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Cumulative Course Notes (detailed)

by: dannyhfields

Cumulative Course Notes (detailed) history 2010-018

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > History > history 2010-018 > Cumulative Course Notes detailed
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I took extensive notes on basically everything that my professor discussed throughout the History 2010 (American Pre-Civil War) course at MTSU. There is one lecture missing from the first half of t...
Survery 1 of U.S History
history, History 2010, pre civil war, American History, mtsu, notes, Study Guide
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This 22 page Bundle was uploaded by dannyhfields on Monday February 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to history 2010-018 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Cooper in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Survery 1 of U.S History in History at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
History 2010 08/27/2015 ▯ How did people populate North America? (11-20 thousand years ago)  Land bridge- Beringia o Followed large game (megafauna) aka: food o Proceeded to spread out and form clans  Also another theory that the came by boat following the coast o Costal Migration Hypothesis o Not mutually exclusive with land bridge  To explain how people got on the east coast of North American, people came up with the theory the people came to NA from Europe more than 20,000 years ago. o Solutrean Hypothesis  Human life originated in Africa o This upset many Europeans (EUROCENTRISM) ▯ ▯ 1492 ▯ Columbus arrives to America  Claimed the people that populated the land were savage and uncultured o To Columbus this was a sign that they were inferior to Europeans ▯ ▯ Four periods in Native American development  1. Paleo-Indians o 1 Americans to reach Tennessee (11,000 BC-8,000 BC) o Megafauna Hunters o Nomadic o Followed Mastodon and hunted them o Moved in small bands, lived in temporary shelters o Stone tools  2. Archaic Indians (8,000,1000 BC) o Existed after the ice age o Had to make due with new realities of climate and terrain o Camps became more permanent o Small villages o Hunting developed  Atlatl (spear like throwing device)  Hunted deer and bears and such o Food diversified (nuts, fishing, plants) o Ceremonial burials  Evidence of religion and pondering existence and afterlife o Evidence of vast trade network for goods  3. Woodland Indians (1000 BC- 1000 AD) o More established societies o Evidence show they were making ceramics o Social Stratification  Different classes  People with money and power and people without it o Burial Mounds  Defining characteristic in native American development o More developments in hunting  Bow and arrow o Complex belief system o Farming  Maize was first farmed in the US around 5,000 BC  In terms of civilization, farming was developed the same time as it was in the middle east o Old Stone Fort (Manchester, Tennessee)  It was actually a ceremonial structure  4. Mississippians – Mound builders (1,000 AD – European contact ((1500-1600 AD))) o Cultural People o Had large urban centers  Cities o Clear gender roles o Code of law and a leader o Largest Mississippian civilization  Cahokia ▯ What defines a civilization?  Rules  law/ powerful leader  Monumental architecture  Religion  Christianity  Values, morals, manners, refinement  Trade  Agriculture sedentary cities  Literacy  education ▯ ▯ Notes on Cahokia video  1,000 a leader lived in massive temple  1050 AD  Called City of the Sun  20,000 residents o lived in houses  linked by trade to a third of the continent through its placement on the Mississippi River  Mound building culture  Not literate, however they were educated Education:  The cultural transmission of society from one generation to another ▯ ▯ Little Ice Age (1300-1800 AD)  Period of extreme cold and drought  Farming became difficult  Cahokia dwindled down in size to survive in small bands ▯ ▯ Because the cities dwindled down, when Europeans came in contact when Native Americans it was easy to label them as savage  Europeans brought diseases to NA  Native Americans may have been exposed to these diseases during migration to NA, however they lost their immunity  Why no immunity? o Cold killed off virus and bacteria  Small bands don’t die out, don’t spread o No livestock in NA ▯ Upon European arrival, death of Native Americans was constant  Mainly from diseases ▯ Why do Europeans come over to North America in the first place?  First people to come over to come over were the Vikings  They didn’t really make a big deal out of it, no contact with Native Americans  In 1453 Constantinople Fell during the Holy Ward (crusades) o Byzantines continued in power o Enemies were the Islamic empire  Muslims o Fighting for possession of the holy land  Trade route to Asia closed o Silk road was closed  To get to India for trade while avoiding the middle east, Christopher Columbus wanted to sail west. o Went off and landed in the Caribbean  Hispaniola had 4 mill. Native Americans before Columbus, o decreased to 125 in 175 years. ▯ Columbian Exchange  The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases (disease carriers) between the old world (eurasia, Africa) and the new world (the Americas)  Changed the culture of both worlds  The Vikings had come before, but there was no exchange.  ▯ ▯ Bartolomé de las Casas  Witnessed the treatment of Native Americans in the Caribbean o They were tortured and murdered  1517 o Martin Luther is fed up with Catholic church and starts the Protestant Reformation o Depicts Native Americans as kind and completely innocent ▯ Conquistadors  Murder anyone in their way  if anyone resists them in any way they get wiped out  did not desire any permanent society  wanted instant wealth- gold ▯ ▯ Hernán Cortés 1519 ▯ Tenochtitlan Aztecs  Conquered Aztec in Mexico  Aztec leader – Montezuma  Allied with tributary people  Technological superiority o Guns o Horses  Psychological advantage o Thought Spaniards were gods  Quetzlecoatl o A God that came from the East and would come back again  Native Americans kinda think he could be Quetzlecoatl  He used diplomacy to turn the other smaller tribes against the Aztecs ▯ ▯ Juan Ponce de Leon  1513  Fountain of Youth ▯ ▯ Hernando de Soto  1 to explore the interior of the new world  1539-1541  explored southeast  end of most Mississippian tribes ▯ ▯ Survivors regroup into modern tribes as a result of de Soto’s decimation  Creek  Choctaw  Chickasaw  Cherokee ▯ ▯ 1564  French establish Fort Caroline o Close to present day Jacksonville Fl o Colony of persecuted religious minority seeking sanctuary o Huguenots ▯ 1565  Spain establishes St. Augustine (very close by^^^^)  Didn’t find easy money  There to be a naval fort  Privateers o Pirates sanctioned by a government  Sir Francis Drake (England- Queen Elizabeth)  Began attacking St. Augustine (made of wood)  Burned the town to the ground Why was England late to the party?  Ireland o English wanted to make Ireland a colony of England o Caused a lot of war and consumed the attention of England in the 1500’s  John Cabot - 1497 o First recorded transatlantic voyage for England  Earlier unrecorded visits in 1480s possible  Rich fishing areas in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland  Sought northwest passage to Asia o Claimed New World territory under Henry VIII (r. 1509–1547)  English interest in New World wanes o Preoccupied with domestic and religious concerns at home (Ireland)  Henry VIII & English Reformation o Catherine of Aragon  Aragon is a region in Spain  Spanish Princess  Married Henry as an alliance o Henry blamed his wife for not being able to give him a son  Wanted to be granted a divorce from the pope  Pope wouldn’t let him because spain was their ally because of the marriage and spain is bringing back a bunch of money from the new world o Pope and Henry break away from Catholic Church creates Anglican Church  Allows divorce  Henry is allowed to remarry Spain is still pissed off about the divorce even though it wasn’t through the catholic church  Launch a plan to “fix” England  They declare war  Called the Spanish Armada (Armada= naval fleet) 1588  Trying to re-establish Catholicism o While approaching coast, a huge storm blows up o Many Spanish ships taken out  English avoid destruction with smaller merchant ships  England takes this as God being on their side and that Protestantism is the pure religion England now starts sending ships to the new world ▯ England in late fifteenth century  Henry VII brought peace from civil war o Little allegiance to the pope  Not a crusader for Catholicism  Many powerful magnates o Paid scant attention to royal authority o Maintained armed retainers  King had no standing army and small navy  Internal diplomacy o 1509 – alliance between Spain and England  Future King Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain  Limited rights to trade in Spain’s American colonies  English attempt to colonize in New World would threaten alliance ▯ Protestant Reformation  European Protestants against Catholics o English reconsidered relationship with Spain  Monarchy o Growth of nationalism o Developed stronger central authority  Anticlericalism o People resented paying monies to pope in Rome o Criticism of clergy grew  Cardinal Thomas Wolsey  Flaunted wealth  Symbol of corruption  Parish priests ridiculed  Ignorant of theology  Lined owned pockets  King Henry VIII o Wanted to divorce wife, Catherine of Aragon o Only a daughter, Mary, no sons o Needed male heir o Blocked by Spanish o Seen as humiliating o King fell in love with Anne Boleyn, who became second wife o Daughter, Elizabeth o Severed all ties with the pope o Seized church lands o Dissolved monasteries o Assumed head of new Church of England o Many Catholic ceremonies survived  New ideas o 1539 – English translation of the Bible appeared in print  Latin only before this time  Language of educated elite  Ordinary people could read the Bible o Period of instability  Political changes  Edward VI was sickly child, militant Protestants took control  Moved to remove all vestiges of Catholicism  Mary I took the throne  Loyal to Catholic faith  Protestants executed or fled  Elizabeth I  Beginning of true colonization of New World  Established unique church  Catholic in ceremony and government, but Protestant in doctrine ▯ ▯ First English Colony  Roanoke 1587  Walter Raleigh  Becomes the lost colony (doesn’t stick)  Settlement in North America  Under command of John White  Doomed  Poor planning  Preparation for war with Spain  Hostilities with Native Americans  Settlers disappeared ▯ Joint Stock Company  A company sponsoring (British) exploration  Known as the Virginia Company o Settle town of Jamestown 1607  Salty  brackish water  Dysentery  People resorted to cannibalism o There was no food and still dealing with the ice age after effects (very cold winters)  ▯ ▯ Jamestown (1607)  Huge amounts of salt in their water  6 times the safe drinking level  cold and dry winters  things were bad o resort to cannibalism (1609-1610)  no one is working  no one can feed themselves ▯ ▯ Jamestown is settled on the land of the POWHATAN Indians  Powhatans had about 8000 people (colonists only about 100)  Could definitely wipe out the colonists o They didn’t because the colonists had  Guns  Metal  Alcohol  They had no way of knowing that there would be more colonists coming in the future  THERE WAS NO THEAT TO THE POWHATAN INDIANS o Saw the colonists as trading partners  They end up helping the colonists o Show them how to plant food Pocahontas  Falls in love with John Rolfe  Goes back to England to live for a short time and dies at a young age ▯ John Rolfe  Introduces tobacco to Virginia  Saves Jamestown ▯ ▯ John Smith’s description of Virginia (Jamestown)  famous for providing order to Jamestown  instituted policy of no work, no food  describes the land, animals  describes the native americans (powhatan Indians) o the land is not populous o differences among the people o physical appearance o they live off the land o personalities  inconstant  crafty  scared  though ▯ ▯ Jamestown is not as recognized as the early Northern Colonies ▯ ▯ New Amsterdam (1610’s)  The dutch created a trading post at the mouth of the Hudson River o New Amsterdam  Engage in trade w/ Native Americans o Beaver furs  Differs from Jamestown o Jamestown was not diverse (mainly white) o New Amsterdam had a lot of diversity  Very cosmopolitan  Within a few years, within the city walls there were Africans, native Americans, Europeans, ect. o Represents a very different type of colony the most of New England’s other colonies o There is no one model of how colonies looked  Stays in dutch possession till the 1660’s o Control goes to England  Right in the middle of everything else ▯ ▯ Settling of the Northern vs Southern Colonies  Northern o More religious o Communitarian (concerned about the well being of all in society)  South o More focused on making money o Capitalism o Selfish o Individual concern ▯ Pilgrims  English protestants  They think the church needs some work- not protestant enough (too much catholic stuff) o Known as separatists  They wanted to break away from the Anglican Church  Set to sea to find religious freedom  The get to Holland (1610’s) o The dutch were very open minded o Here the pilgrims found religious freedom o However now they want everyone to be the same religion as them  A homogenous society  Everyone believes what they do o They set off again for a new land  They want religious control/ domination  1620- go to North American o plans to set in deep water port (where the Hudson river flows into Altantic) o Uh oh the Dutch are there o However, due to a storm they never make it o The instead make it to Cape Cod (Plymouth)  Start a society there  Thanksgiving st o 1 thanksgiving was in St. Augustine in Fl. w/ Spanish o Not exactly a peaceful accord  It was a sign of alliance o Squanto  Fluent in English  He’s been to Europe before  Interpreter o Most stories about the Pilgrims aren’t true  There to counterbalance the gross bad stuff in the south ▯ ▯ Puritans (1630)- Boston  Similar yet different with pilgrims  Wanted religious freedom from the Church of England but in a different way than the pilgrims  John Winthrop o Famous speech to Puritans before the disembark o Reminded them why they were there o “A model of Christian Charity”  simple > luxury  conformity  don’t think for yourself  follow rules  City upon a hill  They want to be looked up to  Want to be a holy city  Utopia  Puritans try to enforce the perfection o How to enforce rules?  Public shame  Exile  Holy watch (spying on neighbors)  Live close to town  Heavy punishments at all times  Education o By teaching children when ▯ ▯ ((Research Journals)) ▯ ▯ Citation: Author last, first. Book Title . City: Publisher, Year. ▯ Research scources a-z list  ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Website: ▯ ▯ ▯ Puritans  “City upon a hill” o rules  no social mobility (everything was frozen in time) o Education  Old Deluder Satin Act (1647)  Literacy  The devil keeps people illiterate so you cant read the bible  Designed to encourage puritans to keep doing what they’re doing  Religious theocracy  Massachusetts Bay o Towns of 50 or more families must have a teacher to teach kids how to read and write o Harvard College -1636 (founded by Puritans)  Why was Harvard established?  To see what college would train puritans to do  Train preachers  Train teachers  Train political leaders  Designed to support the puritan experiment ▯ ▯ Education (unfortunately for the Puritans) causes free / liberal thinking  REBELS!!!  Roger Williams o Preacher in Salem, Mass. o Believed church and state should be separate o Criticized the king for taking Indian lands without permission o 1636- banished from Massachusetts o settles in Rhode Island (Providence)  Buys his land from the Indians  Creates treaty with Indians  “Soul Liberty”- religious freedom  Thomas Hooker (1636) o Complained about voting practices  Voting was conserved for church members only  Had to demonstrate religious experiences  Very difficult to vote (for only the elite)


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