New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PHI 101: Social Philosophy

by: Carmen Chong

PHI 101: Social Philosophy PHIL101

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Psychlogy > PHIL101 > PHI 101 Social Philosophy
Carmen Chong
GPA 4.1

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes are based directly from a textbook (I apologize for not recalling the name)
Introduction to Philosophy
75 ?




Popular in Introduction to Philosophy

Popular in Psychlogy

This 35 page Bundle was uploaded by Carmen Chong on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PHIL101 at University of Oregon taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.


Reviews for PHI 101: Social Philosophy


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/31/16
Social and Poli▯cal Philosophy Chapter 8 •  Anarchism: unflinching confidence in the individual and none in the state •  Totalitarianism: confidence in a strong state and government •  Individualism/paternalism: individual freedom 8.1 What is Social & Poli▯cal Philosophy? •  Social philosophy: –  Philosophical study of society and its problems and the applica▯on of moral principles to these problems including the problems of human rights, jus▯ce, freedom, and the rela▯on of the individual to society. •  Poli▯cal philosophy: –  Subdivision of social philosophy, –  Looks at the proper role of the state or government in society. Addresses the ques▯on of jus▯ce, moral limits on the power of the state, moral obliga▯on to obey the laws. 8.2 What jus▯fies the state? •  Power and authority to make and enforce law even if par▯cular ci▯zens disagree; social contract theory tries to jus▯fy this power and authority by arguing that ci▯zens have made an agreement or “contract” that gives the state this power. •  Contract theory: individuals agree to give up certain liber▯es and rights to the state, which in return guarantees rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Hobbes – War of All against All •  Principles of scien▯fic materialism: the world is a mechanical system that can be explained in terms of the laws of mo▯on. •  Human behavior/complex socie▯es is reducible to geometric and physical explana▯ons. •  Leviathan: humans are driven by two needs – survival and personal gain (selfish and greedy). Government is necessary to enforce peace among them. •  Absolu▯s▯c state; resistance to authority is never jus▯fied Locke – Natural Moral Laws •  Viewed humans as essen▯ally moral beings who ought to obey natural moral rules. Warfare as human’s natural state. Viewed humans as free and equal by nature, regardless of the existence of any government •  Government doesn’t decree mutual respect for the freedom and liber▯es of all – nature does. •  Humans are by nature free, ra▯onal, and social creatures. •  Specific and limited state; resistance to authority is essen▯al. •  Social contract: crea▯ng a poli▯cal en▯ty capable of preserving their rights of “life, liberty, and estate”. •  Locke emphasized freedom – government should leave people free to live and pursue whatever form of life they choose. •  Government is only necessary to fulfill three missing things in the state of nature: 1.  A firm, clearly understood interpreta▯on of the natural but unwri▯en moral laws 2.  Unbiased judges to resolve disputes 3.  A power capable of enforcing jus▯ce when one is wronged. Rousseau – General Will •  Emphasized on personal moral autonomy •  Without government, people’s property and security are at risk •  Government is jus▯fied only if it is consistent with human freedom and autonomy, outcome of a pact in which every ci▯zen agrees to unite under a “general will”, for in obeying the general will, the ci▯zen is obeying himself and so is free and autonomous. •  General will: “will of all”, unanimity of feeling, common good •  Obeying the general will to be free Hume - Skep▯cism •  No social contract •  Social contract is a historical fic▯on Rawls – Contemporary Social Contract •  Agrees social contract is a historical fic▯on but helps us see what a just government is. •  Argues that a just government is one we would choose to live under if we chose without knowing whether we would be rich or poor, black or white, and so forth. •  “Veil of ignorance” we would choose a form of government that was fair to everyone by providing everyone with equal poli▯cal rights and economic opportuni▯es. •  Just government = no favori▯sm •  What a government ought to be •  We would consent to live under the type of government if we were in the original posi▯on. Communitarianism •  The community in which we live should be at the center of our analysis of society and government. •  Emphasizes the social nature of human beings. Our iden▯ty (who we are) depends on our rela▯onships to others in our communi▯es (cultural prac▯ces etc.) •  Aristotle, Hegel Communitarianism •  Social contract theory – Neglects people’s social nature by focusing on the individual. – Assumes govt. is an ar▯ficial construct (govt. is actually a natural outgrowth of our social nature; necessary for full human development) Aristotle •  The state is prior to the individual •  Humans cannot develop fully unless they live in the state (our poli▯cal abili▯es and social virtues emerge and develop only in the state •  State is more important than an individual ci▯zen (whole is more important than one) Hegel •  Humans can develop fully only within the state, and if he embraces the cultural prac▯ces of the state •  Freedom is more than just not interfering with the lives of others, people are free to do more (more abili▯es = freer) •  Only in the state people can be fully free Feminists •  Susan Okins •  Wrong assump▯ons of social contract theory: – Family structures are jus▯fied bc males rule over females without their consent – “public” sphere of the state should not interfere with the “private” sphere of the family – Divides the “public” life of poli▯cs and econs (predominate by men), and “private” family life (women are confined to labor so men can par▯cipate in public life). Women receive powerless roles. 8.3 Jus▯ce •  Retribu▯ve jus▯ce: how fair is the punishment •  Distribu▯ve jus▯ce: fair and proper distribu▯on of benefits and burdens •  Formal jus▯ce: treat similar people similarly (consistency) •  Material/substan▯ve jus▯ce: what differences are “relevant” Jus▯ce as Merit •  Benefits and burdens should be distributed unequally according to ability, effort, achievement, social status •  Plato: people have different talents and abili▯es. Society will func▯on best if each person plays the role for which he or she is best suited. Cri▯cs: unjust inequality. •  Aristotle Jus▯ce as Equality •  Equal shares of benefits and burdens •  Strict egalitarianism: no relevant differences among people, so all should be treated equally. –  Cri▯cs: people’s ness needs are relevant when distribu▯ng benefits, and their abili▯es when distribu▯ng burdens. •  Moderate egalitarianism: poli▯cal rights and economic opportuni▯es should be distributed equally, other economic benefits and burdens should be distributed according to the relevant differences –  Cri▯cs: poli▯cal rights (i.e. criminals) should not be equal and that equality of opportunity is not possible. Jus▯ce as Social U▯lity •  Distribute benefits and burdens to achieve maximum social benefits and minimum social harms. •  John Stuart Mill •  Cri▯cs: social u▯lity wrongly implies that injus▯ces (i.e. slavery) are just – sacrifice welfare of minori▯es for general welfare. Jus▯ce Based on Need and Ability •  Socialism: burdens distributed by ability, benefits by needs. •  Karl Marx: people develop their poten▯al by working according to their ability, and distribu▯ng benefits by need promotes human happiness. •  Cri▯cs: no incen▯ve to work as it requires coercion Jus▯ce Based on Liberty •  Rawls: equal opportunity. Economic inequali▯es are just if produced benefits for the least advantage – promotes social stability. Distribute goods according to a pa▯ern •  Classical liberalism (Nozick): equality and maximum liberty are just in poli▯cs, but freedom in distribu▯ng economic goods. 8.4 Limits on the State •  Stoics said that what we today call ‘civic laws’ have their basis in natural law. •  Natural law: –  Pa▯ern of necessary and universal regularity holding in physical nature –  Moral impera▯ve, a descrip▯on of what ought to happen in human rela▯onships •  Eternal law: God’s decrees for the governance of the universe Law & Morality •  Aquinas – Eternal law: God’s decrees for the universe – Natural law: moral law based on human nature – Human law: laws created by humans to govern their socie▯es. – True human law doesn’t violate the moral law and must be obeyed. Except in the case of an unjust law that violates the moral law. •  King: –  Discriminatory laws are unjust, they are not true laws and one is not obligated to obey them –  Civil disobedience must be carried out openly, respec▯ully, nonviolently, and with a willingness to accept the penalty •  Gandhi: –  One has a right to disobey unjust laws and advocated nonviolent “passive” resistance to unjust laws bc using violence to overthrow unjust laws will lead to more violence •  Williams: –  Unjust laws need not be obeyed, but violence should be used to deal with unjust laws bc nonviolence is ineffec▯ve Freedom •  John Stuart Mill: social u▯lity – Power exercised against an individual’s will can only be righ▯ully exercised if it is to prevent harm to others – Free thinking and debate help achieve the truth – Le▯ng people live as they want helps prove the worth of different forms of life – Government must leave people free to think, live and associate as they want. Human Rights •  Rights: impose du▯es on others •  Nega▯ve rights: impose du▯es on others to leave people free to engage in certain ac▯vi▯es (protect freedom) •  Posi▯ve rights: impose du▯es on others to provide the right-holder with certain goods (guarantee benefits) •  Moral/human rights: rights that all humans have Kant •  Every person as an “end in himself” has an intrinsic value or dignity that everyone else must respect •  Each person has a duty to respect other people’s freedom and to help others achieve their happiness •  Everyone has nega▯ve and posi▯ve rights Donaldson •  Moral rights must protect important things that are subject to substan▯al and recurrent threat •  Fair and affordable obliga▯ons should be imposed •  All govt. must respect such rights and that wealthier na▯ons should help the poorer ones provide such rights War & Terrorism: 1. Poli▯cal Realism •  Hobbes: –  na▯ons exist in a state of nature without a common power to enforce jus▯ce, they are in a state of war in which concepts of morality or jus▯ce do not apply. –  Violence btw na▯ons is neither right nor wrong but only for or against a na▯on’s best interests –  Cri▯cs: acts of war are acts of human individuals, we can and do apply moral concepts to acts of war; there are interna▯onal bodies that can enforce jus▯ce. 2. Pacifism •  War us always immoral either on –  Religious grounds or –  The evils of war always outweigh the good war might produce or –  The violence of war violates human dignity •  Cri▯cs: some goods that outweigh the evils of war, that it is not wrong to defend oneself or others against unjust a▯ack, and that pacifism is inconsistent bc if people have a right not to be subjected to violence, then they have a right to be defended from violence even with violence. •  Condi▯onal pacifist: modern wars inflict so much violence that their violence outweighs any possible good that could be achieved •  Cri▯cs: view that condi▯onal pacifist implies that the costs of war have to be weighed against its benefits. Just War Theory (Aquinas) War is morally jus▯fied if: 1.  Declared by a legi▯mate authority 2.  Fought for a just cause 3.  Fought with a right inten▯on 4.  Fought as a last resort 5.  Real and certain danger 6.  Reasonable probability of success 7.  End is propor▯onal to the probable harm Jus ad bellum: jus▯ce when approaching war Jus in bello (jus▯ce when in war) condi▯ons: 1.  Means used must be propor▯onal to the end 2.  Combatants must not inten▯onally target noncombatants and must be able to discriminate between combatants and noncombatants. 3. Terrorism •  Coady: defines terrorism as inten▯onally targe▯ng noncombatants with lethal or severe violence to achieve poli▯cal purposes, perhaps through the crea▯on of fear and inclusion of targe▯ng property that is related to life or security •  Poli▯cal realism: accepts •  Pacifism: condemns it as immoral •  JWT: approve violence against terrorist only if it adheres to the nine principles of just war •  Defenders of terrorism: some forms of terrorism can meet the condi▯ons of JWT and so can be morally jus▯fied, par▯cularly when all ci▯zens of a target na▯on ac▯vely support an unjust government that is oppressing the terrorists, so these ci▯zens can be treated as combatants by the terrorists


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.