Medical Terminology Notes (Since beginning of Second Semester)
Medical Terminology Notes (Since beginning of Second Semester) BIOL 245
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Date Created: 02/01/16
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY JANUARY 25, 2016 arteri/o, ather/o, arthr/o • arteri/o, artery endarterial (end, within) inside the artery • ather/o, plaque of fatty substance atheroma (oma, tumor), fatty deposit within an artery • arthro/o, joint arthralgia (algia, pain), joint pain Laceration, lesion Laceration: torn or jagged wound, or accidental cut Lesion: pathologic change (abnormality) due to disease or injury Fissure, fistula Fissure: cracklike sore of skin Fistula: abnormal passage, often between two internal organs or from an organ to body surface. Myc/o, myel/o, my/o myc/o, fungus, osis, abnormal condition. Mycosis, disease or abnormal condition caused by _______? myel/o bone marrow OR spinal cord. Myelopathy, pathology of disease of spinal cord my/o, muscle. Myopathy, a muscle disease, muscle fibers do not function any one of many reasons, resulting in muscular weakness. py/o, pyr/o py/o, pus 1 pyr/o, fever or fire Pyoderma? derma, skin = acute, pusforming bacterial skin infection. Pyrosis? = heartburn Some basic medical terms relating to disease: Sign = objective evidence of disease, Symptom = subjective evidence of disease Syndrome = set of signs and symptoms that occur together as specific disease process. Diagnosis = the identification of a disease Prognosis = prediction of the probable course and outcome of a disorder Acute = describing a condition with a rapid onset, a severe course, and relatively short duration (sharp and sudden) Chronic = longterm onset exp. Chargas’ disease adults—> chronic, children—> acute Remission = is the temporary, partial, of complete disappearance of the symptoms of a disease without having achieved a cure Eponym = is a disease, structure, operation, or procedure named for the person who discovered or described it first Acronym = is the word formed from the initial letter of the major parts of a compound term Contrasting prefixes ab, away from. Abnormal, away from normal (not normal) 2 ad, means towards, in direction of. Addiction, means drawn towards or strong (dependence on drugs or other substances) dys, means bad, difficult, painful. Dysfunctional, refers to a body part or organ working improperly eu, means true, good, normal. Euthyroid, means a normally functioning thyroid gland hyper, means over, excessive or increased. Hypertension, refers to increased blood pressure (higher than normal) Hyperactive, excessively fit hypo, means under, deficient, or decreased. Hypotension, lower than normal blood pressure. Hypodermic needle? Derm/o, skin. inter, between, among. Intercellular, between the cells. intra, within, inside. Intracellular, inside the cell. cost/o, rib. Sub. under, less, below. Subcostal, below the ribs. super,supra, above, excessive, more. Supracostal, above or outside the ribs. cyan/o, blue. Cyanosis, bluish coloration of the skin caused by inadequate oxygen in the blood. erythr/o, red. Erythrocyte, cyte? cell, red blood cell leuk/o, white. Leukocyte, ? cell, white blood cell melan/o, black. Melanosis, condition of unusual black deposits in tissues or organs. poli/o, gray. Poliomyelitis, inflammation of the gray matter from the spinal cord. poli/o, myel/o, itis neo, prefix meaning, new. 3 JANUARY 27, 2016 Chapter 2. Health & Disease in the human body Location and functions of body parts using: Body planes Body directions Body cavities Structural units Body Planes: Frontal Plane: posterior/dorsal (back) anterior/ventral (front) (cut down the head vertically, symmetrical) Cephalic: Towards the head Caudal: Toward the feet Transverse Plane: (cut down the torso horizontally) More directive terms: Superior: Uppermost, above, or toward the head. Inferior: Lowermost, below, or toward the feet. Proximal: Situated nearest the midline. Distal: situated farthest from the midline. Medial: is in the direction of the midline. Lateral: Is in the direction away from the midline. 4 Inguinal: Refers to the ground area, entire lower level of the abdomen. Body Cavities: 1.) Dorsal Cavity: Along the back, containing nervous system organs, made up of the cranial cavity (surrounds the brain) and the spinal cavity in the spinal column (surrounds the spinal cord) 2.)Ventral Cavity: Located along the front of the body, contains the body organs and includes the: Thoracic Cavity: Surrounding the heart and lungs. (Separated from the rest of the body cavities by the diaphragm (muscle)) Abdominal Cavity: Containing organs of digestion. Pelvic Cavity: Containing the reproductive and excretory organs. The last two (abdomial and pelvic cavities) are also known as abdominopelvic cavity (no separation between the two) Regions (abdomen & thorax): 1.) Hypochondriac Region Under, chondr/o, cartilage, ac, referring to regions on the left & right sides of the body covered by the lower ribs. 2.) Epigastric Region (epi, above, gastr/o, stomach, ic, referring to.) Region above the stomach (between the hypochondriac region) 3.) Lumbar Region (lumb/o, lower back, ar, pertaining to) Regions on the left & right side near the inward curve of the spine. 4.) Umbilical Region (umbilicus, bellybutton, navel) Region surrounding the umbilicus (between the lumbar regions) 5.) Iliac Region (ili/o, hip bone, ac) Left and right region over the hip bones. 5 6.) Hypogastric Region Region below the stomach. (between the iliac regions) Peritoneum Multilayered membrane protecting and holding organs in place in abdominal cavity. Parietal Peritoneum Outer later attached to abdominal wall. Visceral Peritoneum Inner layer surrounding the organs of the abdominal cavity. Mesentery Fused double layer of parietal attaching intestinal parts to the interior abdominal wall. What is Peritonitis? Tissues & Glands: Histology (Hist/o, tissue) The study of tissue Histologist Studier of tissue Tissues: Epithelial Connective Muscle Nerve Tissue Formation Pathology: Aplasia (a without, plasia, formation) Defective development of congenital absence of an organ or tissue. Congenital Present at time of birth. 6 Hypoplasia Incomplete development of organ or tissue (due to deficiency in numbers of cells) Anaplasia (ana, away) Change in structure & orientation of cells to each other (characteristic of cancer tumor formation) Dysplasia (dys, bad) Abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, organs. Hyperplasia (Hyper/o, excessive) Enlargement of organ or tissue because of an increase in the number of cells in tissue. Hypertrophy (troph/o, nourish, develop) Enlargement of organ or tissue because of an increase in size of calls (not number) FEBRUARY 1, 2016 Glands: Groups of specialized epithelial cells capable of producing secretions. Exocrine Glands: (exo, out, crine, to secrete) Glands that secrete their chemicals into ducts that ultimately lead to the outside of the body. Endocrine Glands: (endo, within, crine, to secrete) Glands without ducts that secrete their chemicals (hormones) directly into the bloodstream. Pathology of Glands: Aden/o = gland Adenitis? Inflammation of the glands Adenosis? Adenectomy? Adenoma: (oma, tumor) Benign tumor arising in or resembling gland tissue. Adenocarcinoma: (carcin/o, cancerous) Malignant tumor originating in glandular tissue. Adenomalacia: (malacia, abnormal softening) Abnormal softening of gland. Adenosclerosis: Abnormal hardening of a gland. 7 Etiology = (eti, cause) study of causes of disease Etiologist, while a pathologist specializes in lab analysis of tissues to establish or confirm a diagnosis. Pathogen Transmission: Pathogen = Diseasecausing agent. Transmission = Spread of a disease. Communicable = Describing a disease capable of being transmitted. (contagious) Bloodborne Transmission = Spread by contact with blood or body fluids contaminated by blood. Vectorborne Transmission = Pathogen spread by specific carrier ( vector, usually not human). Outbreaks of Disease: Endemic = (endo, ?, dem/o, population, ic, ?) Ongoing presence of a disease with in a population, group, or area. Epidemic = (epi, nearby, upon) Sudden, widespread disease outbreak in a population of area. Pandemic = (pan,entire) Outbreak over a large area, possibly worldwide. TYPES OF DISEASE Functional Disorder: Consisting of symptoms with our physiological or anatomical causes. Iatrogenic Illness: An unfavorable response to prescribed medical treatment. 8 Idiopathic Disorder: Illness without known cause, idio, peculiar to the individual. Infectious Disease: Caused by pathogenic agents. Nosocomial Infection: Disease acquired in a hospital. CHAPTER 3: Skeletal System oste/o: Bone Red Bone Marrow: Internally in the long bones. Hematopoietic (hemopoietic) tissue. (hemat/o, hem/o, blood. poietic, pertaining to formation. A Few Bones to Know: Metacarpals: five bones that form the palms of the hands. Metatarsals: five bones that form the part of the foot to which the toes are attached. Vertebrae: (spondyl/o) Bony structural units of the spinal column. Podiatrist: (pod/o, ped/o, foot. iatrist, specialist) Doctor who specialized in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot. Orthopedic Surgeon, Orthopedist: (ortho, straight, correct) Physician specializing in diagnosing and treating diseases, disorders of the bones, joints, and muscles. Pathology of the Skeletal System: Ankylosis: (ankyl/o, crooked, bent, stiff) Loss, absence of mobility in a joint due to injury, disease, or surgical procedure. (Stiffening of the joint) Chondroma: (chondr/o, cartilage) Slowgrowing tumor derived from cartilage cells. Chondromalacia: Abnormal softening of cartilage. 9 Costochondritis: Inflammation of cartilage connecting a rib to the sternum. Hallux Valgus: (Hallux, big toe, Valgus, bent) Bent big toe. Bunion: Abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe. Hemarthrosis: Blood within a joint (often due to injury). Luxation: (lux/o, slide) Dislocation or total displacement of a bone from its joint. Subluxation: (sub, under, less, below) Partial displacement of a bone from its joint. 10
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