Cumulative Course Notes (detailed)
Cumulative Course Notes (detailed) history 2010-018
Popular in Survery 1 of U.S History
Popular in History
This 22 page Bundle was uploaded by dannyhfields on Monday February 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to history 2010-018 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Cooper in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Survery 1 of U.S History in History at Middle Tennessee State University.
Reviews for Cumulative Course Notes (detailed)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/01/16
History 2010 08/27/2015 ▯ How did people populate North America? (11-20 thousand years ago) Land bridge- Beringia o Followed large game (megafauna) aka: food o Proceeded to spread out and form clans Also another theory that the came by boat following the coast o Costal Migration Hypothesis o Not mutually exclusive with land bridge To explain how people got on the east coast of North American, people came up with the theory the people came to NA from Europe more than 20,000 years ago. o Solutrean Hypothesis Human life originated in Africa o This upset many Europeans (EUROCENTRISM) ▯ ▯ 1492 ▯ Columbus arrives to America Claimed the people that populated the land were savage and uncultured o To Columbus this was a sign that they were inferior to Europeans ▯ ▯ Four periods in Native American development 1. Paleo-Indians o 1 Americans to reach Tennessee (11,000 BC-8,000 BC) o Megafauna Hunters o Nomadic o Followed Mastodon and hunted them o Moved in small bands, lived in temporary shelters o Stone tools 2. Archaic Indians (8,000,1000 BC) o Existed after the ice age o Had to make due with new realities of climate and terrain o Camps became more permanent o Small villages o Hunting developed Atlatl (spear like throwing device) Hunted deer and bears and such o Food diversified (nuts, fishing, plants) o Ceremonial burials Evidence of religion and pondering existence and afterlife o Evidence of vast trade network for goods 3. Woodland Indians (1000 BC- 1000 AD) o More established societies o Evidence show they were making ceramics o Social Stratification Different classes People with money and power and people without it o Burial Mounds Defining characteristic in native American development o More developments in hunting Bow and arrow o Complex belief system o Farming Maize was first farmed in the US around 5,000 BC In terms of civilization, farming was developed the same time as it was in the middle east o Old Stone Fort (Manchester, Tennessee) It was actually a ceremonial structure 4. Mississippians – Mound builders (1,000 AD – European contact ((1500-1600 AD))) o Cultural People o Had large urban centers Cities o Clear gender roles o Code of law and a leader o Largest Mississippian civilization Cahokia ▯ What defines a civilization? Rules law/ powerful leader Monumental architecture Religion Christianity Values, morals, manners, refinement Trade Agriculture sedentary cities Literacy education ▯ ▯ Notes on Cahokia video 1,000 a leader lived in massive temple 1050 AD Called City of the Sun 20,000 residents o lived in houses linked by trade to a third of the continent through its placement on the Mississippi River Mound building culture Not literate, however they were educated Education: The cultural transmission of society from one generation to another ▯ ▯ Little Ice Age (1300-1800 AD) Period of extreme cold and drought Farming became difficult Cahokia dwindled down in size to survive in small bands ▯ ▯ Because the cities dwindled down, when Europeans came in contact when Native Americans it was easy to label them as savage Europeans brought diseases to NA Native Americans may have been exposed to these diseases during migration to NA, however they lost their immunity Why no immunity? o Cold killed off virus and bacteria Small bands don’t die out, don’t spread o No livestock in NA ▯ Upon European arrival, death of Native Americans was constant Mainly from diseases ▯ Why do Europeans come over to North America in the first place? First people to come over to come over were the Vikings They didn’t really make a big deal out of it, no contact with Native Americans In 1453 Constantinople Fell during the Holy Ward (crusades) o Byzantines continued in power o Enemies were the Islamic empire Muslims o Fighting for possession of the holy land Trade route to Asia closed o Silk road was closed To get to India for trade while avoiding the middle east, Christopher Columbus wanted to sail west. o Went off and landed in the Caribbean Hispaniola had 4 mill. Native Americans before Columbus, o decreased to 125 in 175 years. ▯ Columbian Exchange The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases (disease carriers) between the old world (eurasia, Africa) and the new world (the Americas) Changed the culture of both worlds The Vikings had come before, but there was no exchange. ▯ ▯ Bartolomé de las Casas Witnessed the treatment of Native Americans in the Caribbean o They were tortured and murdered 1517 o Martin Luther is fed up with Catholic church and starts the Protestant Reformation o Depicts Native Americans as kind and completely innocent ▯ Conquistadors Murder anyone in their way if anyone resists them in any way they get wiped out did not desire any permanent society wanted instant wealth- gold ▯ ▯ Hernán Cortés 1519 ▯ Tenochtitlan Aztecs Conquered Aztec in Mexico Aztec leader – Montezuma Allied with tributary people Technological superiority o Guns o Horses Psychological advantage o Thought Spaniards were gods Quetzlecoatl o A God that came from the East and would come back again Native Americans kinda think he could be Quetzlecoatl He used diplomacy to turn the other smaller tribes against the Aztecs ▯ ▯ Juan Ponce de Leon 1513 Fountain of Youth ▯ ▯ Hernando de Soto 1 to explore the interior of the new world 1539-1541 explored southeast end of most Mississippian tribes ▯ ▯ Survivors regroup into modern tribes as a result of de Soto’s decimation Creek Choctaw Chickasaw Cherokee ▯ ▯ 1564 French establish Fort Caroline o Close to present day Jacksonville Fl o Colony of persecuted religious minority seeking sanctuary o Huguenots ▯ 1565 Spain establishes St. Augustine (very close by^^^^) Didn’t find easy money There to be a naval fort Privateers o Pirates sanctioned by a government Sir Francis Drake (England- Queen Elizabeth) Began attacking St. Augustine (made of wood) Burned the town to the ground Why was England late to the party? Ireland o English wanted to make Ireland a colony of England o Caused a lot of war and consumed the attention of England in the 1500’s John Cabot - 1497 o First recorded transatlantic voyage for England Earlier unrecorded visits in 1480s possible Rich fishing areas in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland Sought northwest passage to Asia o Claimed New World territory under Henry VIII (r. 1509–1547) English interest in New World wanes o Preoccupied with domestic and religious concerns at home (Ireland) Henry VIII & English Reformation o Catherine of Aragon Aragon is a region in Spain Spanish Princess Married Henry as an alliance o Henry blamed his wife for not being able to give him a son Wanted to be granted a divorce from the pope Pope wouldn’t let him because spain was their ally because of the marriage and spain is bringing back a bunch of money from the new world o Pope and Henry break away from Catholic Church creates Anglican Church Allows divorce Henry is allowed to remarry Spain is still pissed off about the divorce even though it wasn’t through the catholic church Launch a plan to “fix” England They declare war Called the Spanish Armada (Armada= naval fleet) 1588 Trying to re-establish Catholicism o While approaching coast, a huge storm blows up o Many Spanish ships taken out English avoid destruction with smaller merchant ships England takes this as God being on their side and that Protestantism is the pure religion England now starts sending ships to the new world ▯ England in late fifteenth century Henry VII brought peace from civil war o Little allegiance to the pope Not a crusader for Catholicism Many powerful magnates o Paid scant attention to royal authority o Maintained armed retainers King had no standing army and small navy Internal diplomacy o 1509 – alliance between Spain and England Future King Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain Limited rights to trade in Spain’s American colonies English attempt to colonize in New World would threaten alliance ▯ Protestant Reformation European Protestants against Catholics o English reconsidered relationship with Spain Monarchy o Growth of nationalism o Developed stronger central authority Anticlericalism o People resented paying monies to pope in Rome o Criticism of clergy grew Cardinal Thomas Wolsey Flaunted wealth Symbol of corruption Parish priests ridiculed Ignorant of theology Lined owned pockets King Henry VIII o Wanted to divorce wife, Catherine of Aragon o Only a daughter, Mary, no sons o Needed male heir o Blocked by Spanish o Seen as humiliating o King fell in love with Anne Boleyn, who became second wife o Daughter, Elizabeth o Severed all ties with the pope o Seized church lands o Dissolved monasteries o Assumed head of new Church of England o Many Catholic ceremonies survived New ideas o 1539 – English translation of the Bible appeared in print Latin only before this time Language of educated elite Ordinary people could read the Bible o Period of instability Political changes Edward VI was sickly child, militant Protestants took control Moved to remove all vestiges of Catholicism Mary I took the throne Loyal to Catholic faith Protestants executed or fled Elizabeth I Beginning of true colonization of New World Established unique church Catholic in ceremony and government, but Protestant in doctrine ▯ ▯ First English Colony Roanoke 1587 Walter Raleigh Becomes the lost colony (doesn’t stick) Settlement in North America Under command of John White Doomed Poor planning Preparation for war with Spain Hostilities with Native Americans Settlers disappeared ▯ Joint Stock Company A company sponsoring (British) exploration Known as the Virginia Company o Settle town of Jamestown 1607 Salty brackish water Dysentery People resorted to cannibalism o There was no food and still dealing with the ice age after effects (very cold winters) ▯ ▯ Jamestown (1607) Huge amounts of salt in their water 6 times the safe drinking level cold and dry winters things were bad o resort to cannibalism (1609-1610) no one is working no one can feed themselves ▯ ▯ Jamestown is settled on the land of the POWHATAN Indians Powhatans had about 8000 people (colonists only about 100) Could definitely wipe out the colonists o They didn’t because the colonists had Guns Metal Alcohol They had no way of knowing that there would be more colonists coming in the future THERE WAS NO THEAT TO THE POWHATAN INDIANS o Saw the colonists as trading partners They end up helping the colonists o Show them how to plant food Pocahontas Falls in love with John Rolfe Goes back to England to live for a short time and dies at a young age ▯ John Rolfe Introduces tobacco to Virginia Saves Jamestown ▯ ▯ John Smith’s description of Virginia (Jamestown) famous for providing order to Jamestown instituted policy of no work, no food describes the land, animals describes the native americans (powhatan Indians) o the land is not populous o differences among the people o physical appearance o they live off the land o personalities inconstant crafty scared though ▯ ▯ Jamestown is not as recognized as the early Northern Colonies ▯ ▯ New Amsterdam (1610’s) The dutch created a trading post at the mouth of the Hudson River o New Amsterdam Engage in trade w/ Native Americans o Beaver furs Differs from Jamestown o Jamestown was not diverse (mainly white) o New Amsterdam had a lot of diversity Very cosmopolitan Within a few years, within the city walls there were Africans, native Americans, Europeans, ect. o Represents a very different type of colony the most of New England’s other colonies o There is no one model of how colonies looked Stays in dutch possession till the 1660’s o Control goes to England Right in the middle of everything else ▯ ▯ Settling of the Northern vs Southern Colonies Northern o More religious o Communitarian (concerned about the well being of all in society) South o More focused on making money o Capitalism o Selfish o Individual concern ▯ Pilgrims English protestants They think the church needs some work- not protestant enough (too much catholic stuff) o Known as separatists They wanted to break away from the Anglican Church Set to sea to find religious freedom The get to Holland (1610’s) o The dutch were very open minded o Here the pilgrims found religious freedom o However now they want everyone to be the same religion as them A homogenous society Everyone believes what they do o They set off again for a new land They want religious control/ domination 1620- go to North American o plans to set in deep water port (where the Hudson river flows into Altantic) o Uh oh the Dutch are there o However, due to a storm they never make it o The instead make it to Cape Cod (Plymouth) Start a society there Thanksgiving st o 1 thanksgiving was in St. Augustine in Fl. w/ Spanish o Not exactly a peaceful accord It was a sign of alliance o Squanto Fluent in English He’s been to Europe before Interpreter o Most stories about the Pilgrims aren’t true There to counterbalance the gross bad stuff in the south ▯ ▯ Puritans (1630)- Boston Similar yet different with pilgrims Wanted religious freedom from the Church of England but in a different way than the pilgrims John Winthrop o Famous speech to Puritans before the disembark o Reminded them why they were there o “A model of Christian Charity” simple > luxury conformity don’t think for yourself follow rules City upon a hill They want to be looked up to Want to be a holy city Utopia Puritans try to enforce the perfection o How to enforce rules? Public shame Exile Holy watch (spying on neighbors) Live close to town Heavy punishments at all times Education o By teaching children when ▯ ▯ ((Research Journals)) ▯ ▯ Library.mtsu.edu Citation: Author last, first. Book Title . City: Publisher, Year. ▯ Research scources a-z list jstor.org ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Website: ▯ ▯ ▯ Puritans “City upon a hill” o rules no social mobility (everything was frozen in time) o Education Old Deluder Satin Act (1647) Literacy The devil keeps people illiterate so you cant read the bible Designed to encourage puritans to keep doing what they’re doing Religious theocracy Massachusetts Bay o Towns of 50 or more families must have a teacher to teach kids how to read and write o Harvard College -1636 (founded by Puritans) Why was Harvard established? To see what college would train puritans to do Train preachers Train teachers Train political leaders Designed to support the puritan experiment ▯ ▯ Education (unfortunately for the Puritans) causes free / liberal thinking REBELS!!! Roger Williams o Preacher in Salem, Mass. o Believed church and state should be separate o Criticized the king for taking Indian lands without permission o 1636- banished from Massachusetts o settles in Rhode Island (Providence) Buys his land from the Indians Creates treaty with Indians “Soul Liberty”- religious freedom Thomas Hooker (1636) o Complained about voting practices Voting was conserved for church members only Had to demonstrate religious experiences Very difficult to vote (for only the elite)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'