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HDFS202 Diversity in Families Bundle

by: Jackie Warner

HDFS202 Diversity in Families Bundle HDFS 202

Marketplace > University of Delaware > HDFS > HDFS 202 > HDFS202 Diversity in Families Bundle
Jackie Warner
GPA 3.24

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These notes cover HDFS202 Diversity in Families at the University of Delaware. The talk about family types and the history of families, gender and sexuality in America and in the world.
Diversity and Families
HDFS, Human Development, Family Studies, Human Development and Family Studies, family, Family History, Relationships, sexuality, reproduction, history, archeology, Gender, gender roles, Family Types, sex
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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Jackie Warner on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HDFS 202 at University of Delaware taught by Sherif-Trask,Bahira in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Diversity and Families in HDFS at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
8/29/14 - 1 in ten is born in another country that lives in USA - 1 in 3 speaks another language at home - 35% of kids have a single parent, 80% are moms • feminization of poverty: many poor people are women with children - two parents and 2.5 kids is what we are conditioned to expect a family to be - definition of family (me): the people that raised you and who you live with on a daily basis, the people that are important to you and the people you live with • OTHERS: unconditional love, people you come home, social support system, foundation of social stability, can choose your family? - tv show that portrays accurate picture: the middle and modern family - Census Definitions • family: two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption • household: all persons who occupy dwelling such as house, can be one or more person • informal def: group of people who love and care for each other-legal issues raise this • which def should provide the basis for official family policy - people tend to define family based on emotion rather than biology family policy: in hospitals who can decide things for you, child custody varies by state, healthcare policy, adoption processes for people that are not married like gay couples and life partners, inheritance, military, paying for college and parents and step parents, economics: who do you get to cover under your health care 9/5 Aspects of Families - 2 interrelated processes • internal processes/cohesion- how to individual members come together to create a meaningful whole • external demarcation- drawing boundaries that separate the family from other social units - symbolic fence-boundaries - our names in US - family time family events - medical/legal/political rights with family members that no one else has - certain types of information that does not leave the family - what do you keep to yourselves/share • keep: financial situation, medical records, mental health, instances of abuse, substance abuse, uthonorable deaths (drugs, suicide), relationship issues, religion, politics (in some ways), - dont realize boundries until we pass them usually - family interaction • appreciation- notice the less obvious things, express appreciation often • kidness- tends to be catching • communication- listen so others will talk, talk so others will listen • time together- plan it, don't wait to fin it, need quantity to have quality - characters in families • values and standards- communicate them clearly, follow them consistently • strictness and permissiveness - firm, fair, and friendly - family myths • self reliant traditional family - in 15 and 16 centuries we had a more community based society • natural spheres: gender roles - men go to work women stay home- less than 10% • families are always happy and loving - not always the case: domestic violence, relationship violence has always been a part of society. we didn't always talk about it, thats a more recent thing • perfect 1950s families - leave it to beaver: it was the era after the great depression and WWII, death and disease had not gone up and economy was strongest: no one talked about what was wrong then - 318 million people in the united states , 7 billion people in the world - most people live on the coasts and the south • urban areas are becoming more popular because thats where the jobs are - how do we study families? • particular problems with studying families - every family is different: no generalization - families change rapidly - dealing with multiple people in psych you study the individual: this all changes when there are more people and more perspectives - almost impossible to study objectively: everyone comes from a family and that is our baseline for our study: never really an outsider • families are complex: sometimes people dont talk to each other for a while so that would impair the study • just because someone comes to study my family doesn't mean I'm going to tell them everything about my family: cover up our issues • the trends and statistics doesn't always mean theres truth in the study • you dont know whats going to happen in families: other things are more static but families are always changing - basic unit of analysis- family instead of individual or society - Research is influenced by: • funding availability • who is doing funding • access to subjects • time the rich are the most understudied group in the united states: middle class is the most studied 9/10 - Families and households in US are getting much smaller, significant changes in just the last 40 years - social change is driven by technological change (fuels things like economy) - Industrial Revolution • characterized by - an explosion in both the number and size of cities in the west - transformations in the average level of education of the population - a physical separation of work form the family household - massive declines in both birth and death rates - theoretical approaches • industrial revolution/urbanization/colonialism - by mid 19th century strong interest in social change and family issues - individual obligations to family questions • much of our thinking today still dominated by this time - Darwin Evolutionary Theory • biological evolution: series of stages/simple to complex • applied to study of cultures • concept: origin of families will tell us where families are going- all go through stages/ concept of unilinear development - Social Darwinism • dominated study of families for almost 50 years from 1860 onwards • provided “scientific” legitimization for Western colonization and exploitation of “primitive” people - affected treatment of poorer classes in America and West European societies • dealt with history and development of the family: implicit where the implications of roles of men and women - matriarchal vs patriarchal, rights of men over women - Darwin introduced idea: struggle for existence and survival of fittest - possibility that conflict and struggle are biological phenomena and central to human existence - Marx and Engels expanded: • inherent qualitity of conflict within human relations • contradictory nature of human existence • vale of dialectic- dynamism (stages f thesis, antithesis) • class as central-materialist view of mankind • technology produces 2 classes of people : owners and workers • made gender central - HUMANS NEED TO LIVE IN GROUPS - THERE IS CONFLICT WITHIN GROUPS (religion, age, gender, sexual orientation etc) - CONFLICT IS CENTRAL TO THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE (not all bad: can produce good bc it shows change and variation-social change) - Marx and Engels • main contribution: family as an economic unit • now work and family separated - men worked in factories earned $$, women stayed home - as women lost their economic independence, an increased division of labor came about - mens work became more valuable than women's work DEVELOPMENT OF INEQUALITY IN THE FAMILY 9/12 Theoretical Perspectives - 2 fundamental changes in the western families in the lat 200 years • rise in individualism - self of self-um the most important one not the group/community - when i make a decision it affects me • change in the mode of production - we buy food, clothes etc instead of making them ourselves, most things made in china (whats going to be happening there) - the transition from familial mode of production (making things through family) to labor market mode of production had 2 important consequences for families • separation of work and family - men going off to work - women staying home - originally farm society and you worked from home constantly men married solely to have children to be workers and if they died in childbirth then he married again quickly • decline in authority of fathers in households - when we lived on farms you inherited the farm - industrial rev. let you go out and get your own job so you don't rely on your dad all the time anymore • growing inequality between the sexes - one person was valued more than others - men better than women today we have more women in college than men and we have women working alongside men UD 60% women, used to be like 30% - Structural Functionalism • the functional school - society is an organized stable system (school, religion, family…) - similar to human system in this perspective families are the foundation of this system - interrelated parts dependent on each other- also known as subsystems - each structure performs vital social needs - manifest functions vs latent functions - family is a SOCIAL SYSTEM • has several parts- husband/father; wife/mother; and children are all interdependent • family divided along gender roles bc of necessity - women make and take care of kids - men make money/farm • stability and order are implied • conflict and disorder are deviations • Negatives: - a lot of diff gender role issues: not always clearly defined anymore bad from this perspective-ruins stability and order - talcott parsons: • socioligist who wrote and was most influential in structural functionalism • a nuclear family structure with a focus upon the martial bond rather than the larger kinship group, was particularly functional for industrial society socialization of young/stabilization of personalities 9/15 Theories Continued - feminism core issues • gender inequality intersects with race, ethnicity and social class • has broadened view of family diversity • initiated legislation to deal with family violence • endorsed greater equality between husbands and wives • feminist frame of reference - activism is critical aspect of approach - critique: only gender focus and ignore other disability such as age - focus only on some types of diversity and common things are ignored - Ecological perspective • popular • view of family as influencing and is influenced by environment - interlocking systems- family and peer group all the way to tech and cultural norms - associated with urie bronfenbrenner systems approach if creating some kind of intervention you will need to take into account all of the environmental factors of this theory or it won't work 5 major systems that interlock to shape developmental growth of individuals microsystem: individual unit mesosystem: everything that directly interacts with microsystem- school, church neighborhood exosystem- everything that indirectly influences the microsystem possibly parents workplace macrosystem: cultural values, attitudes and ideologies- technology how economy is doing, wars ongoing chronosystem- historical time period you live in - developmental framework • lifecourse theory or family life course theory • central assumption- family relations can be looked at in definable stages • for a family to grow it needs to fulfill - biological requirements - cultural imperatives- norm in culture - personal aspirations and values- what is important to each individual in the family, what is there goal; what is important to you EXAMPLES: religion (if your family is the minority), breaking amish, • success in family relations is dependent on succession developmental tasks - developmental tasks are those that arise at particular points in an individuals life - successful achievement of these teask leads to happiness and success in later tasks - failure leads to unhappiness, later failure and disapproval by society - life course • cohort approach- same time period peeps • similar experiences shape world view - children of depression - Vietnam - civil rights - family systems • family as a functioning unit that - solves problems - makes decisions - achieves collective goals • focus is not on individuals but how family members relate to one another - how the communicate - patters evolve - symbolic interationist approach • addresses everyday behavior of individuals • examine our beliefs, ideas, and attitudes of daily life and our families; for ex a father playing sports with kids is good • understanding the making of meaning through symbols and symbolic behavior - symbolic that dad cares about kids life and behavior and wants to be involved • 4 basic assumptions - families and marriages must be studied in their own context - can only be understood in context of social setting in which they exist - infant at birth is asocial and must be socialized through others - humans communicate symbolically and share meanings respond to symbolic stimuli • using this approach road the family is studied as a unite of interacting personalities • everyone has different roles and they play out through interaction/relationships • brings people back in- people not as passive respondents to society’s rules • people helping shape social world - social exchange approach • 4 basic assumptions - all social behavior is a series of exchange - in the course of these exchanges individuals attempt to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs (social credit is better than social risk), base everything off this - under certain circumstances a person will accept certain costs in exchange for other rewards - when we receive rewards from others we are obliged to reciprocate and supply benefits to them in return • we bring certain resources to the table and people will trade these to get rewards - examples: financial stability, paying for college helping to get education, emotional- being there to support them or give advice • as long as costs seem lower or equal exchange will be seen as fair and balanced • often an unconscious element • intergenerational reciprocity • used to understand mating/dating behavior • critique - assumes rationally in all decisions - difficult to measure what is being exchanged does not explain issues such as “battered women” syndrome- women stay out of fear 9/17 History of Families in the US - exam october 1st covering whatever we get too - paper due friday oct 3rd • have until monday to hand it in • ideal family, use textbooks and notes as reference - me: supportive, good SES, stimulating • easy to prepare for the second more serious paper • 2.5-3 pages - family and kinship • hunter gatherers • partilineage vs matrilineage • conjugal family vs nuclear family • extended family - stem family-popular in england, n. europe and japan, oldest son would inherit all the money and estate keeps land in the family - polygyny; polyandry polyandry- when women has more than one hubby only know of four societies where this happened lots of theories about why this is cant have more kids- could be to control population polygyny-when men have more than one wife most common way to arrange things: women died in child birth more children more sons there were more women than men-men were killed in warfare and needed a men to take care of the women and children - todays inheritance system-parents pass away and leave things in their will • families are changing and its harder to determine who gets what • taxes can affect what people get • people are living too long - people need money when they are young to start families and buy a house but their parents haven't died yet - experts are saying parents should start leaving money when their kids are 25 what if the parents need the money? - indigenous people-approax 18 million and spoke 300 languages • tribal - most tribes were patrilineal (tracing decent through fathers line) while about .25 were matrilineal • little knowledge or interest in early people - american indians: kinship and family systems • some groups polygamous and some monogamous • in many societies women has considerable power and respect and often held positions of chief, physician, politician, warrior - american indians impact of europe • culture destroyed in many ways - war - disease - enslavement and forced labor - forced migration - Colonial families • arrived in 1620 • protestants with strict moral and religious values • believed in right of community to intervene in family affairs - marital relations should be harmonious somewhat more subjective-dont abuse wives and whatnot - raising of kids - everyone had a right to say about what was going on within families and homes • nuclear- 6/7 kids but few survived • settlements of about 100 families - very rough journey - mostly young strong men came- needed to be young and healthy - early europeans brought with them the key features of the european tradition • state govt • concept of private property - opposite of what the indians thought-land is shared by everyone and were all responsible for it (conflict) • class system • came as single men or small nuclear families - earliest time characterized by economic, racial, ethnic, religious, familial diversity Early Settlers - many households had people who were not kin-servants, apprentices - colocian families • the puritans believed each family was a little “commonwealth” • the family was… - self sufficient business - school - vocational institute - in some cases it was a prision for the village - women were subordinate to men in general and a woman's social status and power in the community usually came from her husband or father - in colonial america the most important person was the white man who owned land • only person who could vote, top of social latter came together to make decisions for the community 9/19 Family Histories - colonial families • women belonged in the home • 10-30% of children died before reaching age one • children's lives dominated by concepts of repression, religion, and respect • households were closely linked to each other and very dependent on each other for cooperation and economic exchanges • unequal relationships throughout society • every household user authority of male property owner - wives - children - servants - apprentices • hierarchal society with poorer having to obey richer - women- subordinate but not bc of biology- viewed as a social necessity- one of many unequal relations in the society • center for economic production - agriculture, farm management, cloth production, trade • little division between public and domestic spheres - both men and women involved • patriarchal - fathers head of household - child rearing is fathers job responsible for giving them religious values and discipline • nonwhite families - native american - african american 1619 jamestown came as indentured servants by mid 1600s losing their rights had difficulties finding spouses due to plantation system FAMILIES unified heritage through lack of freedom family had little economic importance-profits went to masters women had multiple roles - hispanic early presence historically elite landholding families laborers lived in barrios when Angle immigrants arrived familism focus on family not individual totally outnumbered by immigrants - asian chinese-1850s gold rush came to build railroad tracks laws prohibited marriage to whites 1882 chinese exclusion act until WWII no more chinese coming over-didnt “need” them bc the railroads were finished japanese-1880s hawaii patrilineal extended families - immigrants • emancipations - 1863-emancipation proclamation slaves free of bondage humans no longer a piece of property could no longer be sold away from families marriages legalized and recorded economic forced many to stay on plantations for low wages men banded together to look for work unskilled laborers went to cities - 1700s-1800s • farming became large scale and commercial; factories developed • familial mode of production replaced by labor market mode of production • oppourtunity to earn money undermined fathers authority in family • exonomic independence of adult children facilitated growth of individualism - mid 1800s changes • acceleration with spread of industrial capitalism created factory work for immigrants • division of household unit - physically separated - labor for wages vs home and kids - domestic work of no intrinsic value • sharp split-home/work life led to concept of “seperate shperes” - mens sphere-work womens sphere-home; morally pure 9/22 20 Century - mexicans in america • april 23 1846, US congress declared war on mexico • treaty of Guadeloupe hidalgo signed feb 1848 ended war - America got much much bigger (texas, california, etc) - people have more places to move to - new concepts of women • right aftercicivl war women considered innately purer more virtuous than men benefitt=society and men • women as frail • virtuous woman was needed at hime to take care of children • forced to hide sexuality • condemned contraception - we didn't see women has frail beifre • cult of true womanhood, submissive, pure • middle class women did not work, only if that had to and that was shameful - :mordern amaerican family • marriage mutual respest • wife (morally superior0 cared for him enad kids • childhood protect and makenuppernof • decline in numbe - individualism • personal relationship - attention and energy to husband and wife increasingly centered on each other - availability of land declined people married later which lead to less children - rise in availability - rise of individualism individuals obligations to care for and suppee - Familys in early twentieth center • tech innocations led to mass production of goods and development of mass svale corps - demand for child labor defined - schools assumed greater role of socialisiton - working class women more pop in industry and emerging clerical fields - unrelated men and women working together led to a new form of social contracts - kourse - rise of companionate family 1900-1930 • married couples start to emphasize companionship and sexual • affection becomes more open • a wole bunch of innovatiations amid colts • if u were hoje oreteitatioc - 1900s educated motherhood • children camping to • women were truing for it - womens colleges to to enhance their capabolotiess as mothers - wife-companion • tie for a woman to her husband most important part of her identity • instead of nurturer to her husband she has to be SEXUAL ROMANTIC partner • women encouraged to be feer with men in order to attract a husband - coed colleges - cosmetics industry booming - birth control becoming a thing - rise of the private family • more premarital sex • decline in births • basis of marriage from economics to emotional satisfaction and companionship • men and women more economically independent or interdependent • marriage bonds weakened • divorce more common - now people are saying that marriage is not as valued but it is and people want to buy houses and have kids to see if they can go through the major stressors before they get married - great depression • gender roles reverse due to economics • unemployment affected african americans most 1932-50% women were fired/paid less 9/24 Immigration, Ethnicity and Race - list of things that remind you of america • white picket fence house • grilling • new york, LA, farms • south v north • american flag, eagle • trucks • disney world • baseball, hot dogs, hamburgers • apple pie • 9/11, 4th of july • hollywood - The depression generation • undermined authority of father • divorce rate fell • postponed marriage and childbearing • children helped by working - World war 2 • led to baby boomer generation-more than 3 children per woman (highest in century) • growing suburbs and the “american dream” - pville - encouraged men to marry and move there • govt put into place programs - soldiers go to college for free - mortgage assistance-still going on today, you can buy a house with no interest for the first five years middle class benefits most - 1950s • family problems existed but were hidden from view • women were to take care of husbands and families • most stability during family life - better health care - no economic problems at this time - 1960s and beyond • birthrate plunged • cohabitation 1970s - Racial and Ethnic Groups • racial group: sociallu defined group distinguished by selected, inherited physical characteristics (today race not biologically possibly) • ethnic group: sense of people hood based on a common national origin, religion, or language • minority group: subordinate to majority in terms of power and prestige (not numbers) - African American Families • 2013- 37.6 million = 14% of population in contrast to white americans = 65% or 228.2 million • 54.8% live in south compared to 8.9% in west • 85.7% in metropolitan areas • varying approaches to studying african american families - studies on african american families • historically portrayed as poor/dysfunctional • contemporary represntations as positive - adaptable-elastic households - more egalitarian - broad middle class - emphasis on extended families - postivie role of women in families - adaptable children - social class matters american education is highly valued in other parts of the world 9/29 - wednesday’s test • theories • my definitions • comparison of groups • general history trends-not responsible for specific dates and exact figures - immigration waves europeans south europeans hispanic and asian (1968 onward0all the other parts of the world who were not coming before) • 50 MC - fridays paper • 2-3 pages double spaced • sakai turn in - WILL BE ON TEST…. - Demographic shifts • global processed - migration - urbanization - increasingly transnational nature of families (mom and dad in one country kids in another; one parent in one country other parent in another) - remittances (money people send back to their families in poorer countries, some countries this makes up to 35% of the income of a country) - Little known facts about migration • recent globalization process has led to far less international migration-about 3% - population is more; proportionally less • limited migration bc of new laws - current situation • mote than 1/4 of people in US are african, latino, asian, or native american (of color, not counting the people from russia/europe) • over 1/3 are immigrants if you count the people of color and the people not considered of color • 1/3 of children in US aren’t white - 3 states with nonwhite majority california new mexico hawaii illinois almost there district of columbia (not really a state) - reactions from immigration • people become better at interacting with cultural differences • who you are going to see you around change • creates new cultures of mixes • mannerisms colliding and changing (america looks into the eyes, afirca means they want to be with them as a partner, hispanic not supposed to look into eyes of elders) • - 2010 census counted 50.5 million hispanics which is 16.3% of total populatio, in 2000 it was about 35.3 million, the hispanic population grew 46% and they accounted for most of the nations growth (56%) • who is hispanic? - census changes every time, no same race boxes - overall hispanic poverty rate: 26.3% • puerto ricans tend to be the poorest (33.1%) and cubans tend to be the richest (12.5%) - educational attainment: high school completion • white 80% • african am 75% • hispanic 5something% - Assimilation-theory that dominated acculturation • immigrants suffer acculterative stress but gradually acquire values of the dominant culture and that stress diminishes • concept of unidirectional linear progress (not true) • “yale or jail” for the first generation born here-pressure to be better than parents so they work really hard or fail - Biculturalism-operate in two different cultures at home & away • been shown to act as a protective factor against negative behavioral and health outcomes in immigrant and 2nd generation youth • generally do well and is beneficial for the children - Latinos is the US • heterogeneous (diverse) - socioeconomic class - education - acculturation - region - nationality mexicans cubans puerto-ricans - Familismo (familism) • involves deeply ingrained sense of the individual being inextricably rooted in an extended family system and is commonly regarded as the most influential factor in the lives of latinos • in immigrants its is hard to separate the impact of immigration itself from the influence of the home culture - mexican americas • more children (5+)-keeps american population at replaceable level • large extended families • lower levels of divorce (true across all levels of divorce) • strong sense of family responsibility • god parents • strong grandparent ties - Cuban americans • political migration - 1959 • upper and middle class of cuba • high education, skills, capital • white in appearance • came when castro came into power - and the richer land owning families fled to the US and were able to flourish almost instantly - Asian Americans • verly little research on families • 4.4% of population (13.4 million) • small numbers - mostly Chinese • total asisan american pop more than doubled between 1980 and 2010 • “asian” covers a lot of different religions, cultures, regions, and ways of life • kids finish high school more often • make more money • stereotype of good at math and make more money - very heterogenous group • beddhist, confuscian, muslim, hindus • myth of model minority-not all fit the stereotype • strong concepts of familism and intergenerational obligations • high level of familial stability • bussiness and education oriented social capital 10/8 Gender - ellen video - gender roles • characteristics, attitudes feelings and behaviors expected of males and females • change over time and place • gender identity refers to ones perception of themselves as either masculine or feminine - role identification • historically, universal division of labor by sex • socialization to gender roles begins at birth • differentiation between males and females perpetuates traditional expectations and behaviors…is that still true today? • belief that differences between the sexes provides justification for a system of stratification by sex - continuing debates around the issue of relative importance of natures nurture • hormones play a role - nature slide: biology and gender are linked • agruements favoring nature or biological diffs bw men and women come from the following sources - devel and health differences - effects of sex hormones which are chemical substances secreted into the bloodstream - sex differences in the brain - unsuccessful sex reassignment - socialization and gender are linked • argument favoring the nurture side of the debate suggesting that culture shapes human behavior come from - symbolic interactionists importance of roles in shaping behavior look at colonial america as example - cross cultural variations in gender roles margaret meads study in new guinea cross cultural variations in male violence 10/10 Gender - way we behave is due more to social expectations than biology - concept of “greater expressively of women? • some evidence that baby boys are more emotional - history of US gender roles - most common now to believe that behavior has both a biological and social component - physical size-body sze and strength hace ongoing implications for human relationships - we tend to feel that people are either masculine or feminine but prof feels they fall along a spectrum - the issue of gender • most traits and behaviors identified as masculine or feminine in a society are not innate • a few tendencies are innately linked to gender such as the male tendency to greater aggression but social factors can virtually eliminate the BLANK • whatever innate diff exist quantitative NOTE qualitative - cannot say that all men are aggressive and women are passive but more men are aggressive - In US • men are thought to have instrumental character traits: task oriented • women are thought to have expressive character traits: - warmth - sensitivity - concern about other needs - ability to express tenderness - how do we learn gender? - socialization: the process of learning how to be a member of certain society we only talk about children wrong life span concept socialization is dynamic and goes both ways • basic function of the family in all societies is nutrient socialization - parental influences • children learn through identification with parents • modeling of behavior • early dependency - parents • children rewarded for “appropriate” behaviors - children learn gender in the first year of life - research indicated that children's preferences for toys develops separately from parental influence 10/13 Gender Socialization - where do we learn gender? • media - books until 1960s more about boys - tv and software-more aggressive behaviors: girls portrayed more sexually - school influences • teachers encourage certain behaviors • title IX has made dramatic changes - provides opportunities for girls and women to participate in athletics - prohibits sex discrimination in any educational program that receives federal money - Why do gender roles persist? • exchange theory • benefits: traditional gender roles promote stability, continuity, and predictability • costs: - may not be able to live up to the ideal - loneliness - gender roles are often based off religions - gender roles are profitable for business - problems with stereotypes • place limitations on relationships that people are capable of forming or on career or personal achievements - contemporary gender roles • expansion of mans family role • work and professional roles for women • breakdown of male instrumentality and female expressiveness - rising concern about boys development • 67% boys in special education classes • more likely than girls to suffer from attention deficit disorder • lag behind girls in reading scores • more disciplinary problems in scholl • more likely to be perpetrators and victims of crime - 50% drop in sperm count - rising confidence in women has led to drop in confidence in men - men having problems in increasingly feminized workplace - male roles in transition • men dont usually have the option not to work • their role is more narrow video 10/15 Gender, Intimacy, Love, Sexuality - humans are social animals we are relational need for affiliation - personal relationships - intimacy • reciprocal trust • emotional closeness • comfortable self disclosure - different types of love - friendship, lust, caring and devotion to others - ancient greeks and romans • advocated for friendship and altruistic love - courtly love becomes dominant in the middle ages at a time when marriage was seen as a political arrangement - historically two categories of sexual approved activities • socially approved • socially disapproved sexual identity is a new concept (40-50 years ago) 10/17 Love - how do people choose a mate? • all societies have norms, rules and controls about whom one should choose as a partner and marry • partners tend to share similar group identities - race/ethnicity/education/economics - within the beginning of the 20th century romantic love and marriage begin to be connected • families not as tied up with each other • fertility declining • new idea that marriage needs to include love and companionship - prior to the 20th century separation between romantic love and sex and marriage - sexual relations that were too passionate were considered bad - 1920s women have shorter tighter dressers and wearing cosmetics - new concepts about love • emerging middle class rejected idea that love was to be found outside marriage • love now thought to occur before not after marriage - health benefits • how we feel emotionally affects our health - chemical reaction that makes you happier and gives your immune system a boost • being in love creates emotional high - love and sex • is there a relationship - fried-they come together - current thinking - split - maslows hierarchy of needs - each need needs to be met before moving up the latter - love and intimate relatuonshuos • biological components of love - attachment - caregiving sexuality • psychological components of love - trust - altruism - passion - biochemical reaction • in love release of stimulant • dies down over time - theories about love • reiss’s wheel theory of love includes four stages - rapport (connnection) - self revelation - mutual dependency - personality need fulfillment • can be repeated many times • sternbergs triangular theory has three elements - passion - intimacy - decision commitment different degrees of the three elements form diff types of love and relationships 10/20 Sexuality in US History - can resubmit paper by oct 31 - issue of sexuality • kinsey 1948 and 1953 revolutionary study for that time had been taboo and became highly controversial • findings - frequency of coitus decrease with age - early in marriage men are more interested in sex and women later - individuals participate in a wide spectrum of sexual behaviors - wide spectrum - 1970s- birth control became legal and women enter workforce - 1980s- AIDS-decrease in sexual activity • americans have few sex partners • 17% men and 3% women have had sex with more than 21 partners - 1990s-2010s-more monogamous than in past • 2-4 partners • men over report and women under report - hard to figure out - contemporary trends • increase in se activity outside the context of long term relationships before marraige, after divorce • emergence of an open homosexual subculture • public display of sexually oriented goods, services and add • exposure of children and teens to sexual messages (music videos, ads, clothing, gaming, etc) - sexual beahvior • according to a variety of studies, married people have more active sex lives than singles - 41% have sex twice or more a week - 23% singles - cohabiting couples most active 56% • gay men much more active than lesbian women (again issues around accuracy of these findings) - national survey on sexual behavior 2000 • based on 3,432 american men and women between 18 and 59 - people fall into 3 groups on third have sextwice a week or mroe, one third a few times month, one third a few times a year or not at all - people in US are largely monogamous 835 had one or zero partners a year; over a lifetime an average of 6 partners • findings of study questioned due to contemporary conservatism - list of factors that influence sexual frequency • age • health • habituation to sex • pregnacy • presence of children • sterilization (increases frequency) • stress - sexual scripts dictate what sexualtiy is and how it is practiced • who you have sex with • how you have sex • when/where you have sex • why you do it (relationship, having kids, for fun) • sexual orientation another factor - sexual scripts • scripts are cultural and vary for men and women and over time • females - sex is good or bad (depends on commitment in relationship) - sex is for men women want love - men should know what women want - women's appearance dictates their sexual behavior • males - should not express certain feelings - man is in charge initiates sex - man always wants sex - all physical contact leads to sex - sources of sexual regulation • institutions - family - state - religion - education - workplace • social norms and social sanctions - gender - publuc vs private places - married vs single - children vs elderly punishments include: saming, fines, imprisionment 10/27 Science of Sex Appeal - Why has cohabitation increased? • women working - less incentive for early marriage women can support themselves they don't need no man • occurred in part through introduction of birth control pill • greater emphasis on self fulfillment as criterion for judging personal relationship • has become more common among older adults and adults with children - influencing marriage patterns • increasing age • increasing number of non married • more common before second marriage • new social values - the issue of marriage • instiutional social arrangment • only found among humans • assumes permanence • conforms to social norms • 2 major components of marriage boudaries - marital status number of spouses 10/29 Marriage - what is marriage? why do we have marriage? • George Murdock: when two people come together and share economics, residence, and sexual relations • today it is redefined a lot of people are married but don't live together, live together but not having sex or love - class: love, symbolism of permanence • a socially legitimate sexual union - historical function of marriage • primary social institution that regulates sexuality and reproduction - institutional marriage • clear rules and roles with emphasis on male authority duty and conformity to social norms - companion marriage • typical of early to mid 20th century families • emphasis on affection, friendship, and sexual gratification - Individualized Marriage • typical of 1950s • emphasis on self development flexible roles and communication about problems • personal growth as main component - the specialization model • women at home and men go to work-each bring something to the marriage • doesn't work anymore • now men are looking for women with good earning potential not good domestic skills - current context of marriage • more forms of marriage and alternatives to marriage are socially acceptable • marriage still remains important to many people in the US • why to people marry? - makes it earlier to trust your partner to stay symbolic 11/5 - Weddings are ancient rituals that symbolize a couples commitment to each other - word wedding comes from anglo saxon weed meaning pledge; also included a pledge to the brides father to pay him in money cattle or horses for his daughter. when the father received the pledge he “gave the bride away” - honeymoon is a pagan custom and the couple was to get pregnant during the first month and drank honey wine each night - heterogamy or intermarriage • intermarriage can refer to - age diff - religious diff - ethinic racial diff - class diff • influenced by - group size - heterogeneous groups encourage intermarriage still people seek to keep same status - sex ratio barriers drop with skewed rates - most people marry in same age group • usually older men marry down and women don't - interracial dating and marriages • legal prohibition against interracial marriage in US until 1967 - people that are married tend to • be happier and less stressed • more likely to lead stable lives • less likely to split up than cohabiting coulpes • men derive greater benefits from marriage than women - men tend to have less close friends after marriage so divorce hits them harder bc women have bigger social support systems - men look for women with economically attractive traits (jobs) - change in marriage • decreasing importance in marriage market of characteristics assigned at birth - religion or fathers occupation • his and her marriage - men and women experience marriage differently marital roles refer to the ways married couples define their behavior and structure their time including housework fineness childcare and other areas 11/10 Children - reproduction, fertility and varied experiences of childhood - cross cultural view on societal survival • reproduction vital to societys continuation • always controlled by cultural norms about - family size - marriage - frequency of intercourse - abortion • never left just to the couple - power is currently on the industrialized world and the power may switch because they are not reproducing as much as other countries - america is at replacement level so this is not part of the conversation - one third of all women have had an abortion - fertility issues • we will arrive at 8 billion by 2015 • diff issues - industrialized world fertility on decline labor forces issues economic consumption - less developed world limiting fertility - GLObal variation • mask variiation within and between countries (and gender imbalances) • are the conquecences of - changes in womens roles - national and international pop control efforts - increasing age of first marriage - increasing divorce rates - increasing longevity • increase in number of households urban pop of developing countries expected to grow by a million people every five days through at least 2030 Global Fertility - children and parents • in all societies timing and number or births shaped by social forces - value attached to children and parenthood - marriage patterns and gender roles - political and econ structures - knowledge about human reproduction • even within same society fertility patterns may vary across racial ethnic and class lines - societies with high fertility • adjustment to high morality people have “extra” children • centrality of kinship and family structures • economics distributed among family members • leisure activies • care of the elderly • children as a source of status and prestige - womens status directly related to motherhood and continuation of kinship line - children important as labor - children as old age insurance - Societies with low fertility • decline in family based agriculture and preindustrial enterprises diminished importance of children • children no longer productive assets • rapid urbanization decline of extended family • new values that stress - individualism - secularism - achievement vs ascription - fertility - number of live births in a population - totally fertility rate TFR average number of births to women in a population - Historical Declines in US • over last 200 years number of children to women has gone down from 7 to 2 increase in opportunities for women and improvements in contraception/health care 11/17 Mothering and Fathering - ideologies regarding parenthood for women • beginning with emerging industrial system in 19th century • domestic “motherhood” as natural roles for women • psychoanalysis started to emphasize the mother child relationship - social construction of mothering • responsibility for mothering rests almost exclusively on biological mother for whom it consistutes the primary if not sole mission during childs formative years idealized model of motherhood white middle class American


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