ANEQ 102 Full Fall Semester Notes
ANEQ 102 Full Fall Semester Notes ANEQ 102-001
Popular in Introduction to Equine Science
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
verified elite notetaker
This 97 page Bundle was uploaded by Lauren Caldwell on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ANEQ 102-001 at Colorado State University taught by Ryan Michael Brooks in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Equine Science in Animal Science and Zoology at Colorado State University.
Reviews for ANEQ 102 Full Fall Semester Notes
Amazing. Wouldn't have passed this test without these notes. Hoping this notetaker will be around for the final!
-Mr. Antoinette Keeling
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/31/16
In How to Train Your Dragon, this dragon had a blind spot in the very front of its face; the kids were taught to get in front of its face before anything else because of this - it put them at an advantage 10/21 (Sorry, I combined some information with the last lecture) Balancing a Diet Elements to know: o Classification o Feed sources/ingredients o How to take in Body Weight and Body Condition Score Feedstuffs o Roughanges Sources and types vary Types Hay, pasture, beet pulps Forms Hay, pasture, silage Factors are important to consider when choosing what to give: Quality Nutrient value Time of harvest What horse may get it o Concentrates Generally more starch based Commercial feeds o Supplements Protein Minerals Nutraceutricals "anything that may be added to impact health or nutritional value" Lipids Rules of thumb o Energy "Total Digestional Nutrients" (TDN) From 50% hay to 75% grain o Proteins Legumes: 14-16% Crude Proteins (legumes = oddball grasses like alfalfa) Grasses: 7-10% CP o Calcium : Ph Legumes higher in Ca than grasses Ca content; all forages low in P EX: Grains are high in P o Vitamins Forages are high in vitamins but grains are low When it comes to harvesting grasses to eat, its best to aim for the happy medium of plants o Where the plants are not at their tallest, but there is a "10% bloom" This is the optimum time for the highest yield of nutrient value for a horse NOTE: on the graph, digestibility relates to the percent of protein and leaves in the plant. The younger the plant, the more the protein/leaves, thus the more work needed for molecular digestibility Types of plant Timothy o Horses will usually pick this over other choices Alfalfa o Let out to dry (but not TOO dry!) before being bailed Types of Concentrates Concentrates o Grains, something or anything with a highly concentrated form of energy or protein Types o Oats o Corn o Barley o Wheat (not all that nutrient-based though) Nutrient differences o Quality wise, they are all generally kind of similar, with "corn being the best" o Commercial feeds Come in varying forms Based on texture, Changes to form Rolling the plant o Textured concentrates Sweet feeds Sugar, sometimes includes molasses o Processed feeds A complete diet but in a pellet form Pressure and heat presses elements into pellets Heat, however, brings down the quality, in general, of feeds Most expensive form of feed, but also considered the most consistent o Complete feeds These are the senior feeds Composed of concentrates and roughage Hay often included in the feed simply due to boredom for the horse Older horses generally get a weird smell and a lack of tastebuds o Supplements Additive of high protein, minerals, vitamins, or fats "Red Cell" - an iron supplement often given to racehorses o High protein feeds Generally given to younger horses EX: Soybeans o Fiber sources Beet pulp Preffered in the horse world Rice-brand is also used, but not used as much 10/23 Why Study Nutrition? Medical costs are generally the same per the individuals… same with boarding… but in nutrition there is the most variation Grazing Animal o Herbivores o Continuous eaters - eats 18-20 hours a day o Selective eaters - a parrot-type mouth design to pick and pull particular grasses Horses are thus generally rougher on pastures than cows o Nutritional wisdom - the theory that the animal knows what to eat The young don’t have any experience, whereas watching older animals helps then learn to avoid such and such foods o Thus, feed management is important Ruminants o Ruminant - any animal that uses fermentation to break down matter A foregut where microbes exist before the stomach itself takes in the food o Non-ruminant - us We don’t have this particular part and we don’t have a noticibly large secum The ratio of the digestive system for the horse: o 37% is before the stomach, where 63% falls behind that stomach Digestivbe system tract: 1 Mouth a Reduces particle size b Saliva breaks down and develops buffers for acid concentration within the body i Arabs are known for having ulcers, which come into conflict with saliva creation b Dental health is uber important i Upper molars (teeth) get sharpened naturally on the outside part of the tooth ii Lower molars get sharpened naturally on the inside part of the tooth 1 Filing down teeth is known as "floating the teeth" 2 Esophagus (4-5 ft) a There is no muscular element to the esophagus, which prevents them from throwing up 2 Stomach (roughly 10 liters/2 gallons) a Technically a part of the foregut b Minor microbial fermentation occurs c The top/first section of the stomach where food enters is the Fundus i Next is the Antrum 1 Then on to the Duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine b Margo Plicatus -> a line of division between the sections of the stomach c Rate of passage -> the amount of time it takes for food to pass through any given point i High starch/easily broken down = very fast, can be 15 minutes ii High in fiber/harder to break down = very long, as long as an hour These both vary based on the feedstuff given to the horses 2 Small intestine (70ft) a Still part of the foregut b Enzymatic digestion in the Pancreas and Liver i Aka, enzymes enter the small intestine from the pancreas and liver b Horse has no Gall Bladder i A piece of the body responsible for excretions of bile 1 Rather, for a horse, it is simply constantly flushed through the body b Primary site of absorption of nutrients! i Lipids ii CHOs iii Proteins iv Vitamins (fat-soluble) v Minerals b Rate of passage -> generally 30 centimeters per minute (or a ft per minute) 2 Cecum (4ft) (Hindgut) a Forage and fiber break down here (forage relates to starch and protein) i Done by microbes b Volatile fatty acids, gases, and B-vitamins, as well as Vitamin K2, produced i Fatty acids: 1 Acetic acid 2 Proprionic acid 3 Butyrate 2 Large intestine (Hindgut) a Large colon (10-12 ft) i VFA synthesis and absorption ii Emphasis here in water absorption iii B-Vitamins synthesis b Small colon (10-12 ft) i Water "re-absorption" 1 Takes in whatever the large colon cant b Anus c Rectum (1ft) Absorption o Taken in by the villi of small intestine o Glucose absorbed into blood vessels in villi o Glucose converted by the liver Random Note: low levels of Amylase impacts grain digestion 10/28 Horse feeds - roughages (at least 1%) and Energy/protein/minerals/other supplements Published in 1989 by National Research Council, there are the Nutrient Requirements Newest version released in 2007 Nutrient requirements What information is required to establish the required nutrient levels? 1. Body weight 2. Acitivity level 3. Physiological status i. Maintenance ii. Breeding stallion iii. Gestation iv. General age General considerations with feeding 1 Feed intake ranges from 1.5 to 3% of body weight eaten per day (whereas 2% is a good estimate for most horse classes) i. Example: for a 11ll lbs horse = generally 22 lbs per day This is DRY FEED, without water Thus, you generally will actually feed more than the estimated average (here, the 22 lbs) since you have to add the water back in The greatest strategy to take into consideration for feed selection is you need to maximize forage Always make a point to know your supplements o To balance a horse's diet You need to know classification of the horse (where are they at, physiologically?), the feed sources and ingredients, and ho2 to take body weight and body condition score i. Body weight = (heart girth x body length) / 330 ii. Generally, we take length measurements of the horse (in inches) Why balance a horse's diet? i. The better the health, the greater the horse has of not only surviving but thriving For athletes o Three levels Light Western and English pleasure, trail riding, 20 equitation, hacking Mcals/day Moderate Dressage, ranch work, roping, cutting, barrel 24 racing, jumping Mcals/day Heavy or Race training, polo, cutting 32 Intense Mcals/day Whereas a basic maintenance, pasture-pony gets 16 Mcals/day Legume (alfalfa) vs grass forages Consider everything at hand based on the individual animal at hand Hays Safety elements o Proper storing/bailing o No molding, no dusty smell Nutritional value o Small stems, high leaf-to-stem ratio (a YOUNGER plant) leads to higher nutrient content Grains Clean, plump grain kernels o Free of discoloration or mold - NOTE: you canNOT always see the mold Mold can easily end a horse's life Grain Mixes Well mixed, free of fines (the dusty stuff at the bottom of the bag) Pelleted Feeds Know and understand the contents of the pellets Max intake: minimum intake = 3%:1.5% Forage/roughage intake recommendation is at about 1% body weight Example: 1100 lbs horse = 1100 x .01 = 11.0 Water should be somewhere between 35-40 degrees o Provide more when its hot out o Standard drinking rate at 5 liters per 100 kgs of body weight per day Energy from fat is used at about 90% o Fat decreases heat of fermentation o Fat decreases buildup of lactic acid during intense exercise Random note: a horse has no gall bladder 10/30 - Happy almost Halloween! Issues in the Industry Basic stats: o 9.2 million horses in the US o 1.8 million horse owners o 4.6 million Americans involved in the industry o $39 billion in the economy a year o 460k full-time jobs o 46% of household income is between $25k and $75k o Horses by activity: Racing - 844k Showing - 2,718k Recreation - 3,906k Other 1,752k There are more registries to the AQHA than any other breed of horse in the US The Unwanted Horse Defined as old, injured, sick, unmanageable/dangerous horses that fail to meet their owners expectations, or the owner can no longer affort them The public's concern for horse welfare is at an all time high, while the publics knowledge of what constitutes good horse welfare is at an all time low +17-k unwanted horses in the US each year Basic care for a horse costs 1.8k to 3.6k a year The number of unwanted horses exceeds resources available Wild Horses AML - Appropriate Management Level - the point at which wild horses and burro herd populations are consistent with the land's capacity to support them o Aka, too many horses -> not enough for them to eat -> the land is ruined -> the horses starve Estimated 58k right now, with the max stable population being 26k - we're exceeding that by a lot HMA - Head Management Area (179 total) 1.6 million acres Populations increase at the average rate of 20% per year Equine Obesity 54% in London, 45% in Scotland, 51% in Virginia Lack of exercise Nutritionally excessive rations Unrestricted access to pasture This is something to worry about because it has bad effects on the horse's full wellbeing Education and the Lack there of… The lack of knowledge hits the headlines and the public is misinformed 11/2/15 Equine Exercise Physiology How to train a horse to avoid lameness Origin The olympic games in 1890 brought athletic ability to attention The international olympic committee was founded and multiple scientists came together to study how to protect and produce athletes XVII (17th century) - races in New Market and New York, considered the first of the modern horse races o Six mile races Nowadays 400 or 1000-2400 meters o Endurance races - 100 miles Horses chosen based on physic in the deserts of Arabia Speed in species o Based on the length of the body and how many of these lengths they move per second o Between the four animals races the most, the horse is the fastest Followed by the greyhound Followed by humans Followed by camels In truth, a rodent is actually the fastest (in moving at the rate of how many body lengths per second) Training o Speed came in to question for horses because they had to be able to outrun predators o The aims of training programs Exercise capacity To determine the ultimate physical ability of the animal Time of onset of fatigue To build endurance/stamina, we build a tolerance to fatigue Performance Anything from the fastest of racing abilities to the highest of jumping abilities Skills, strength, speed, endurance Decrease risk of injury The more you know about training skills, the less likely your horse is of getting hurt Tools and techniques o Field exercise tests - actually out in a field OR on a treadmill Treadmill allows a controlled environment (temperature, speed, etc) Can asses: Hooves, kinematics, respiratory exchange rate, heart rate, biochemistry You can get more results from a treadmill run, but it takes up a heck of a lot more time Kinematics - put luminescent dots on the horse and use a computer to analyze the movement Comparative exercise physiology o Genetic ability You can trace pedigrees to way back when, but you cant base a horse's ability based on the pedigree alone Abilities of a horse's athleticism involves training, genetics, and nutrition You'd think that after generations of training horses they'd be as fast as the freaking wind, but over time horses have kind of maxed out on there abilities In human exercise, humans are continuously breaking records and being amazing - horses, not as much Body systems involved in exercise 1. Cardiovascular Resting heart rate doesn’t change all that much from a pseudoactive heart rate Types of blood vessels Arteries Oxygen-rich Veins Oxygen-poor Capillaries The point of exchange in tissue Takes out the waste products and supplies oxygen Most of the oxygen will be transferred directly to muscles (80%) when exercising At a resting rate, only about 15% of the oxygen-rich blood is transferred to the horse Different breeds have different sized hearts TB - .9% of the body weight Two year olds that raced flat surfaces (in a study) had an increased left ventricle diameter, which influenced up to a 40% in winning success Arabian - .76% of bw Draft - .62% - of bw Cardiac output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate How much blood is being pumped out of the heart at any given time An exercising horse will have an increased Stroke Volume (SV) at up to 50%, where Heart Rate (HR) will increase up to 10x Oxygen uptake by muscles (VO 2max o TB - 140ml/min/kgBW o Pony - 90-100ml/min/kgBW o Human - 70ml/min/kgBW 1 Musculoskeletal 2 Thermoregulation 3 Training and conditioning I spent nine months studying a theoretical gene on the X chromosome for horses that, in theory, would be responsible for an increased heart rate 11/4 Minimum ventilation (L/min) = tidal volume (L) x respiratory frequency (breaths/min) Respiratory system track: 1 Nasal passage 2 Pharynx 3 Glottal cartilage 4 Larynx 5 Oesophagus 6 Trachea 7 Lungs 8 Bronchioles 9 Alveoli Maximal Oxygen uptake - VO 2max Ventilation of a TB is 50-60 L/min -> 1800 L/min Based on gaits: o Walk-trot speeds increase respiratory frequency o Canter-gallops lead to an increase in respiratory frequency that is parallel/equal to stride frequency This is called a Respiratory-locomotory coupling The normal ratio stride to breathing is at 1:1 A horse breathes out when on their forelegs o The intestines actually come down a little bit on the diaphram, forcing air out (called Piston) o Likewise, when the horse is on the hindlegs, the pressure is released, and the diaphragm expands (called Pendulum) The horse has a limitation as to how much they can breathe while in motion - at MOST they can breathe once per full stride, partly due to this design of the body mentioned above The Respiratory Exchange Ration (RER) is CO /2 2 Muscular System When muscles contract, microfibrils contract, bringing fibers closer together o Likewise, these microfibrils will relax to relax/release the tension of the muscle Muscle fiber types are classified based on classification and distribution o Based on how much oxygen can be absorbed and what is used for muscular fuel Fiber structure o A Muscle Bundle is the muscle you see Each is composed of Muscle Fibers These are built of Myofibrils And myofibrils are composed of Myofilaments, the things that contract, bringing fibers together Different elements involved in determining the worth and contribution of fibers o Sacrolema o Nucleus - regulates the cell o Glycogen - fuel o Fat - fuel o Myoglobin o Mitochondria - powerhouse of the cell o Myofibrils Three types of fibers o I Most beneficial for long distance running In a cross-section dissection, these appear darker than other fibers o II-A o II-X Most beneficial for sprinting o Type II, in general, is for racers and jumpers with a HIGH contraction speed and high fatigue afterwards o There is an increased diameter, blood supply, and glycogen content Lactate - the product of ATP production without oxygen o Note: ATP is the body's fuel o Glycogen-glucose ----- Lactic acid Pyruvate (a macromolecule) breaks down from glucose or glycogen to create ATP. Lactic Acid is a byproduct o Pyruvate + NADH ----- Lactate + H+ + NAD NADH is a fuel cell of ATPs. This break down releases 3 ATP from glycogen or 2 ATP from glucose Horse Conditioning We can measure lactate in the body to determine the athletic ability of the horse o Less is produced over conditioning of the horse, thus they are less sore and their body is stronger With conditioning of the horse, there is an increased capillarisation (use of the capillaries in the lungs) with the increase of training in the horse Increases transit time, allowing more time for oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange Increased oxygen carrying capacity for blood Increase capacity to use fat as fuel Increased capacity to store oxygen in blood cells (MYGLOBIN) Increased glycogen use Increased anaerobic muscle enzyme concentration The Science of ATP (Adenonine TRIPhosphate) ATP releases energy as a phosphate breaks off it o ATP becomes ADP (Adenonine Diphosphate) There is an estimated 1.5 pounds of ATP in a 500kg horse at any given time o Thus horses have to eat a lot to replenish that "myo" is Greek for "muscle" The picture to the left, the brown segments hook onto parts of the blue strings - so when it contracts, the blue strands are pulled closer together. This causes a muscle contraction 11/6 Exercise (cont.) Respiratory Exchange Ration (RER) is at about .82 Muscles at rest RER is about .7 Glycogen recovery (to replenish glycogen concentration within the body after exercise) is about 72 hours for a horse Skeletal System Composed of bones, tendons, and ligaments o Tendons -> attaches muscle to bone Structure Tendon - fasicle - crimp - fibril - subfibril - microfibril - tropocollagen I just looked this up, but the structure of tendons AND ligaments is the same Doesn’t have a lot of blood vessels thus can lead to a lot of inflammation and it takes longer for it to heal than usual Ligaments -> attaches bone to bone o Both are composed of few cells, with lots of extra-cellular material o Composed of Elastin (for stretching) Colagen and Poteoglicans (joint tissue) Hypertrophy o The overuse of bones, tendons, and ligaments, with little time for healing Can lead to Shin Splints Bones o Bones are capable of reshaping themselves over time Believe it or not, but your bones are in a constant state of breaking down/rebuilding themselves They respond to the action the body partakes in, and will reshape themselves based on the pressure and weight distribution This is (in class, at least) called Ca [Calcium] Homeostasis Its shown that the Cannon Bone with thicken over years of training due to this Majority of these cases, however, are based on the SPEED of the horse High speed training - lots of stress on each leg when landing on it per stride Pin Firing A way to increase circulation in cannon bones where you burn parts of the skin away Not actually proven though. The easiest way to heal a shin splint (or any bone related problem, really) is REST o The best to let bones heal/grow in younger horses is to just let them be free in the pasture Water in the body The horse is capable of sweating in order to cool down (like humans) Heat produced o 25% of all chemical energy is used up when converting molecules into usable energy o 75% is lost in heat to the surrounding environment Should allow horses access to salt blocks at all times so they can recover lost electrolytes in exercising Dehydrated horses o Hypohydration and hypovolemia The skin-pinch test o Hypo-osmotic Refusal to drink water o Trachycardia… with a weak pulse Circulatory stress o Hypertermia Can lead to seizures When the body heats up too much o General impacts Fatigue Exhaustion Slow gut motility Muscle twitches (fasciculations) Thumps A lot of sweating (thus a lot of loss of electrolytes) The nerve the runs around the heart/through the diaphragm is stimulated by the heart instead of actual nerves Forces the body to look as if the horse has hiccups but is REALLY not ok In general, any of these situations call for water and electrolytes o Electrolytes are salts o Low sodium leads to low circulation Sodium (Na) controls/helps regulated The skeleton Blood pressure Acid-base balances within the body Chlorine (Cl) Anion (negative charged) Important for acid-base balances Basically needed on a daily basis A horse (on average) will lose more Cl than they will Na per work out Measurements of sweating Weigh a horse before/after exercise o 90% of weight loss is water (5-6% per 500 kg of a horse) Training principles Based on the objective of the trainer o What kind of athlete are your riding? What kind of events are you participating in? Based on o Intensity o Frequency Length of time o Volume Practice should be based on o Time-based elements o Program design o Continuous versus interval training o Load of work o Load of rider o Body condition Most racehorse injuries are caused by ligament/tendon problems 11/11 Happy Veteran's Day! Hooves Hooves are: o The foundation of the horse o The most common place for forelimb lameness in horses Because of all the weight on the foresection of the horse The stifle and hock are the most common places for injury on the hindend o Some basics should always be followed Anatomy o Made of the horse's "digits" - the equivilant of finger bones o Distal phalanx o Distal sesamoid o Digital cushion Under the bones, it absorbs shock Made of fiber-elastic tissue Thus distributes the force of the pressure out to the sides of the foot o The hoof must have equally distributed weight between the front end and the back end If the front is overgrown, more weight must be taken in by the backside, leading to an imbalance Dorsal-flex = hyper extend Form o The structure and the parts of the structure and how it is arranged o The horse is "standing on his middle finger" (in terms of drawing a parallel between us and them) o The splint bones are reminents of the second and forth digits from the time when the horse was three-toed This was to increase the speed of the animal o Coffin bone = 3rd phalanx o Short pastern bone = second phalanx o Navicular bone = distal sesamoid Joints -> the place between two bones o Coffin join o Pastern joint o Fetlock joint All can get infected by lactation build up in the body Bursae o Navicular bursa Decreases friction between the deep flexor tendon and the navicular bone Blood vessels o Medial = towards the middle o Lateral = towards the flanks/outside of the horse o Digital arteries Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood o Digital veins Veins carry oxygen-poor blood Nerve supply o Palmar Digital Nerves Nerve supply to the heel region of the horse Again, the most common area of lameness is the heel region Bottom of the foot o "Superficial external structures" Hoof wall Coronary Band Not actually all that visible Frog Sole Concave Thus, NOT designed to be bearing weight! It is the WALL of the hoof that bears the weight Also plays a role in concussion Cannot be all that thick Bars At the heels of the wall is an acute angle It moves forward and inward (leads to the triangle shape under the foot) Needs to be trimmed Weight bearing Provides additional strength to the heel Allows lateral movement of the horse The coffin bone is a porous bone Allows for more blood vessels and nerves Vascular groove A pretty big groove in the back where a large vessel runs through The deep Flexor Tendon connects to the coffin bone o Navicular bone Increases the surface of the DIP joint (coffin joint) Keeps a constant angle of insertion for the DDFT Coupled with the deep digital flexor tendon, makes the joint elastic and yielding thus counteracting shock Focal point for disease if in the foot! Tendons - connects bone to muscle o Extensor tendon - advances the body forward (that’s literally it) o Flexor tendon supports the lower limb Ligaments - connects bone to bone o Collateral ligaments of the coffin join Stabilizes the joint Uber important ligament Over two-thirds of the ligament is actually within the foot Protection o Hoof wall A "Viscoelastic Structure" Digital cushion Frog can be expanded from the bottom The horse's weight bears down from the frog, pressing the Middle Phalanx to descend With everything happening at the same time of the hoof expanding, the horse is really good at distributing impact Function o The weight bearing structures and the soft tissue structures of the foot are intact, healthy, and compliment each other Shape o The hoof should be a right triangle from the fetlock to the bottom of the hoof, with the hypotenuse of the triangle being the Hoof Pasturn Alignment o The hoof should not have grown out of alignment Aka, you should be able to equally bisect the leg and hoof straight down the middle and have two equal sides Shoeing Half of the force should be in both the toe and the heel The Bering Surface - the tip The toe-end of the shoe is called the Breakover The Duckett Bridge o The center line that bisects the horseshoe o The center of rotation in the short fetlock Effects o Provides protection o Decreases energy absorption o Influences particular movements o Should be able to expand the heel o A horse that doesn’t walk in a natural, normal way (because of the odd leg shape or the unequal distribution of weight) will wear its feet down in particular ways Hooves thus alter the pattern of a horse's natural self-wearing down habits Bad Feet "put the shoe where you want the weight to be and the hoof will grow in that direction" Conformation Toe-In o Pigeon-toed o Paddling Toe-out o Splay-footed o Winging in Impacted by o Foot pastern axis o Foot size o Concave/shape of sole Farriers It’s a partnership with a vet and a farrier to help the horse Farrier provides the critical expertise to resolve most soundness issues Farrier also usually the key to a long-term successful outcome of most lower limb cases 11/13 Equine Welfare Animal Welfare vs. Animal Rights Are they one in the same? o People don’t seem to care due to their lack of education History o People have used animals as long as we've been on the earth Originally for hunting and clothing With civilization came raising animals Animals depended on those that raised them for food and protection o People have always been concerned about the well0being of animals o Protection societies began to develop in the 17th/18th centuries o Animal rights movement began in the US in the 1970's Animal Husbandry o Some believe that animal husbandry is starting to become extinct Mr. Brooks says otherwise (well, he hopes otherwise) "Hus" + "Bond" = animal is bonded to the family Welfare Rights Emphasis on humane treatment of A Philosophical view that animals have animals, both in research and rights similar or the same as humans. True production agriculture. They believe activists/proponents generally advocate the animals can be used to benefit humans. total elimination of all animal use by Supporters believe that use of animals humans. Almost universally promotes for food/medical research is essential vegetarianism, is opposed to taking life, and yet animals should not be abused or spaying/neutering are a violation of an mistreated in any way. All creatures animals right to breed should be as "happy" and comfortable as possible while alive "The human responsibility that Prohibits rodeos, racing, circuses, hunting, encompasses all aspects of animal well- life-saving research, livestock raising for being, including proper housing, food, breeding of purebreds, or general use management, disease prevention, etc." for industry. Usually believes violence, Supports regulation of animal sports misinformation, and publicity stunts are all Uses scientific evidence to base animal valid uses of donated money. care and handling guidelines Usually more outspoken and legislative than the farmers or animal owners out there Some controversy surrounds what is Humane Society of the US (HSUS) / People considered abuse or mistreatment of for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) animals Extremists - Animal Liberation Front About 97% of all livestock comes from family-owned farms and ranches. Many against drugs/antibiotic use, debeaking, tail docking, dehorning, castration, branding - all done for good reason and health/safety of the animal Tom Regan - "Extremists will not be satisfied with anything less than total dissolution of the animal industry as we know it today" Bernie Rollin "The ethic which has emerged in mainstream society does not say we should mistreat the world around us" To change the problem at hand Educate everyone Educate yourself Know the opposition Be civil and tactful Join committees that address legislation Be a voice - advocate for animal welfare The four main causes for this big movement Urbanization Humanization of animals (Anthropomorphism) Acceptance of evolutionary theory Affinity for equal rights among species Heads up with technology everywhere - for every one million good things you do, people will only remember you for the ONE bad thing that happened Equine-specific welfare o Good elements Health and disease Nutrition Pain and management in horses Euthanaisa Where you can find welfare issues o Racing o Show horse traditions o Rodeos o Training/competition for cutting, reining o Pregnant Mare Urine ranches o Dressage discipline o Endurance riding o Carriage horses o Horse use in research o The unwanted horse o Wild horses in the US o Event horses 11/16 Equine Biomechanics Kinesiology -> the science of movement Biomechanics -> a branch of Kinesiology The focus on mechanical movement of the body Uses Newton's laws o Bio = living o Mechanics = forces and effects Edwuard Moybrudge began the study of kinesiology o Focused on the marching of soldiers Went on to study horses and camels Term Definition Statics Still animal Dynamics In motion Kinematics Branch of biomechanics that describes the motion without considerations of the forces that cause motion to occur Involves everything from the shape of the body to the length of stride Kinetics Describes the forces involved in motion Electromyograp "electric" "muscle" "watch" hy Focuses on muscle understanding Measured in three ways: 1. amplitude of the EMG activity 1. Muscle timing 2. Duration of activation accelerometer Gait Characteristic limb coordination pattern recognized by sequence and timing of foot falls Each complete "sequence" or general type is a stride Stride Complete cycle of limb movements Linear measurements Based on stride length o From the time a horse picks up their foot to when the foot lands again The space between the footfall is Stride Length Phases of the o Stance Stride The Impact: immediately after the foot hits the ground Lots of fiber force rises throughout the leg The Loading: when the fetlock extends upon hitting the ground She gave the example of a thoroughbred racehorse's forelimb extending when it lands Breakover: rising from the ground to when the toe touches the ground again Cranial phase of Stride is in the front of the opposite foot the stride Caudal phase Stride is behind the opposite foot Trot and Canter both have a period of suspension At the canter, the left hind limb has the most propulsion, but will take in the most pressure from the movement by the hind right limb The right lead gallop can lead to soreness on the left forelimb When checking for lameness, we often watch the trot As a general rule of thumb, if one leg has issues, the opposite leg (both front/back-wise as well as diagonally) will have problems making up for the uneven weight distribution Ground Reaction Force Newtons third law: for every action we have an equal and opposite reaction Aka, the ground reaction force is the reaction of the force of the hoof hitting the ground o Medial to Lateral Force: what makes your leg slip out to the side when you step on ice Since 60% of the body weight is distributed to the forelimb, there is more force taken in in the forelegs than there are in the hindlimbs o Maximally Loaded: when the foot is flat against the ground in motion It bears the most weight and force at this stage, thus "Maximally Loaded" Postural Control Balance is the ability to keep the center of mass (COM) within the limits of the base of the body o Aka, the center of gravity Three systems involved here: 1. Propriception Where the limb is relativly in where it physically is Center of pressure (COP) o Measured by the center of the distribution of total forces applied to the surface you're standing on o Called a Stabilogram She likened it to a Wi Fitness Board (if that makes any sense to you) Joint Motion Parameters The full range of motion a joint can have Inertial Sensors Another type of sensory tool o Has three parts - one goes on the pelvis, the pole, and the right front foot Notices change in balance and position New, up-and-coming o Yet has yet to be validated or considered up-to-par with the standards already established Im going to add to this later today (Hopefully) since she was presenting very fast, sorry for the occasional holes) I cant find the graphic online, I'll draw it in later Sorry she's wicked fast today, ill be sure to add all this in later Note: as of 11/18, there are still no notes un online about the previous lecture. I'll update this as soon as I see it up 11/18 Equine Hoof Care and Balance The reason why horses need to have well-cared for feet "no hoof, no horse" Literally, good feet are needed for a horse to be sound o 2/3rds of horse's weight is on the front legs 2/3rds of that is on the heel alone Ex: 1000 lbs horse has 667 lbs on front legs and 445 lbs on the front heels 78% of lameness is on the front Basics of the foot Hoof grows from the coronary band down (the top to the bottom) Inside (medial) wall is usually straighter A hoof generally grows 1/4th an inch per month It can take a year for the hoof capsule to grow out all the way Balance When evaluated regularly, small corrections can be made and major problems can be avoided Aka, hoof care is, in general, a maintenance issue for majority of horses When barefooted, the weight is distributed across the entire foot When shod, the wall supports the foot o The wall is the thinnest at the heel and thickest at the toe The sole of the hoof is about 3/8th of an inch thick o The less sole you take off, the better (generally) o We want it to keep a concave shape over anything else Different parts The lamina(s) o The nail goes in through the insensitive lamina o The White Line divides the sensitive lamina and the insensitive lamina The frog o Protects the foot and aids in traction while also absorbing shock and concussion o The apex of the frog points to dead center of the foot Angles The front feet should share similar angles and high feet should share similar angles o The hind angle is usually a bit steeper Hind feet are generally a little steeper o The appropriate/comfortable angles is a zone of 48 to 55 degrees per each fore and hindlegs A steeper hoof angle will take a shorter stride At the same time, a less steep hoof angle will take a longer stride A lower angle puts more stress on tendons and ligaments Can also make a horse stumble or trip more To manipulate angles o Raise angle -> take more toe = leave heel alone o Lower angle -> take more heel = leave toe alone (horse will trip a lot) Generally you don’t want to lower an angle (unless the horse is considered clubby) Should never change an angle more than five degrees going down per one time, but can go up 10 degrees That’s if you have enough foot above to reshape By backing the toe up from the front, you can gain a couple of degrees o A "set" angle is not as important for a breed or diciline You should, rather, asses each horse individually and determine its needs on the Pastern-Hoof Angle o Low hoof angles increase (slow) the time of breakover. Linked to navicular syndrome and strained DDFTs Deep Digital Flexor Tendons o High hoof angles decrease (speed) the breakover time. Linked with abnormal loading of coffin joint surfaces Can lead to injury to extensor process, and/or increased strain to suspensory ligaments Balance, all in all Balance is arguably the single most important factor in equine podiatry Feet that are well-kept and balanced are rarely lame Geometric vs Functional balance o Geometric - based on the actual shape of the hoof o Functional - based on the use of the hoof How does the foot land when the horse walks? Does it roll from the inside to the out? Outside in? flat? Breed, age, discipline, and environment all play crucial roles in how to properly trim and shoe a horse o The American Farrier's Association (AFA) says the goal is: "to prepare the foot so that the hoof wall is level, and the pastern, shoulder, and hoof angles are all parallel. The sole and frog are paired conservatively and any flares on the outer wall are removed." A conservative approach is generally accepted as best way to maintain soundness Generally, when a foot is balanced, the coronary band is straight o Peaks and valleys in the soft tissue are indicative that the foot is overloaded in some areas and underloaded in others External landmarks are used to assess balance and the pastern may be the most useful o Will be touched on in a later lecture Dorsopalmar Balance o Duckett's Dot/Bridge The widest part of the foot Everything is essentially centered around that Part of the foot and rest of foot is centered around this midpoint Two thirds of foot should be behind the apex of the frog and one third in front o Heels often trimmed back to widest point of the frog Frog Angle If the point of the frog is deeply recessed into surrounding sole and appears to be angling toward coronary band, P3 is likely following and foot is caudually rotated Mediolateral balance o Critical and ensures that loaded bearing is as uniform as possible o LM balance begins with having heel lengths the same on each side of the foot o When LM balance is not attained, the horse's foot lands poorly. Ideally it should land either flat or slightly heel first Trimming and shoeing The goal o To balance foot and to leave the solar surface thick enough to protect corium Shorten the hoof adequately - long hooves delay breakover (causing tripping/stumbling) and stresses flexor tendons and ligaments Three types of trim o Pasture trim Rounded toe 1. If its not rounded, chances are the hoof can chip when shaped different ways o Light use trim Put a 45 degree halfway of the wall from quarter to quarter o Trimmed for shoe Flat footed shoe Conformational faults o If trimming under two years old, it can correct deviation in growth If over two years old, all you are doing is hiding a problem Once balance is achieved, the possibility of shoeing as a NEED becomes questionable o Not all horses need shoes, and some cannot remain sound without them We shoe for protection, support, traction, and performance The weight of the shoe can help dictate the traction or movement of the horse o Put a little bit of weight on a outside of a shoe to a horse that wings in can help correct their funny walk Aim for a three-pint contact of the hoof to the ground when shaping Note: to "quick" a horse is to put a nail in a bit too far The middle example here is what is considered almost "clubby" Clubby is, more or less, when the front angle is nearly straight into the ground Dec 6 tues ingersoll study session 11/20 Lameness Grading Scale: 1 Inconsistent lameness in a circle 2 Inconsistent in a straight line and lame in a circle 3 Consistent lameness in a straight line 4 Obviously lame at the walk 5 Non-weight bearing lameness - horse doesn’t even want to put its foot down Basic facts Lameness is the MOST common career limiting condition found in performance horses Accurate diagnosis is critical to the long-term successful outcome of treatment A good farrier/vet team is usually key in order to get over lameness Signs of inflammation Heat o Palpate limbs for excessively warm areas Pain o Palpate along the limbs for sensitive areas o A true pain response should be repeatable Swelling/effusion o Swelling is associated with soft tissue o Effusion is associated with joints and tendon sheaths Gait Alteration o Depending on degree of lameness, it may be either really easy or very difficult to see Forelimb lameness Head Bobbing The head rises as the horse lands on the lame leg and falls as the horse lands on the sound leg Fetlock Drop Fetlock or "ankle" (more or less) drops more in the sound limb This is so he can make up for the lameness in the opposite leg Common in dressage horses Stride Length Some lameness may cause a shortened forward phase of the stride Aka, a horse that is not naturally this short-strided in the forelimb, he has pain in his heel. IF he has a short stride, the weight goes forward and to the toe Acoustics You can often hear a difference in impact between the lame and sound limb Hindlimb lameness Head Bobbing May or may not actually be present If present, the head will go down when the bad leg goes down Hip Drop/Hip Hike Tuber Coxae (point of hip) typically has greater elevation on the bad leg May also have fetlock dropping or stride length differences What do you do? Call your vet!!! It notable pain, heat, or swelling, then apply ice or cold water therapy for 15-20 minutes COLD not HEAT Confine to a stall o What can you and your vet do? Talk about it Evaluate your horse in an emergency and determine appropriate diagnostics, treatment (surgical and/or medical) and prognosis o Lameness evaluation o Physical evaluation Check out the horses: Standing position (general conformation, foot conformation, shoeing) Movement at the walk (distal limb conformation, and foot balance) o Palpation Look for structural abnormalities (aka, check the horse's symmetry) Check for inflammation Heat, pain, swelling o Testing hooves Its important to have prober equipment! Thorough evaluation of sole, frog, bars, and heels CRITICAL to accurate diagnosis Check out the Pedal Osteitis o Check the flexion in a Flexion Test o Check gait in Gait Evaluation o Diagnostic Analgesia Regional anesthesia Intra-articular anesthetic Usually around the joints (coffin, pastern, fetlock joints) o Diagnostic Imaging Aka, Radiology (x-rays) Increasing in ability at an increased rate than anything else Includes CTs and MRIs as well as Nuclear Scintrigraphy and Ultrasounds o Forelimb lameness Developmental Tramatic o Imaging Radiographs Really good quality and has special views Can show the flexed lateral or Skyline of the horse 11/30 Equine Genetics A trait o An observable or measurable characteristic of individual or groups of living creatures A phenotype Specific form expressed of a particular traits Aka, the thing we can see A genotype Specific sequence of amino acids in DNA Aka, the genetic make up of the organis
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'