overconfidence Underestimating how long it will take to complete a task; overestimating the likelihood of something that you hope will occur; or being overly optimistic about your decisions and answers to questions. 14. Know that before you start to gather new information, you should do what? Gather existing data 15. If there were a problem w/ customer satisfaction, what type of data would be best? Customer surveys 16. Know that you use creativity to come up with as many ideas as possible... 17. Be familiar with the mindmap technique (p.29) Mind maps – diagrams that represent your ideas and stimulate your creativity. Start a mind map by writing the problem in the center of a physical/digital sheet of paper. As you think of ideas, draw them as branches that project from the problem description. Do this quickly without pausing to reflect on ideas, as you do when brainstorming. 18. What is evaluation criteria? These are variables that drive your decisions. This includes: cost, time, feasibility, usefulness, and appropriateness. Use more than one of these when evaluating alternatives. 19. Remember: Do not wait for ideal solutions, they usually don’t exist. 20. When communicating with stakeholders about proposed solutions, remember to... Give details about how your solution will be implemented. (p.32 – Notify Stakeholders) 21. If your solution’s not working out...? Correct it promptly! 22. Remember: Present your progress, once you’ve got the solution going. Teaira Miller 9/9/15 23. Basics of adaptive techniques: Most adaptive techniques involve a combination of intuition, logic, and common sense. They are less precise than traditional problemsolving methods, but are appropriate in many cases. You use adaptive techniques, when we don’t need exhaustive analysis... (p.38) Consider using adaptive techniques when: You have limited amount of time to work An exhaustive analysis is not needed The risks are minimal and downside costs are low The solution is easily reversible 24. Ethical problem solving Ethics are standards of behavior that direct how people should act. Ethics involves making moral decisions and choosing between right and wrong. When applied to problem solving, ethical behavior leads to appropriate decisions, not necessarily the optimal ones. We want it to do good and not do harm. We’re looking to produce the most good without producing harm. (p.40) Questions to ask before making a decision... Is this decision Will I feel better Does this decision Does this How would I fair? or worse about break any decision break feel if this myself after I organizational any laws or decision were make this rules? ethical broadcast on the decision? standards? news? 25. Know what a mashup is (p.42) Mashup – a web application that combines features or info more than one source. The two main types of mashups are consumer and business, and the two types overlap. Consumer mashups – include mapping, photo and video, search, shopping, and news. News mashups – NYTimes Teaira Miller 9/9/15 Business mashups –generally help employees process information or decision makers view information in new ways. Dashboards: windows that graphically summarize information about how a business is operating.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'