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Chapter 1 Notes, Educ 314

by: Stefanie Bowlsby

Chapter 1 Notes, Educ 314 EDUC 314 004

Stefanie Bowlsby
GPA 3.6

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Notes for chapter 1
Human grown and learn
Dr. Thompson
Education, development, SIU, Carbondale, notes, Freud
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Stefanie Bowlsby on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Bundle belongs to EDUC 314 004 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Dr. Thompson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Human grown and learn in Education and Teacher Studies at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter 1 Book Notes Section 1 – The Lifespan Perspective  Development: the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life  span.  Most development involves growth, although it also includes decline brought on by  aging and dying.  Life­span perspective: the perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional,  multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual; involves growth, maintenance,  and regulation; and is construction through biological, sociocultural,  and individual factors  working together.  Lifelong development – early adulthood not end of development  Multidimensional development – body, mind, and emotions & relationships change and  affect each other  Multidirectional development – some components and dimensions grow throughout life  while others shrink (e.g. early childhood high capacity for language; later on, it shrinks)  Plastic development – plasticity (capacity for change) shrinks as we age  Developmental science is multidisciplinary – psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists,  neuroscientists, and medical researchers all work on development  Contextual development – occurs in different settings; contexts (ex. school, university,  family, lab, peers, country, church, city, neighborhood) have 3 types of influence:  Normative age­graded  Normative history­graded  Non­normative or highly individualized life events  Normative age­graded influences: influences that are similar for individuals in a particular  age group  Normative history­graded influences: influences that are common to people of a particular  generation because of historical circumstances  Non­normative life events: unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual’s  life Development and Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation of Loss  Mastery of life involves conflicts between the three goals of human development: growth,  maintenance, and regulation of loss Development is a Co­construction of Biology, Culture, and Individual  A co­construction of biological, cultural, and individual factors working together to get  development Contemporary Concerns Health and Wellbeing Parenting and Education Sociocultural Contexts and Identity  Culture: behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from  generation to generation  Cross­cultural studies: comparison of one culture with one or more other cultures  These provide info about the degree to which development is similar, or universal, across  cultures, and the degree to which it is culture­specific  Ethnicity: a characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language  Socioeconomic status (SES): the grouping of people with similar occupational, educational,  and economic characteristics  Gender: the characteristic of people as male or female  Social policy: a national government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens Social Policy Section 2 – The Nature of Development  Biological, cognitive, and socioemotional process  Biological process: changes in physical nature  Cognitive process: changes in thought, intelligence, and language of individual  Socioemotional process: changes in relationships with other people, emotions, and  personality  Connecting biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes   Inextricably intertwined  Developmental cognitive neuroscience  Developmental social neuroscience Periods of Development  Developmental period: the time frame in a person’s life characterized by certain features  Prenatal period(conception to birth): Tremendous growth  Infancy(birth to 18/24 months): dependent on an adult  Early childhood(3 to 5 years): self­care begins, play with peers  Mid and late childhood(6 to 10/11): master fundamental skills(reading, writing, math),  exposed to the world, develop self­control and sense of achievement  Adolescence(10/12 to 18/21): rapid physical changes(puberty), pursuit of independence and  identity, thought becomes logical, abstract, and idealistic, spend less time with their family  Early Adulthood(20s thru 30s): establish personal and economic independence, advance in  career, select mate, start family  Mid adulthood(40s to 60): expand personal and social involvement and responsibility, assist  next generation, reach and maintain satisfaction in career  Late adulthood(60s/70s to death): life review, retirement, and adjustment to new social rules  and diminishing strength/health  Four ages­ Lifespan developmentalists focusing on adult development use ‘4 ages’  First age: Childhood and adolescence  Second age: Prime adulthood (20 to 59)  Third age: Approx. 60 to 79  Fourth age: Approx. 80 to death  Primary focus is ages three and four Connections across Periods of Development   Development in one period is connected to development in another period Significance of Age  Age and happiness  Older people tend to be happier  Concepts of age  Chronological age: number of years elapsed since birth  Biological age: age in terms of biological health  Psychological age: adaptive capacities compared to others of the same chronological age  Developmental issues  Nature vs. Nurture  Nature­nurture issue: debate about whether development is primarily influenced by  nature or nurture. Nature refers to an organisms biological inheritance, nurture to its  environmental experiences.  Stability vs. Change  Stability­change issue: debate about whether we become older renditions of our early  experience (stability) or develop into someone different from who we were at an earlier  point in development (change)  Continuity vs. Discontinuity  Continuity­discontinuity issue: debate about the extent to which development involves  gradual cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity) Section 3­ Theories of Development  Scientific method: an approach that can be used to obtain accurate information  Conceptualize the problem  Collect the data  Draw conclusions  Revise theory and research conclusions  Theory: interrelated coherent set of ideas that helps to explain and make predictions  Hypothesis: specific predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy Psychoanalytic Theory  Psychoanalytic theories: theories that describe development, as primarily unconscious and  heavily colored by emotion.  Behavior is merely a surface characteristic, and the symbolic  workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior. Emphasis on early  experience with parents.  Emphasis on unconscious drives and motives  Freud  Erikson  Psychosexual: Freud (1856­1939)  Behavior affected by underlying emotions and unconscious mind  Personality  Id (unconscious instincts) – seeks immediate gratification  Ego (executive branch, deals with reality)  ­attempts to satisfy pleasure within  boundaries of reality  Superego (moral branch, conscience) – tells us what we should/should not do  Makes us feel guilty  Emphasized sex drives  Developed theory in 2 parts  Pasic components of personality and their emergence in development  Link of sexual energy with specific bodily organs  Different areas (erogenous zones) comprise seat of pleasure at different stages of  development  Personality determined by way conflicts between the early sources of pleasure and  demands of reality are resolved  Oral (birth – 18 months): infants sex energy focuses on mouth  Anal (18 months – 3 years): sex energy focuses on anus  Phallic (3 years – 6 years): boys seek pleasure by handling penis; girls realize they don’t  have a penis and get jealous  Oedipus complex: young child develops intense desire to replace parent of same sex and  enjoy affections of opposite­sex parents – moves on with superego (intense fear of  castration)  Electra complex: female variant of Oedipus complex  Latency (6 years to 12 years): sex impulses are latent and libido is channeled into some  socially acceptable activity  Genital puberty: sexual impulses arise again, source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside the family  Psychosocial: Erikson (1902­1994)  Changes over lifespan – 8 stages  Each stage has unique crisis to resolve, not a catastrophe to future development if not  resolved  Each stage has developmental task  Revised and extended Freud’s theory  Less sex instinct  More important sociocultural determinants  Social environment, culture, contextual issues for personality  Children’s relationships have a huge influence on personality      Erikson’s theory: 8 stages of human development, each stage consists of a unique  developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved  Trust vs. mistrust (birth – 1 year)  Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1 – 3)  Initiative vs. guilt (3 – 6)  Industry vs. inferiority (elementary school, approx. 6 – 10)  Identity vs. identity confusion (adolescence, approx. 10 – 20)  Intimacy vs. isolation (early adulthood, 20s & 30s)  Generativity vs. stagnation (mid­adulthood, 40s & 50s)  Integrity vs. despair (late adulthood, 50s on) Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theories  Contributions include emphasis on developmental framework, family relationships, and  unconscious aspects of mind.  Criticisms include lack of scientific support, too much  emphasis on sexual underpinnings, and an image of people that is too negative Cognitive Theories – Conscious Thought  Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory (1896­1980)  Piaget’s theory: theory stating children actively construct their understanding of the  world and go through 4 stages of cognitive development  Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years): child constructs understanding of world by  coordinating sensory experiences (e.g. seeing, hearing) with physical, motoric action  Preoperational stage (2 – 7): can represent world with words, images, and drawings, but  lack ability to do operations (mental actions that allow you to do mentally what you could before only do physically, e.g. mentally putting two short sticks together to compare to a  longer stick’s length)  Concrete operational stage (7 – 11): can perform operations that involve objects; can  reason logically with physical examples  Formal operational stage (appears between 11 and 15, through adulthood): move beyond  concrete into abstract and logical  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory (1896­1934)  Vygotsky’s theory: sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development  Information­processing Theory  Emphasizes that individuals manipulate, monitor, and strategize about information.   Central to this theory are the processes of memory and thinking  Skinner’s Operant Conditioning (1904­1990)  Development is based on behavior changed by rewards and punishments  Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (1925­present)  Social cognitive theory: the view of psychologists who emphasize behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development Evaluating Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories  Contributions include emphasis on scientific research and environmental determinants of  behavior.  Criticisms include too little emphasis on cognition in Skinner’s view and  inadequate attention paid to developmental changes Ethological Theory (Lorenz, 1903­1989)  Ethology: stresses behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is  characterized by critical or sensitive periods  Lorenz imprinted baby geese Ecological Theory (1917­2005)  Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory: environmental systems theory that focuses on 5  environmental systems – microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem  Microsystem: system in which individual lives.  Includes family, school, peers,  neighborhood, etc.  Mesosystem: involves relations between microsystems, e.g. family and school, school and  religion, family and peers.  Exosystem: links between social setting individual isn’t actively in and immediate context,  e.g. family’s work and your home  Macrosystem: culture individual lives in  Chronosystem: patterning of environmental events and transitions over life course, e.g.  graduating, divorce Eclectic Theoretical Orientation: Does not follow any one theoretical approach, but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it Section 4 – Research in Lifespan Development Methods for Collecting Data  Observation  Laboratory: controlled setting; many complex factors of the “real world” removed  Naturalistic observation: studies that involve observing behavior in real world settings  Survey and Interview  Quick, large amounts of data  Inaccurate, lies     Standardized Test: test with uniform procedures for administering and scoring.  Allow  performance to be compared with others     Case Study: in­depth look at single individual Research Designs  Descriptive Research: designed to observe and record behavior  Correlational Research: goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or  more events or characteristics  Correlation coefficient: number based on statistical analysis used to describe degree of  association between two variables  Experiments: carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to  influence the behavior being studied is manipulated while all other factors are held constant  Independent variable – manipulated  Dependent variable – measured for the effect  Experimental group – ones manipulated  Control group – no manipulation Timespan of Research  Cross­sectional approach: individuals of different ages compared at one time.  Longitudinal approach: same individuals studied over a period of time, usually several years  or more  Cohort effects: effects due to person’s time of birth, era, or generation rather than the  person’s actual age Conducting Ethical Research  Informed consent  Confidentiality  Debriefing  Minimizing deception Minimizing Bias  Gender bias  Cultural and Ethnic bias  Ethnic gloss: using an ethnic label, such as African­American or Latino, in a superficial  way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogenous than it really is  Grouping Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Japanese, Korean, etc. as merely Asian


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