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Exam Study Guides

by: Jude Fernando

Exam Study Guides MGT 318

Jude Fernando

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Study Gues
Info Systems
Kevin Matthews
E1, E2, E3, E4
75 ?




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This 33 page Bundle was uploaded by Jude Fernando on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MGT 318 at Clemson University taught by Kevin Matthews in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Info Systems in Business, management at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter 8  Know the difference between e­business and e­commerce  Ecommerce is a part of ebusiness and buying selling goods through a network   E­Business is done electronically.  Looking and seeing inventory.  E­business  encompasses more than e­commerce  Know how the Internet and e­commerce has allowed businesses to add to their  value chain         Internet­ More ways to sell to people.  Online chat.         E­commerce­           Click and mortar          Click and brick­ Most bs  Be able to differentiate between brick­and­mortor, a virtual organization, and  click­and­brick (aka click­and­mortor)      Most businesses are click and brick  Know how business functions differ between traditional commerce and e­ commerce     Traditional commerce­ flyers, postal mail, face to face meeting     E­commerce­ emails, electronic equivalent    Be able to identify advantages and disadvantages of e­commerce     Advantages     Disadvantages­ security, privacy  Know the 6 different models for e­commerce we discussed        Brokerage­   Be able to identify a situation as B2C, B2B, C2C, or C2B    Business­ change the product or sell it, Consumer­ plans on using the product  Know examples of e­government     E­government­ paying taxes online, purchasing firearms, photo registration,   Be familiar with technologies utilized for B2B e­commerce and some of its benefits     Techonologies­ intranents, extranets   Know the different types of electronic payment systems     Ecash, Echeck, smart cards(chip on credit card),   Know the purpose of SEO    SEO­ Search Engine Optimization  Chapter 9  Know the benefits for customers and businesses for having Global Information Systems    Benefits­ faster and cheaper  Be familiar with concerns (obstacles) that must be taken into account when "going  global" with an IS        Infrastructure standards­ actual technologies we use. Protocols may be different         Cultural differences­ way that business is conducted         Different laws          Time zones           Measurements and language barriers  Understand how communication, control, and coordination fit into thinking about  Global IS     Comm­ business to business(manfuacter to consumer), be able to commuciate with  customers, inside business    Control and coordination­ physically doing it, working together with other people  Know some challenges of having a global database     Security and privacy  Be able to identify advantages  Know what may hinder transborder data flow     Transborder data flow­ data moving across borders, protocols may be different, laws  Be familiar with some of the requirements of a Global Information System     Requirements­ being secured, commucation between parties that are involved,  managing  Chapter 10  Know what the SDLC is and when it is appropriate     SDLC­ Systems Development Life Cycle       Appropriate when creating  new system and  Redesign an existing system  Know the phases of the SDLC and the order they go in          1. Planning           2.Requirements           3. Design           4. Implementation           5. Maintenance   Know what tasks are performed in each phase (i.e., writing code is in Phase 4:  Implementation)       1. Planning­ creating a task force           2.Requirements           3. Design­            4. Implementation­ deploying a system           5. Maintenance  feastability test throughout entire life cycle  Be familiar with the deliverables for each phase of the SDLC           1. Planning­            2.Requirements­ user requirements           3. Design­ technical specifications for the systems: plans, model, all the paper part           4. Implementation­            5. Maintenance  Know what types of representatives should be included in a systems development task  force and why  System analysts, time management    Know the 5 types of feasibility studies and what is considered for each  Be familiar with: tangible vs. intangible costs/benefits, NPV, ROI, IRR, CBA, HIPPA,  FIRPA, SOX      NPV      ROI      IRR      CBA     HIPPA     FIRPA     SOX  Know what CASE tools do     Commonly used   Be familiar with the concept of prototyping and it's benefits and drawbacks    Prototyping­ example of a non­finished product   Benefits­ save money, find problem before we finish the system    Drawbacks­ limited use and not the finished product   Know the 4 types of conversion/deployment strategies we discussed and be able to  identify a scenario as each  Know what project management tools are and why they would be used  Project management tools help us coordinate between different team members  Know the differences between an RFP and an RFI     RFP­ Request for proposal, this is what we want     RFI­Request for information, tell me what you can do for me       RFP has more details  Be familiar with insourcing, self­sourcing, outsourcing (onshore, nearshore, offshore),  and crowdsourcing as well as advantages/disadvantages of each     Insourcing­  Know advantages & drawbacks off the SDLC  Understand when the SDLC may not be the best choice for developing a system  Be familiar with the 2 examples of alternatives to the SDLC that we discussed Discussions / Labs  Know some advantages of why companies would utilize mobile apps  Be familiar with the mobile apps we discussed during class and their functionality,  problems, etc.  Recall our discussions about the football ticketing distribution system  Know alternative implementation strategies that could be appropriate for the football  ticketing system Chapter 1  Know the difference between computer and information literacy o Computer Literacy - The skill in using productivity software, such as word processors, spreadsheets, database management systems, and presentation software, as well as having a basic knowledge of hardware and software, the Internet, and collaboration tools and technologies. In other words, it is the ability to actually use a computer efficiently o Information literacy - Understanding the role of information in generating and using business intelligence; in other words, it is how to use the computer to create value  Understand the concept of business intelligence  Know the parts of a Management Information System and understand why each is important o Hardware: input, output, and memory devices o Software: commercial programs, software established in-house or both o Human elements: users, system analysts, and technical personnel  Know the difference between data and information o Data -  Raw and unorganized facts  Has not been processed  Can be simple, random, and useless unless organized in proper manner  Example: A random student’s test score o Information - The actual output of an information system-analyzed facts and processed components  Data that has been processed, structured or presented in a specific context to make it useful and beneficial  Example: The average test score of a class or an entire school is information that can be derived from bits of data  Know the types of competitive advantage strategies o Overall Cost Leadership  Bottom-line strategy: low prices  Top-line strategy: creating new revenue by offering new products and services o Differentiation  Make yourself “stand-out” and different from competitors o Focus  Concentrating on a specific market or segment to achieve a cost or differentiation advantage  Understand Porter's Five Forces Model o Buyer power:  High when customers have many choices and low when customers have few choices o Supplier power:  High when customers have fewer choices and low when customers have more options  Ex: Netflix uses information technology to offer products and services, therefore, increasing their power in the market place o Threat of substitute products and services:  High when there’s more availability in products and services o Threat of new entrants:  Low when reproducing a company’s product or services is difficult  Ex: Developing a search engine that could compete successfully with Google would be difficult o Rivalry among existing competitors:  high when there are more competitors in the same marketplace position; low when there are fewer competitors Chapter 2  Know the major hardware components of a computer  Know what input and output devices do and the different types of each (and be able to recognize examples) o Input devices – send data and info to the computer; consistently being improved to make data input easier  Types of input: human data entry and source automation  Types of input: keyboard, mouse, touchscreen, trackball, lightpen, data tablet, barcode scanners, optical character (OCR), optical mark recognition (OMR) system o Output devices – capable of representing mainframe from a computer; might be visual, audio, or digital;  Types:  Dot matrix  Inkjet Printers (~1000 dpi, 4­12 ppm)  Laser Printers (~1200 dpi, 8­32 ppm)  Types of output: printers, display monitors, and plotters  Monitor – soft copy;  printers- hard copy  Know what a CPU does o Central Processing Unit (CPU) – heart of a computer  Divided into 2 components: arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit.  Computers can have either a single processor or multiprocessors  Know how the following are "measured": monitors, printers, memory (aka storage space), processor speed o monitors: measured in size (inches) and quality (resolution) o printers: measured by quality (DPI: dots per inch) and speed (PPM: pages per min) o processor speed: Measured in GigaHertz (GHz) o memory:  Be able to identify important aspects of computer hardware from sales materials  Be able to identify types of primary and secondary memory o Primary  RAM  ROM  Registers  Cache o Secondary  Hard Drive  Flash drive, CD/DVD, tapes, etc  Know the differences between primary and secondary memory (uses, features, location, etc.) o Secondary is slower o Primary is more expensive  Know what a server and a server farm are and consideration businesses should make when considering a server farm o Server – place to store things or to do things; Computer and all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a network o Server farm – Redundancy  RAID (redundant array of independent disks)  Fault tolerance  Know what a computer program is o Computer program- Step-by-step directions for performing a task; Written in a language the computer understands o Writing a computer program requires:  Knowing what needs to be done  Determining how to do it  Writing the code  Testing  Debugging  Maintenance  Know the two major types of software and what each does o Application software – Performs specialized tasks  example: excel, word, ppt, etc o System software – Works in the background and takes care of tasks such as deleting waste files  example: windows 10; file management; allocating resources; managing hardware  Understand the different distinctions between different generations of programming o Machine language:  First generation of computer languages  Consists of a series of 0 s and 1 s representing data or instructions representing data or instructions  Dependent on the machine  Time consuming to write a program o Assembly Language:  Second generation of computer languages  Machine dependent, though a higher-level language than machine language  Uses a series of short codes, or mnemonics, to represent data or instructions o High-level languages  Part of the third-generation of computer languages  Machine independent and self documenting  Used for Web development and Internet applications o Fourth generation languages (4GLs)  Use macro codes that can take the place of several lines of programming  Commands are powerful and easy to learn o Fifth-generation languages (5GLs)  Use artificial intelligence technologies - Knowledge-based systems, natural language processing (NLP), visual programming, and a graphical approach to programming  Designed to facilitate natural conversations between an individual and the computer Chapter 3  Know what a database is and the problems they solve and potential considerations they create o Database – central place for data; repository  Know what a DBMS does o Database management system- manages the database  Be familiar with these terms: field, record, table, query, relationship, primary key, foreign key,  Be able to read a logical model of data (hierarchical or network) and be able to identify: children, parents, siblings  Know how the data in a table is organized (rows & columns and what each represents) o rows represent records o columns represent fields  Know what a data dictionary is and types of things you may find in one o Data dictionary – tells you type of data  Be able to identify the following in a relational model: tables, fields, primary keys, foreign keys, relationships o Relational model -  Understand the process of normalization and why it's useful  Be familiar with different types of queries for data manipulation  Know the different considerations that a data administrator must take  Know what a data warehouse is, why they're used, and what they can do o Data warehouse – historical data stored  Know what data mining is o  Know what a data mart is and it's advantages/disadvantages over a data warehouse o Data mart -  Understand the two types of business analytics and why businesses use each  Be familiar with "Big Data" and the 3 Vs and know why each is a concern o Volume o Variety o velocity Chapter 4  Know the difference between ethics and legality o Ethics defines what is good for the individual and for society and establishes the nature of duties that people owe themselves and one another. o What is considered legal may not be considered unethical…  Know the 3 types of ethical issues and examples of each o Privacy Issues  Involve collecting, storing and disseminating information about individuals.  Examples include: Employers using social media, Monitoring systems, Availability of personal information, Identity theft, Surveillance & spying o Accuracy Issues  Involve the authenticity, fidelity and accuracy of information that is collected and processed.  Examples include: spam o Property Issues  Involve the ownership and value of information.  Examples include: intellectual property  Know the privacy concerns for individuals and businesses o Indivuduals- emails o Business- consumer data  Be familiar with spam, cookies, and log files. o Spam - Unsolicited e-mail sent for advertising purposes ; Sent in bulk using automated mailing software o Cookies: Small text files with unique ID tags that are embedded in a Web browser and saved on the user’s hard drive  Help websites customize pages for users  Considered an invasion of privacy when users’ information is used without prior consent  Installing a cookie manager helps users disable cookies o Log files: Generated by Web server software, record a user’s actions on a website  Know the different types of intellectual property o Industrial property  Inventions, trademarks, logos, and industrial designs o Copyrighted material  Fair Use Doctrine – use copyrighted material for certain purposes such as quoting passages from a book in a literary review. o Trademark o Patent  Licensing  Funding  Barriers to entry  Know the pros and cons of telecommuting o Page 77 table 4.1  Be familiar with health concerns caused by technology o Stress to hands, arms, back, and eyes  Vision issues  Musculoskeletal issues  Skin issues  Reproductive system issues  Stress issues  Know what Green Computing is and ways we can achieve it o Green Computing - Involves the design, manufacture, use, and disposal of computers, servers, and computing devices with minimal impact on the environment  Ways to achieve Green Computing:  Design products that o Last longer o Are modular o Faster and consume less energy  Replace underutilized smaller servers with one large server using a virtualization technique  Consider telecommuting & virtual meetings  Turn off unused machines  Recycle parts & machines Chapter 5  Know what information security is comprised of o Information security - Processes/policies designed to protect an organization's data and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction.  Be able to identify unintentional and deliberate threats (know examples of each) o Unintentional Threats - Without malicious intent (often unknowingly)  Examples:  Natural disasters  Technical / Structural failures o Electrical overloads  Human error o Can also cause errors in the data  Social engineering o Dumpster diving, shoulder surfing, tailgating (tailgating is unauthorized access) o Deliberate Threats - WITH malicious intent  Examples:  Espionage / Trespassing  Extortion o blackmail  Sabotage / vandalism  Theft  Software attacks  Be familiar with: phishing, pharming, key loggers, sniffing, spoofing, viruses, worms, trojans, backdoors, and DoS o Phishing: Sending fraudulent e-mails appearing to come from legitimate sources o Pharming: Hijacking and altering the IP or domain address of an official website o Keystroke loggers: Monitor and record keystrokes o Sniffing: Capturing and recording network traffic o Spoofing: Attempt to gain access to a network by posing as an authorized user o Virus: Self-propagating program code that attaches itself to other files o Worm: Independent programs that can spread themselves without having to be attached to a host program, uses resources o Trojan program: Contains code hidden in popular programs but is intended to disrupt a computer, network, or website  Logic bomb: Triggered at a certain time or by a specific event o Backdoor: Built into a system by its designer enabling a bypass through security o Blended threat: Combination of threats o Denial-of-service attacks (DoS): Floods a network or server with service requests to prevent legitimate users’ access  Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack  TDoS (telephony denial of service) attack o  Know what the three risk mitigation strategies are o Mitigation is how we deal with risks o Risk Acceptance – if something happens, I’ll deal with it then o Risk Limitation – minimize or limit the risk o Risk Transference – taking the risks and putting it on someone else  Be familiar with Information Security controls for security including: access measures, physical measures, auditing, hardware/software measures, and fault-tolerance measures o Access Measures  Authentication is verifying you are who you say you are by any of the following ways:  Something you ARE (biometrics, fingerprints, eye scanner, etc.) o Biometrics is something about you that you can’t easily change to identify you  Something you HAVE (ID card, key, etc.)  Something you DO (vocal recognition, signatures, etc.)  Something you KNOW (password, code, security questions, etc.) o Authorization is granting access to data or equipment only as needed/required o Physical Measures  Doors, walls, guards, etc o Auditing Measures  Internal/External  Internal: company looking at securities  External: hiring a consultant o Hardware/Software Security Measures  Firewall: filters traffic in and out of a network  Callback modem: Connection requested then initiated by the server to predetermined number  Antivirus software  Whitelisting/Blacklisting software/websites  Encryption  Digital Certificates o Fault-tolerance  Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)  Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)  Know what business continuity planning is o Put together a management crisis team o Contact the insurance company o Restore phone lines and other communication systems o Notify all affected people that recovery is underway o Set up a help desk to assist affected people o Document all actions taken to regain normality Chapter 6  Be familiar with: bandwidth, attenuation, broadband, and narrowband o Bandwidth - Amount of data that can be transferred from one point to another in a certain time period o Attenuation - Loss of power in a signal as it travels from the sending device to the receiving device o Broadband - Multiple pieces of data, sent simultaneously to increase the transmission rate o Narrowband - Voice-grade transmission channel capable of transmitting a maximum of 56,000 bps, so only a limited amount of information can be transferred  Know different types of sender/receiver devices on a network and how they would utilize a network o Input/output device o Terminal o Personal computer / Notebook o Mainframes o Supercomputers o Others? o  Know what a modem is, it's purpose, and the different types that exist o Modem - Device that connects a user to the Internet o Modulator-demodulator – where the word modem comes from o Not required for all network connections o Types:  Dial-up  Digital subscriber line (DSL)  Cable  Be familiar with the different types of communications media and how they compare based on cost, speed, and security o o Fiber optic- fastest, cheapest o Coxial o Twisted pair- slowest  Know what a protocol is and examples of some communications protocols we've discussed o Protocols - Agreed-on methods and rules for:  Hardware connections  Data transmission  File transfers o Examples:   Understand that modern networking is a layered approach and what that means o Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model: 7-layer architecture for defining how data is transmitted on a network o Layers in the architecture  Application  Presentation  Session  Transport  Network  Data link  Physical  Be familiar with packets and routing and the general process used on the Internet (TCP/IP) as well as it's problems o Packet: A collection of binary digits sent from computer to computer over a network o Routing: Process of deciding which path data takes o Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) –  Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)  Establishes a link between hosts  Ensures message integrity, sequencing and acknowledging packet delivery  Regulates data flow between source and destination nodes  Internet Protocol (IP)  Responsible for packet forwarding  Network address  Node address o  Know the differences between LANs, WANs, and MANs o LAN(local area network)- connects workstations and peripehal devices that are in close proximity  Covers a limited geographical area such as a building/ campus  One company owns it  o WAN(wide area network)- can span several cities, states, or even countries  Owned by different parties  Data transfer speed depends on the speed of its interconnections(called links)  Useful for company HQ in DC with 30 branch offices and 30 states MAN(Metropolitan Area Network)- designed to handle data commucation for multiple organizations in a city and sometimes nearyby cities as well  Be able to identify network topologies   Know what the basic client-server model is o Software runs on the local computer and communicates with the remote server to request information or services o Server is a remote computer on the network that provides information or services in response to client requests o  Know what a two-tiered, n-tiered, and 3-tiered artchitecture may be used for o Two-tiered- Client communicates directly with the server  Effective in small workgroups(50 or less)  Store procedures and validation rules o N- tired- attempts to balance the workload between client and server by removing application processing from both client and server and placing it on a middle tier server o 3-tiered archtitecture- 3-tier application uses the client/server computing model. With three tiers or parts, each part can be developed concurrently by different team of programmers coding in different languages from the other tier developers. Because the programming for a tier can be changed or relocated without affecting the other tiers, the 3-tier model makes it easier for an enterprise or software packager to continually evolve an application as new needs and opportunities arise. Existing applications or critical parts can be permanently or temporarily retained and encapsulated within the new tier of which it becomes a component  Know advantages & disadvantages of wireless and mobile networks o Advantages- mobility, flexibility, east of installation, low cost o Disadvantages- limited throughout, limited range, in-buidling penetration problems, vulnerability to frequency noise, security Chapter 7  Be familiar with the history of the Internet and the key things that happened in its history o Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) – 1969 o E-mail, FTP, TCP/IP – 1982-1985 o NSFNET – 1985 o World Wide Web – 1989 o High Performance Computing Act – 1991 o First browser – 1993  Know what each of these are: hypertext, Internet backbone, DNS, domain name, IP address, URLs, TLDs o Hypertext - Embedded references in hypermedia documents; Consists of links users can click to follow a thread o Internet backbone:  Foundation network linked with fiber-optic cables that can support high bandwidth  Made up of many interconnected government, academic, commercial, and other high capacity data routers  Private companies operate their own Internet backbones that interconnect at network access points (NAPs) o DNS: Protocol which converts domain names into IP addresses o Domain names: Unique identifiers of computer or networks on the Internet o Internet Protocol (IP) address - Assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) o Uniform resource locators (URLs) - Address of a document or site on the Internet o  Be able to identify a valid and invalid IP Address  Know the different types of navigation tools we discussed o Used to travel from website to website - as in surf the Internet o  Know the basic process of how a search engine works (includes: web crawling & indexing) o Crawling the Web  Search engines use software called crawlers, spiders, bots, and other similar names  Web Crawlers  Find the new data  Checks to see what links are on the page and confirms that the links are working  Identify broken link and includes the information as part of the data about that page  Gathered data is sent back to the search engine’s data center  Ensures that search engine has updated information on the web  o Indexing  Housed at server farms, search engines use keywords to index data coming in from crawlers  Each keyword has an index entry that is linked to all Web pages containing that keyword  Be familiar with the common types of Internet services discussed o Services made possible by the TCP suite of protocols o Simple Message Transfer Protocol (SMTP) o Post Office Protocol (POP) o Popular services o E-mail, newsgroups, discussion groups, Internet Relay Chat, instant messaging, and Internet telephony o  Know what an intranet is and how it differs from the Internet o Collecting, storing, and disseminating useful information that supports business activities o AKA “Corporate portals” o Internal use by employees or trusted business partners o Defining and limiting access is important for security reasons o  Know what an extranet is o Secure network that: o Uses the Internet and Web technologies to connect intranets of business partners o Facilitates communication between organizations or between consumers o Considered to be a type of inter-organizational system (IOS)  Electronic funds transfer (EFT)  Electronic data interchange (EDI) o  Know what Web 2.0 is and popular uses o Trend toward Web applications that are more interactive than traditional Web applications o Includes e-collaboration as a key component o Focuses mainly on social networking and collaboration o Uses:  Blogs  Wikis  Social Networking Sites  Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds  Podcasts  Know what the Internet of Everything / Internet of Things are o Internet of Everything (IOE) - Web-based development in which people, processes, data, and things are interconnected via the Internet using:  RFID devices  Barcodes  Wireless systems  QR codes o Internet of things (IoT) - Physical objects that are connected to the Internet and to all the other physical objects Discussions / Labs  Know privacy concerns we as people, businesses, and society should have  Know government regulations that are meant to help protect our privacy (specifically, HIPPA, FIRPA, and Sarbanes Oxley) o HIRPA- heath records o FIROA- grades o SOX- company records  Be familiar with the ethical issues we discussed when talking about Yik Yak  Issues with Yik yak o Cyber bullying o Is investing an unethical choice  Question for the investor  Inventor can be turned down bc of unethical investments  What should Yik yak to according the article o Put filters, so you can’t post certain words  Should anyone be responsible for content  Unethical apps o Gaggle, fling  Know what Dreamweaver is and the ways we have used it together o Dreamweaver is an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) which is designed to aid web developers in the process of building and maintaining web applications. o We used Dreamweaver to connect to our personal webspace provided by CCIT  Know what FTP stands for o File transfer protocol  Know the difference between a local and remote server when working with FTP o local server is connected on your LAN (local area network) and a remote server is not on you LAN but connected over your WAN (wide area network)  Know what HTML stands for o Hypertext markup language  Know the basic components of HTML (including tags and attributes)  Tag o The HTML element is everything from the start tag to the end tag: o <p>My first HTML paragraph.</p>  Start tag Element content End tag <h1> My First Heading </h1> <p> My first paragraph. </p> <br>   Attributes  HTML elements can have attributes  Attributes provide additional information about an element  Attributes are always specified in the start tag  Attributes come in name/value pairs like: name="value"  Know some common tags for HTML (including tags to make: headers, paragraphs, line breaks, bold, italic, underlined, images, links, and list o Headers: <h1> o Paragraphs:<p> o Line break:<br>  <p>This is<br>a para<br>graph with line breaks</p>  o Bold:<b> o Italic:<i> o Underlined:<u> o Images- <img src="url" alt="some_text">  o Links- defined with <a> <a>  <a href="">Visit our HTML tutorial</a> o List:  undordered list-<ul>  ordered list-<ol>  descriptive list- <dl>


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