Notes- Chapters 1-6
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Chapter 2 Notes Microorganisms: small, living organisms that can only be seen through a microscope. - Pathogens: microorganisms that are harmful and can cause illness. o Viruses o Bacteria o Parasites o Fungi o Passed very easily from: Person to person Sneezing or vomiting on food Touching dirty surfaces then food. - Toxins: poisons produced by pathogens. Fecal-oral route of contamination: bathroom substances are not washed off of hands, and make a consumer sick when eating the contaminated food. Symptoms of a Foodborne Illness: - Diarrhea - Vomiting - Fever - Nausea - Abdominal cramps - Jaundice - Occurrence of symptoms can range from 30 minutes to 6 weeks. The Big 6 - Pathogens that can cause sever illnesses and are contagious. o Shigella spp. o Salmonella Typhi o Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) o Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) also known as E.coli o Hepatitis A o Norovirus Bacteria: single-celled, living organisms. - Found almost everywhere. - Cannot be seen, smelled, or tasted. - Some produce toxins that cooking may or may not destroy. - To prevent: control time and temperature. What bacteria need to grow (FAT TOM) 1. Food 2. Acidity (pH of 7.5 to 4.5) (neutral to slightly acidic) 3. Temperature (41 degrees F-135 degrees F) Temperature Danger Zone a. Grows most rapidly from 70-125 degrees F 4. Time 5. Oxygen (some need it, some need a lack of it) 6. Moisture (high levels) Chapter 2 Notes a. Water activity (a ): range between 0.0-1.0, the higher the more w bacteria grows. Bacterial Growth (4 stages) 1. Lag: number is stable as they prepare to grow. a. Prolong lag phase by controlling time, temperature, oxygen, moisture, and pH. 2. Log: bacteria reproduces by splitting in two. 3. Stationary: growth and death of bacteria at the same rate. 4. Death: dying bacteria outnumbers growing bacteria. Spores: to keep from dying, bacteria turn into spores, commonly found in dirt which can contaminate meat and animals that touch the dirt. - Resist heat and survive, also can change into a growing form. o To control, store food at correct temperature and cool food correctly. Know chart in book, bacteria, what bacteria is in certain foods, and the symptoms with them. 1. Bacillus Cereus: a. Found in: meat, produce, rice/grains, and milk/ dairy. b. Illness: Bacillus cerueus gastroenteritis. i. Symptoms: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting. c. Prevention: control time and temp. heating, cooling, and holding. 2. Listeria monocytogenes: a. Found in: meat, ready-to-eat foods, and milk/dairy. b. Illness: Listeriosis. i. Symptoms: no symptoms except miscarriages in pregnant women. c. Prevention: controlling time and temp., cooking, preventing cross-contamination. 3. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli: a. Found in: meat and produce. b. Illness: Hemorrhagic Colitis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps. c. Prevention: cooking, approved suppliers, excluding food handlers, preventing cross-contamination. 4. Clostridium Perfringens: a. Found in: poultry and meat. b. Illness: Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea and abdominal cramps. c. Prevention: time and temp. control reheating, cooling, and holding. 5. Clostridium Botulinum: a. Found in: produce b. Illness: Botulism. i. Symptoms: nausea and vomiting. c. Prevention measures: control time and temp. when holding, cooling, and reheating. Chapter 2 Notes 6. Campylobacter jejuni: a. Found in: poultry, meat, and contaminated water. b. Illness: Campylobacteriosis. i. Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, vomiting, fever, and headache. c. Prevention: cooking and preventing cross-contamination. 7. Nontyphoidal salmonella: a. Found in: poultry, eggs, produce, and milk/dairy products. b. Illness: Salmonellosis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramps, vomiting, and fever. c. Prevention: cooking, excluding food handlers, preventing cross- contamination. 8. Salmonella Typhi: a. Found in: ready-to-eat foods and contaminated water. b. Illness: Typhoid fever. i. Symptoms: abdominal pain/cramps, fever, and headache. c. Prevention: handwashing, cooking, excluding food handlers. 9. Shigella spp.: a. Found in: ready-to-eat food, produce, and contaminated water. b. Illness: Shigellosis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, and fever. c. Prevention: handwashing and excluding food handlers. 10.Staphylococus aureus: a. Found in: ready-to-eat food. b. Illness: Staphylococcal gastroenteritis i. Symptoms: abdominal pain/cramps, nausea, and vomiting. c. Prevention: handwashing, holding, cooling, and re-heating. 11.Vibro vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a. Found in: shellfish and contaminated water. b. Illness: Vibrio gastroenteritis and Vibrio vulnificus primary septicemia. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, nausea, vomiting, and fever. c. Prevention: cooking, approved suppliers. Viruses: smallest of the microbial food contaminants - Carried by humans and animals. - Typically transferred through fecal-oral route. o Norovirus: transferred through airborne vomit particles. - Usually transferred to food from a sick worker. - Prevention by good personal hygiene and not working when sick. Major Foodborne Viruses - Norovirus - Hepatitis A Know chart in book about viruses. Chapter 2 Notes 1. Hepatitis A: a. Found in: shellfish, ready-to-eat food, and contaminated water. b. Illness: Hepatitis A i. Symptoms: abdominal pain/cramps, nausea, fever. c. Prevention: handwashing, approved suppliers, excluding food handlers. 2. Norovirus: a. Found in: shellfish, ready-to-eat food, contaminated water. b. Illness: Norovirus gastroenteritis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramping, nausea, vomiting. c. Prevention: handwashing, approved food suppliers, excluding food handlers. Parasites - Cannot grow in food, require a host. - Seafood, wild game, and food processed with contaminated water. - Prevent by purchasing food from a reputable supplier and that raw fish has been correctly frozen. Know chart in book about parasites. 1. Anisakis simplex: a. Found in: fish. b. Illness: Anisakiasis. i. Symptoms: tingling in throat, coughing up worms. c. Prevention: Cooking and approved suppliers. 2. Cryptosporidium parvum: a. Found in: produce and contaminated water. b. Illness: Cryptosporidiosis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, nausea. c. Prevention: handling, approved suppliers, excluding food handlers. 3. Giardia duodenalis: a. Found in: produce and contaminated water. b. Illness: Giardiasis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, nausea, fever. c. Prevention: handwashing, approved suppliers, excluding food handlers. 4. Cyclospora cayetanensis: a. Found in: produce and contaminated water. b. Illness: Cyclosporiasis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, nausea, fever. c. Prevention: handwashing, approved suppliers, excluding food handlers. Fungi: pathogens that sometimes make people sick, more often just spoil food. - Ex: Mold and yeast. - Mold: o Spoil food and sometimes cause illness. o Some produce toxins (such as aflatoxins) Chapter 2 Notes o Grows almost anywhere but best in acidic food with low water activity. o Cooler or freezer may slow growth. o Throw out moldy food. On cheese, cut off mold at least 1 inch around affected area. - Yeast: o Causes smell or taste of alcohol, bubbly white or pink discoloration. o Grows well in acidic food with low moisture. o Throw out yeast infected food. Biological Toxins - Seafood toxins: cannot be smelled or tasted, cannot be destroyed once they form. o Fish toxins: Systemic toxins: toxins that are a natural part of fish Can also be contaminated when they eat other fish with a toxin. o Shellfish toxins: Can be contaminated when they eat algae that have a toxin. Know chart in book about seafood toxins: 1. Histamine: a. Found in: fish. b. Illness: Scombroid poisoning. i. Symptoms: vomiting, headache, neurological symptoms. c. Prevention: holding at corrects temp. and approved suppliers. 2. Ciguatoxin: a. Found in: fish. b. Illness: Ciguatera fish poisoning. i. Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, and neurological symptoms. c. Prevention: approved suppliers. 3. Saxitoxin: a. Found in: shellfish. b. Illness: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) i. Symptoms: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and neurological symptoms. c. Prevention: approved suppliers. 4. Brevetoxin: a. Found in: shellfish. b. Illness: Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) i. Symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, neurological symptoms. c. Prevention: approved suppliers. 5. Domoic Acid a. Found in: shellfish. b. Illness: Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, vomiting, and neurological symptoms. c. Prevention: approved suppliers. Chapter 2 Notes Chapter 4 Notes Personal Hygiene and Contamination - As a manager you can: o Establish hygiene policies. o Train food handlers on these policies. o Model correct behavior. o Supervising food safety practices. o Revising policies according to changes in law and science. How Food Handlers Can Contaminate Food - Having a foodborne illness. - Symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, or jaundice. - Wounds that contain a pathogen. - Sneezing or coughing. - Contact with a person who is sick. - Unwashed hands after touching a contaminant. - Not washing hands after using the restroom. - Touching the eyes, nose, skin etc. then touching food. Carriers: people who carry pathogens that infect others without being sick themselves. - Ex: staphylococcus aureus. Diseases Not Transmitted through Food - Laws concerning staff with HIV o ADA says people cannot be fired or not hired because of having AIDS. o Maintain confidentiality if staff has a non-foodborne illness. A Good Personal Hygiene Program - Handwashing/hand care o Proper sink, not food prep or dishwashing. o 100 degrees F o Wet hands and arms o Apply soap o Scrub o Rinse o Dry o Wash hands after: Using the restroom Handling raw meat Sneezing, coughing, and using a tissue. Eating, drinking, smoking, chewing gum or tobacco. Handling chemicals. Taking out garbage. Clearing tables or doing dishes. Touching clothing or aprons. Handling money. Chapter 4 Notes Leaving and returning to kitchen. Handling service animals. Touching any contaminants. Ex. Wiping cloths, dirty equipment, etc. - Glove use - No bare-hand contact with ready to eat food. - Personal cleanliness - Appropriate clothing, restrain hair, and remove jewelry. - Avoiding some habits and actions. - Maintaining good health. - Covering wounds. - Reporting health issues. Hand Antiseptics: lower number of pathogens on skin. - Used AFTER handwashing. - Wait till it dries to handle food. Hand Care - Fingernail length: short and clean. o Could become physical contaminants or be hard to clean. Could also rip gloves. - No false nails. - No nail polish. - Infected wounds or cuts: o Cover with impermeable cover like “finger cots”. o Use single use gloves also. Bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food - Don’t do it unless: o Food will be added to a dish and cooked to at least 145 degrees farenheit. o If it is added to a dish that will be cooked to required internal temperature. Single-use gloves: used when handling ready to eat food. - Buying glvoes: o Approved gloves. o Disposable o Different types (long vs. short, colored) o Multiple sizes. o Latex alternatives: some may be sensitive to latex, so get some without it. How to use gloves - Change if: o Become dirty or torn o You begin a new task o After an interruption Chapter 4 Notes o After handling raw foods and before handling ready to eat foods. Other Good Personal Hygiene Practices - Personal cleanliness: showering and bathing. - Correct work attire: clean clothes. - Hair restraint: keeps hands out of hair and hair out of food. o No false eyelashes. o Beard restraint. - Store street clothes and personal belongings away from food prep. - Aprons: remove when leaving prep area, never wipe your hands on your apron. - Jewelry: none except: o Plain ring band. Eating, Drinking, Smoking, or chewing gum or tobacco: - Don’t do it when: o Prepping or serving. o Working in prep areas. o Working in areas used to clean equipment. - Only do it in designated areas. - Tasting food should be done in a separate container with clean silverware. Reporting Health Issues - Have employees sign statements that they will tell when they are sick. - Provide documentation that staff has completed training, including importance of reporting illnesses. - Post signs reminding workers to notify managers when sick. Handling Staff Illness - Sore throat: no working with food or high risk populations. - Vomiting and diarrhea: before returning to work o 24 hrs. without symptoms o Written release from doctor. - Jaundice (7 days or less): must notify regulatory authority and they are not allowed to work until o Released by doctor o Released by regulatory authority - Norovirus, Shigella spp., Nontyphoidal salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli: exclude from operation. - Hepatitis A, Salmonella Typhi: exclude from operation, work with medical practitioner. Chapter 5 Notes Flow of Food: Purchasing, receiving, storing, preparing, cooking, holding, cooling, reheating, then serving. - Risk of cross contamination. - How to prevent cross contamination: o Use separate equipment for different types of food. o Cleaning and sanitizing between uses. o Prepping food at different times. o Buy prepared food. - Time temperature control is also a major risk. o Temperature Danger zone: 41 ℉ - 135 ℉ . Pathogens grow best here. Must be thrown out if it stays here for 4+ hours. o TCS violations: Cooked to wrong minimum internal temperature. Held at wrong temperature. Cooled or reheated incorrectly. - How to prevent time-temperature: o Monitoring o Tools (correct thermometers) o Recording temperatures. o Time and temperature control o Corrective actions (know what to do when standards are not met). Choosing the Correct Thermometer - Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometers: o Checks from 0℉−220℉ . o Measures by stinking metal stem in to the dimple. o Checks large or thick food. o Features: Calibration Nut to make it accurate. Easy-to-read markings. 2 degree increments. Dimple. - Thermocouples and Thermistors: o Check temperature through a metal probe. o Digitally displays temperatures. o Sensing area on tip. o Both thin and thick food. o Different types of probes: Immersion: used to check temperature of liquids. Surface: used to measure temperatures of flat cooking equipment. Penetration: internal temperature of food. Air: temperature inside coolers and ovens. - Infrared (Laser) Thermometers: o Do not touch surface (less cross contamination) o Do not measure internal temperatures or air temperature. o Distance: as close to the food as you can without touching. Chapter 5 Notes o Barriers: remove anything between food and thermometer. o Manufacturer’s Directions: always follow them. - Other: o Maximum registering thermometer: measures and reads highest recorded temperature. o Time-temperature Indicator: reads time and temperature, color changes if it has been abused. o Temperature recording devices in trucks. - How to calibrate thermometers. o Ice-point method: adjust at the point where water freezes. 1. Fill container with crushed ice, add tap water. 2. Put thermometer in without touching container for 30 seconds. ℃ 3. Adjust thermometer to 0 . a. Bimetallic stem thermometer: hold calibration nut with a tool. b. Thermocouple or Thermistor, press reset. o Boiling-point method: adjust at the point water boils. 1. Bring water to a boil. 2. Put thermometer in without touching container for 30 seconds. ℃ 3. Set thermometer to 100 or another temperature depending on sea level. a. Bimetallic stem thermometer: hold calibration nut with a tool. b. Thermocouple or Thermistor, press reset. General Thermometer Guidelines - Cleaning and sanitizing: clean and sanitize between uses, keep storage container clean. - Calibration: do so regularly. - Accuracy: o When measuring food: need to be accurate +/-1 ℃ or 2 ℉ . o When measuring air: +/-1.5 ℃ or 3 ℉ . - Glass thermometers: enclosed in shatterproof casing or can break and become physical contaminant. - Checking temperatures: insert into thickest part (usually middle) and multiple spots. o Bimetallic stem: when checking thin food, use a small diameter probe. o Allow at least 15 seconds for an accurate reading. Chapter 1 Book Notes Foodborne illness: a disease transmitted to people by food. Foodborne illness outbreak: two or more people have the same symptoms after eating the same food. - Requires investigation by a regulatory authority and confirmation by a lab. Challenges to food Safety: 1. Time: trying to work too quickly can make it easy to skip safety steps. 2. Language and culture: workers’ different languages can create communication barriers in teaching food safety. 3. Literacy and Education: less educated employees might have a harder time learning food safety steps. 4. Pathogens: Illness- causing pathogens are becoming more prominent in food. 1. Ex. Salmonella 5. Unapproved suppliers: supplier who doesn’t practice food safety. 6. High risk populations: populations more susceptible to food borne illnesses are growing. 1. Preschool-age children: little immune system development 2. Elderly: less stomach-acid to digest pathogens 3. People with compromised immune systems i. Ex: cancer patients, HIV, patients taking certain medications, bone-marrow transplants. 7. Staff turnover: hiring new workers makes it hard to train all the people. Cost of foodborne illnesses: - Loss of customers and sales - Loss of reputation - Negative media exposure - Lowered staff morale - Lawsuits and legal fees - Staff missing work - Increased insurance premiums - Staff retraining How Foodborne illnesses occur: - Contaminants: presence of a harmful substance in food. o Biological: Pathogens: viruses, parasites, fungi, bacteria. Some foods naturally carry these unsafe pathogens. Responsible for most foodborne illnesses. o Chemical: Cleaners, sanitizers, and polishes. When cleaning, these things can get into food. o Physical: Natural occurring or foreign objects Ex: fish bones, metal shavings, glass, etc. Chapter 1 Book Notes - Food-handling mistakes: o Purchasing from unsafe sources o Failing to cook food correctly o Holding food at incorrect temperatures o Using contaminated equipment o Poor personal hygiene How food becomes unsafe: 1. Time-temperature abuse: when food has stayed at temperatures for too long that are good for the growth of pathogens. i. Can happen in many ways 1. Food not stored at correct temp 2. Not cooked or reheated enough to kill pathogens 3. Not cooled correctly 2. Cross-contamination: pathogens transferred from one food or surface to another. i. Contaminated food added to a meal that doesn’t get further cooking ii. Ready to eat food touches contaminated surfaces iii. Contaminated food drips fluid onto clean food iv. Chef touches contaminated food then ready to eat food v. Contaminated wiping cloths touch food 3. Poor personal hygiene i. Fail to wash hands after restroom ii. Coughing or sneezing iii. Touch wounds then food iv. Work while sick 4. Poor cleaning an sanitation i. Utensils are not washed, rinsed, and sanitized. ii. Food-contact surfaces wiped clean instead of sanitized iii. Wiping cloths not stored in sanitizer between uses iv. Sanitizing solutions are not at required levels. TCS Food (time and temperature control for safety): - Milk and dairy - Meat - Fish - Baked potatoes - Tofu or soy - Synthetic ingredients - Sliced melons, tomatoes, leafy greens - Eggs - Shellfish - Cooked rice, beans, vegetables - Sprouts - Garlic and oil Key Practices for Insuring Food Safety: - Purchasing from approved suppliers Chapter 1 Book Notes - Controlling time and temp - Preventing cross-contamination - Personal hygiene - Cleaning and sanitizing Food Safety Responsibilities as a Manager (Regulated and mandated by the FDA) - Food not prepared in a private home - Only food handlers are allowed in cooking area - Delivery and maintenance workers follow food safety practices - Staff handwashing is monitored - Monitored deliveries during and after hours. o Make sure: From correct supplier At the correct temperature Correct location Protected from contamination Accurately presented. - Check temps of TCS food and monitor food preparers. - Make sure TCS food is being cooled rapidly. - Posted customer advisories about raw or uncooked food. - Monitor cleaning and sanitizing o Correct concentration and temp. - Customers notified that they must use clean dishes in self-serve areas. - Staff handles ready to eat food with gloves or utensils. - Staff are allergy and food safety trained. - Staff reporting illnesses. - Food safety procedures are posted. Marketing food safety: - Display your commitment to food safety by: o Offering training courses o Discuss expectations o Award certificates for good food safety o Set an example by following procedures yourself.
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