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Semester notes

by: Megan stookey

Semester notes 30144

Megan stookey

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Cover the entire class, with her powerpoints organized and supplemental information included.
Quantity foods
Mrs. Powell
nutrition, quantity, food management
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This 39 page Bundle was uploaded by Megan stookey on Monday February 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 30144 at Texas Christian University taught by Mrs. Powell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Quantity foods in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 02/01/16
Quantity Foods Midterm Review Ch5: The Menu  The menu is the single most important tool in food service operation  A well planned menu serves as a catalyst that drives all operational functions (purchasing, assembly, production, distribution, service, and sanitation)  Planning:  Menu planning factors fall under three main categories: 1. Organizational Mission and Goals => the menu must reflect the organization’s stated purpose as defined in the mission statement. Challenging when the mission conflicts with customer wants.  Variety and Familiarity of menu items are the 2 quality attributes highly desired and valued by clients. 2. The Customer => demographics, sociocultural influences, and eating habits of a population must be taken into consideration.  Nutritional requirements will vary depending on the type of food service and population served.  Current regulations for on-site facilities often mandate that the DRIs be used as a guide.  Use the customer to inspire the menu  Food consumption, trends, habits and preferences will be based mostly on ethnic and cultural background. 3. Operational and Managerial Functions =>  Budget Guidelines => in retail operations, the amount to be budgeted is based on projected income from the sale of food.  This income must generate adequate revenue to cover raw food costs, labor, operating expenses, and allow for desired profit  Non-commercial Organization => set food-cost allowance per volume unit (meal, person, day), balance more costly items with less expensive foods for variety.  Equipment and Physical Facilities => the menu can be planned for any given day must ne one that can be produced in the available work space with the available equipment. (Differentiate equipment in order to accommodate mass)  Personnel => understanding the relationship between the menu and the availability and the skill of employees are factors to consider in determining the complexity of the menu.  Availability of Food => the location of the food service operation to the source of food and the dynamics of the market can affect what foods are available on the menu.  Style of Service => some foods are more adaptable to seated service, some to cafeteria style. The distance between the point of preparation and the point of service needs to be considered, along with the time between completion of preparation and service. Menu Types: 1. Selective Menus => a menu that includes two or more food choices in each menu category. Number of options may vary, and workloads and equipment use must be balanced accordingly. 2. Semiselective menus => a menu that includes two or more food choices in at least one menu category. 3. Nonselective menu => a menu that offers no choice of food items (aka house menu). May offer “write-ins” 4. Static Menu => a menu that is used each day, such as a restaurant menu. 5. Single-use Menu => a menu specifically planned and used only once, usually for a holiday or catered event. 6. Cycle Menu => a carefully planned set of menus that is rotated at definite time intervals (days or weeks). Cater the cycle of the menu to how long the agerage facility stay is. Advantages => after initial planning the planner has time to revise or rewrite to meet changing needs (holidays, vacations, food availability); forecasting and purchasing are simplified; standardized procedures. Disadvantages => monotonous if cycle is too short, well liked foods do not appear often enough and disliked foods appear too often, may not allow for foods that come onto the market at various times of the year. 7. A La Carte => food items priced separately; patron selects only the foods wanted 8. Table d’Hote Menu => a menu that offers a complete meal at a fixed price 9. Du Jour menu => menu of the day; must be planned and written daily.  Menu Patterns  An outline of food to be included in each meal, and the extent of choice at each meal.  Trend is moving away from traditionally structured plan of 3 meals a day.  Desire of patrons for fast food and instant service.  Many people prefer to eat at different times of the day.  Menu Planning Procedures  Plan for Variety and Good Nutrition  Include a wide variety from day to day to ensure adequate nutrients  Allow clients to meet the dietary guidelines  Avoid repeating the same food on the same day of the week  Vary the method of preparation  Introduce new foods regularly, and on a selective menu, pair a new food with a familiar well-liked food.  Plan for Eye Appeal  Visualize the appearance of foods on plate  Use at least one or two colorful foods on each menu  If serving two vegetables, serve one green and one colored.  Vary the shapes of food  Plan for Contrast in Texture and Flavor  Crisp and soft; strong and mild; light and heavy foods  Avoid using the same herbs and spices in foods used together.  Plan for Consumer Acceptance  Completed menus should have predominance of familiar and well- accepted menu items  New or less liked items should be spaced through the menu period  Nonselective: less popular food accompanied by foods well liked by the majority of customers  Periodically assess their food preferences  Plan for Financial, Production, and Service Limitations  Food should be prepared with available personnel and equipment; stay within budget.  Plan for Minimizing Leftovers  Plan so that edible trim can be used in another item.  Use leftovers in a different form.  Menu Writing  Time Table for Planning, Development, and Implementation.  How far in advance of production and service menus should be planned depends on the type of menu, extent of selections, and size and complexity of the food service operation.  Steps In Menu Development: 1. Entrees  Generally the most expensive items  Should include one vegetarian option if the menu pattern provides entrée options. 2. Soups and Sandwiches  May offer a variety  If more than one soup is included, one should be a cream or hearty soup, and one a stock based soup 3. Vegetables and Sides  Must be appropriate to serve with entrée  On a selective menu, pair a less popular vegetable with one that is well liked 4. Salads  Must be compatible with entrée and sides  On a selective menu, include a green salad plus fruit, vegetable or gelatin salads. 5. Desserts  If no choice is offered plan a light dessert with heavy meal and a rich dessert when the rest of the meal is not too filling. 6. Garnishes  Use to maximize plate appearance 7. Breads  Vary the kinds of breads offered by shape and ingredients  Offer choice of white or whole grain. 8. Breakfast Items  Standards: juice, hot and cold cereals, toast  Customary to offer eggs in some form  Introduce variety with other entrées, breads, or fruit 9. Beverages  Standards: coffee, tea, variety of milk  Soft drinks and juices may be included.  Questions to Ask While Writing  Does the menu meet nutritional guidelines and organizational objectives?  Are in-season foods that are offered available at an acceptable price range?  Do foods on each menu offer contrasts of: color, texture, flavor, consistency, shape or form, and type of preparation, temperature?  Can foods be prepared with personnel and equipment available?  Are workloads balanced for personnel and equipment?  Is any one food item or flavor repeated too frequently?  Are garnishes and accompaniments suitable and well planned?  Do the combinations make a pleasing whole and will they satisfy the customer?  Menus for Modified Diets  In many food service departments especially those affiliated with healthcare, the foodservice department is responsible for ensuring that physician- ordered diets are provided accurately.  RD or Diet tech should work with foodservice manager to implement the diets  Generated from a master menu and a diet manual that defines the modified diet for a particular facility.  Menu extension should illustrate how the modified diet can be adapted from the master  Provide written documentation for department evaluation and budget planning.  The Printed Menu  Menu Design and Format  A menu should appeal to the guest, stimulate sales, influence the client, and be clean and simple in design and format  Printed menus are a form of merchandising and a marketing tool.  Descriptive Wording  List menu items in the sequence they will be served.  Menus should present an accurate word picture of the foods available  Truth In Menu Legislation  Laws require that the menu accurately describes the food to be served  Giving misleading names to menu items is illegal  Menu Marketing  The manner in which food choices are presented to potential customers can have a significant impact on sales. (2/3 of menu choices are influenced by the menu itself)  Menu boards and signage are designed to attract attention; variety of sizes, shapes and colors  Spoken Menus communicate menu choices by reading the menu in lieu of a printed menu. Common in many fine dining establishments, and can reduce costs. In hospitals, as a result of shorter stays, spoken menus have become an alternative. Customer Satisfaction Frequency ratings or Popularity Index  Established via formal or informal surveys in which customers are asked to rate or rank the menu items according to preference.  Sales Data  Sales data that is tracked by modern registers can be used to revise an existing menu or plan a new one.  Surveys and Comment Cards  Can be done formally via written surveys and comment cards, sometimes conducted by outside agencies.  Stats and trends reported by these outside agencies can be used in benchmarking, where satisfaction levels determined for one facility can be compared with those of other similar facilities. Ch 8 Production: Standardized Recipes:  Most important control tool  A recipe that has been carefully tested under controlled conditions  A recipe is considered standardized only when it has been adapted to the requirements of a specific food kitchen.  Advantages: aligned to customer expectations, and creates an effective use of resources, as well as consistency in flavor, texture, and portion size.  Simplifies planning, purchasing, recipe costing, and pricing  Minimize effects of employee turnover on food quality and simplify training of new staff.  Format:  An orderly arrangement of all information needed for production of a menu item should be developed  Same pattern should be followed for each recipe  List ingredients in the order in which they are used  Listing procedures directly across from the ingredients involved simplifies preparation and enables clear directions to be written in a minimum number of words  Categories:  Recipe Title  Yield and portion size  Measure, weight, number of pans, or number of portions  Portion size: weight, measure, or count  Cooking time and temperature  Often listed at the top of the page so preheating the oven and scheduling of cooking can be determined without reading the entire recipe  Identify piece of production equipment  Ingredients and Quantities  Ingredients listed on the left side of the recipe with the quantities arranged in one or more columns to accommodate different yields  Name of the ingredients should be consistent  Descriptive terms are used to clearly define the kind and form of each ingredient  Procedures:  Directions for preparation should be listed in logical steps  Helpful if basic procedures are uniform in all recipes for similar products  Timing should be provided for procedures in which mixers, steamers, and other mechanical equipment is used  Helpful info: substitution of ingredients, alternate methods of prep, comments about appearance of product.  Quality Standards  Measurable statements of the aesthetic characteristics of food items that serve as the basis for sensory analysis of the prepared product.  Appearance, color, flavor, texture, consistency, temperature.  Recipe Formulation:  Recipe adjustment  Factor Method => quantities of ingredients in the original recipe are multiplied by a conversion factor. 1. Divide the desired yield by the known yield to obtain the conversion factor. 2. Convert all volume measures to weights and express in pounds and decimal components of pounds 3. Multiply each ingredient by the factor 4. Round off unnecessary/awkward fractions  If you are reducing a recipe, the factor will always be < 1.0  If you are increasing a recipe the factor will always be > 1.0  Percentage Method =>the percentage of the total weight of the product is calculated for each ingredient 1. Convert all ingredients to lbs. 2. Calculate Total weight of ingredients 3. Calculate % of each ingredient in relation to the total weight (repeat for each ingredient, sum should equal 100%) 4. Determine the total weight of the product needed by multiplying the portion weight expressed in decimal parts of a pound by the # of servings to be prepared 5. Add estimating handling loss to the weight needed (batter left in bowls) 6. Multiply each % number by the total weight to give the exact amount of each ingredient needed 7. Once the percentages have been established, any number of servings can be calculated and the ratio of the total will be the same.  Adapting Small Quantity Recipes 1. Prepare the product in the amount of the original recipe 2. Evaluate the product 3. Double or expand the recipe, evaluate 4. Double or expand the recipe again, evaluate 5. If satisfactory at this point, enlarge the recipe by increments of 25%, evaluate.  Forecasting  Prediction of food needs for a day or other period of time using past data  Reasons for forecasting include: a great amount of time is needed to complete all phases of menu item production, and minimizes the chance of overproduction or underproduction- both are costly Historical Data =>Past data is used to determine needs and establish trends in all forecasting methods Criteria for Selecting a Forecasting Method => whether you are using a manual or computer forecasting method, factors such as cost, accuracy, relevancy, lead time, pattern of food selection, and ease of use should be considered Quantities to Produce  A general procedure for determining amounts of meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables: 1. Determine the portion size in ounces 2. Multiply portion size by estimated number to be served and convert into pounds. Do this by EP (edible portion) required 3. To determine the amount to order divided by the EP by the yield percentage. 4. Convert the amount needed to purchase units.  Food Production  Objectives of cooking in food production  Enhance aesthetic appeal by maximizing the sensory qualities of color, texture, and flavor.  Destroy harmful organisms  Improve digestibility, and maximize nutrient retention  Computers in Production  Expanding or reducing recipes  Management of recipe files  Steps Required in Production 1. Storage 2. Thaw time 3. Pre-Preparation 4. Preparation 5. Assembly 6. Holding prior to service  Production Scheduling  A decision-making and communication process whereby the production staff is informed of how the actual activity of food preparation is to take place over a specified period of time.  Purpose is to ensure efficient use of time, equipment, and space by identifying:  What menu items to prepare  What quantities to produce  When individual items are to be produced  Who is to prepare each item  Production Schedules => a detailed document used to communicate with/to the production staff the work that needs to be done for a specified period of time  Work to be done  Who is to do the specific tasks  Amounts of individual items to produce  Source recipe, identified by name and code  Standard portion sizes and variations  Target completion times  Production meetings => a meeting with the production staff to discuss the menu and the production plans  Heightens the effectiveness of the written production schedule  Menu can be explained and special instructions can be given  Employees can discuss production problems they anticipate  Production Control  Ingredient Assembly  Central assembly of ingredients has been found to be cost affective in some places  Ingredients for the day’s production and for advance preparation weighted, measured, and assembled in a central area  Advantages: production and quality control  Disadvantages: lack of flexibility, does not provide for last minute changes in menu or quantity needed.  Personnel and equipment:  Accuracy in measuring ingredients contributes to acceptability of product  Personnel assigned to the ingredient room must be able to read, write, and perform simple arithmetic  Safety precautions and sanitation standards should be stressed  Weighing is the quickest, easiest, and most accurate means of measure  Portion Control  Standardized portions are important to cost control, and creating and maintaining customer satisfaction.  Food is portioned by weight, measure, or count  Employees should know the number of servings expected from a certain batch size and be familiar with the size of the portion and know the scoop sizes (scoop size numbers get bigger as the scoops get smaller, and the revers with cans)  Product Evaluation  This is the part of the initial testing phase of a new recipe and important for quality control  Product evaluation or sensory analysis is an ongoing process to ensure that yield expectations and quality standards are met  Many food service organizations conduct sensory analysis just prior to meal service (best done by teams of persons knowledgeable about product standards and trained to judge quality characteristics  Production Summary  Management’s responsibility to serve high-quality food starts with the setting of standards and ensuring that employees are aware of them  Essential to production planning and scheduling is a forecast  Once standardized recipes are implemented, the manager must ensure quality standards are met.  Types of Food Service Systems  Conventional  Raw foods are purchased, prepared on site, and served soon after preparation  Modified system has evolved due to labor shortages, high labor costs, availability of new forms of foods  Most effective where labor supply is adequate and relatively low cost, food supplies are readily available, and adequate space is allocated  Advantages:  Not dependent on availability of commercially prepared items  More adaptable to regional, ethnic, and individual preferences of customers  Menu flexibility  Less freezer storage required  Distribution costs are minimal  Easy to cater to the desires of customers, and to seasonal foods  Disadvantages:  Labor intensive  Stressful workday due to meal period demands  Workloads differ daily due to menu changes  Difficult to schedule workers to a balanced workload that covers peak periods and minimize skilled workers on duty during slow periods.  Rational:  Used in smaller food service operations: restaurants, schools, colleges, hospitals, health care facilities, in-plant employee feeding  Given adequate production equipment available and skilled workers, foods may be procured with limited amounts of processing  Current trend: procure more extensively processed foods due to high labor costs  Ready-Prepared  Foods are prepared on-site, then chilled or frozen and stored for reheating a later time  Cook/Chill => food is prepared by conventional methods -> tem to 37F in90 min or less -> refrigerate  Blast chiller – refrigerate up to 5 days  Tumble chiller – refrigerate 45-60 days  Cook/Chill => food is prepared by conventional methods -> frozen  Blast freezer or cryptogenic freezing system must be available to freeze foods quickly  Note: ready prepared foods go undergo 2 heating periods  Developed due to increased labor costs and shortages  Advantages:  Reduction of “peaks and valleys” of workloads  Reduction in employee turnover  Reduction in labor costs  Improved quality and quantity control  Improved nutrient retention  More balanced use of equipment  Increased menu variety  Disadvantages:  Need for large cold storage and freezer units (increased space and energy cost)  Need for costly thermalized equipment in some cases  Food safety control essential  Frozen foods prone to structural and textural changes  Rationale:  Used by large-volume institutions: healthcare units, airlines, correctional institutions  Increased use in schools, supermarkets, fast-food  Reduced labor expenses due to mass production  Decreased need for skilled labor  Volume food procurement may decrease food costs  Commissary  A centralized production kitchen or food factory with centralized food purchasing and delivery to off-site facilities for final preparation and service  Consolidates operations and reduces costs  Prepared foods can be stored frozen, chilled, or hot-held  Menu items can be distributed in bulk or pre-portioned/pre-plated  Advantages:  Large volume food purchasing reduces costs  Cost savings due to reduced duplication of labor and equipment  Small facilities can better utilize their space  Effective and consistent quality control with only one unit to supervise  Disadvantages: many critical points where contamination of food can occur  Specialized equipment and trucks are needed for food safety and maintenance of food quality  Specialized equipment and trucks are needed for food safety and maintenance of food quality  Poor weather conditions, delivery truck breakdowns can result in food arriving late  High cost of equipment and equipment maintenance.  Rational:  Commonly used for airline caterers, large city school systems, and franchised or chain restaurants  Accommodates remote service areas  Used to meet various operational objectives related to effective use of resources  Assembly/Serve  AKA the kitchen less kitchen  Fully prepared foods are purchased stored, assembled, heated, and served (frozen foods or sous vide)  Combats high labor costs and lack of skilled employees  “Single use” disposable tableware is often used – eliminates need for a dishwasher  Advantages:  Labor savings  Lower procurement costs due to better portion control, less waste, reductions in purchasing time, less pilferage  Minimal equipment and space requirements  Decreased operating costs for electricity, gas, and water.  Disadvantages:  Limited availability of desired menu items or those with regional appeal  High cost of prepared foods  Questionable quality and customer acceptability  Additional freezer space requirements  Duplicate pieces of heating equipment costly  Concern over recycling or disposing of packaging materials.  Rationale:  Primarily used in hospitals. May also be used in other healthcare facilities and restaurants  Assuming a lack of skilled labor and an availability supply of high processed foods, this system can be successful. Purchasing  Purchasing is an essential foodservice function  Today’s market offers a large variety of products from which well-informed selections must be made  Procedures for the selection of vendors, determination of food needs, writing of specifications, and methods of purchasing follow  What is purchasing?  The process of getting the right product into a facility at the right time and in a form that meets pre-established standards for quantity, quality, and price  Process varies among operations, depending on whether a formal, informal, or combination of approaches is used.  The Flow of Purchasing Activities  Identify needs by planning new or reviewing existing menus for each service unit of the foodservice organization  Determine standards of equality for each food item and write specifications  Estimate quantities needed  Calculate desired inventory of stock levels for each item  Identify amounts to purchase by subtracting stock levels from desired quantities.  Develop purchase orders  Conduct market research on potential vendors’ product availability  Select and negotiate with vendors  The Market  Market => the medium through which a change of ownership occurs  Market Channel => the food processing and distribution system, beginning with the grower of raw food products and ending at the final consumption (continuum)  Primary Market => the basic source of food supply including growing regions and processing plants  Secondary Market => the physical, functional unit of the marketing system in which products are accepted from the primary markets and distributed to buyer.  Local Market => suppliers within close proximity to the buyer  Broker => a wholesaler who does not assume ownership of the goods; brings the buyer and seller together.  Each process and transfer of ownership adds to the cost of the end product  Tendency to bypass as many individual marketing agents as possible  Market is ever changing due to government policy, economic trends, and adverse weather conditions.  Market Regulation:  Government safety and inspection programs are used to evaluate foods for signs of disease, bacteria, chemicals, infestation, and filth  Interstate Commerce => financial transactions (buying and selling goods) carried on between states- must meet federal laws and regulations  Intrastate Commerce => financial transactions (buying and selling goods) carried on within state boundaries – must meet local and state regulations.  USDA => US Department of Agriculture, the food safety inspection service within the USDA is responsible for enforcing the Meat Inspection act and Poultry Products Inspection Act  Inspection of commodities for wholesomeness is mandatory for meats, eggs, and poultry.  Food and Drug Administration => FDA, part of the HHS responsible for the enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act, the Fair Packaging and Labeling act, and the Nutritional Labeling and Education Act.  Covers the production, manufacturing, and distribution of all food involving interstate commerce except meat, poultry, and eggs.  Adulterated => contains substances injurious to health; any part is filthy or decomposed; prepared or held under unsanitary conditions; contains portions of diseased animals  Misbranded => label misleading or does not contain all mandated information  Standards of Quality => limit and define number and kinds of defects allowed in caned fruits/veggies  Standards of Identity => what a food must contain to be called a certain name  Standards of Fill => regulate the quantity of food in a container; protect consumer from deception.  National Marine and Fisheries Service => an agency of the Department of Commerce that controls a voluntary inspection system for fish, fish products, and grade standards  U.S. Public Health Service => concerned with the control of infections and contagious disease  Responsible for inspection of some shellfish  Advises state and local governments on sanitation standards for the production, processing, and distribution of milk  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) => regulates pesticides and quality standards for water  Department of the Treasury => includes the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, anf Firearms, which is responsible for monitoring the production, distribution, and labeling of alcoholic beverages. (alcoholic beverages less than 7% are monitored by the FDA)  The Buyer  The buyer represents the institution in negotiations with market representatives  Negotiation => the communication skills used by individuals to confer with each other to reach an agreement or compromise  Ethics in purchasing => products should be evaluated objectively, and buying decisions made on the basis of quality, price, and service.  Types of Purchasing:  Foodservice organizations work under different types of purchasing arrangements depending on a number of factors: organizational size, ownership, and geographical location.  Centralized Purchasing  Purchasing department responsible for all aspects of purchasing  Used in large organizations  Time saving and cost effective  Friction can develop between purchasing department and foodservice unit  Group or Cooperative Purchasing  AKA purchasing consortiums  Improves leverage with suppliers to increase volume  Differs from centralized purchasing in that members are independent organizations and not under the same management  Group purchasing organizations (GPOs): organization that represents member organizations and oversees the purchasing function for the entire organization.  The Vendor  Vendor => a seller or source of supply  The selection of vendors is one of the most important decisions that must be made in a purchasing program  The buyer should carefully evaluate the product line of the vendor to ensure they meet quality specifications of the organization  May offer value-added services  Small operations or those in remote locations may use local vendors and larger distributors.  Methods of Purchasing  Informal or open-market buying  Common in smaller foodservice operations, involves ordering needed food and supplies from a selected list of vendors daily, weekly, or monthly price quotations.  Formal Competitive Bid Buying  Written specifications and estimated quantities needed are submitted to vendors with an innovation for them to quote prices.  Minimizes misunderstanding with regards to quality, price, and delivery.  However, it is time consuming and bids must be placed in advance.  Variations on Methods of Purchasing  Cost-Plus Purchasing => a buyer agrees to buy certain items from a purveyor for an agreed-on period of time based on a fixed mark-up  Open for bid among different vendors  Verification of vendor’s costs must be part of the agreement  Effective with large volume buying.  Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA) => used when a wide variety of items are purchased from local suppliers, but the exact items, quantity, and delivery requirements and not known in advance and may vary.  Vendors furnish supplies on “charge account”  Can establish with more than one vendor to compare prices  Just –in-Time Purchasing (JIT) => the product is purchased in the exact quantities required for a specific production run and delivered just-in-time  Goal is to have as little inventory on hand at any given time to maximize cash flow  Fresh products can go directly into production  Allows for better space management  Product Selection  Market Forms of Food  Costs involved in purchase of and use of fresh or natural forms versus ready-to-eat foods are major factors to consider  Can do calculations based on price, amount purchased, edible portion, and labor time and costs.  See Make-or-buy decisions pg 172  Food Quality  Before purchasing, the quality of foods most appropriate to the food service operation and their use must be decided  Top grade may not always be necessary for all purposes  Foods sold under lower grades have same nutritional value, but differ in appearance and flavor.  Quality Standards  Refers to wholesomeness, cleanliness, freedom from undesirable substances  Degree of perfection of shape, uniformity of size, or freedom from blemishes  Extent of desirable characteristics: color, flavor, aroma, texture, tenderness, and maturity  Denoted by grade, brand, or condition  Grades  Market classifications of quality; reflect relationship of quality to the standard established for that product and indicate the degree of variation.  The USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, in cooperation with state agencies, offers official grading or inspection for quality of: meat and meat products, fresh and processed fruit and vegetables, poultry, eggs, and manufactured dairy products.  USDA Acceptance Service: available to institutional food buyers on request (product examined at processing or packaging plant or at suppliers warehouse by the agricultural marketing service or state agency  USDA Grades based on scoring factors- total score determines grade Brands  Assigned by private organizations  A particular make of a product is usually identified by a trademark or unique label  Producers, processors, or distributors attempt to establish a commodity as a standard product and to develop demand specifically for their own brand Purchasing Procedure  Good Purchasing Practices  Use of appropriate buying methods  Systematic ordering schedule  Maintenance of an adequate flow of goods to meet production  Systematic receiving procedure and inventory control  Identifying Needs  Quantities of food needed are identified from menus and recipes  Requisition: form used to request desired products including food and supplies (originates from a department and submitted to purchasing department) triggers the purchasing process.  Inventory Stock Levels  A minimum and maximum stock level must be established  Depends on usage and time required for ordering and delivery  Minimum stock level includes a safety factor for replenishing the stock  Maximum inventory level is equal to the safety stock plus the estimated usage.  Par Stock => stock is bought up to the max level each time an order is placed regardless of the amount on hand at the time of order  Mini-Max => stock is allowed to deplete to a safety level before new a new order is placed to bring level up to maximum  Quantity to Buy  Depends on money, storage space, method of buying, and frequency of deliveries  Purchase of staples may vary from a 2 to 6 month supply  Perishables ordered weekly or daily  Quantities of perishables are based on portion size and projected number of servings needed, taking into consideration the preparation and cooking losses  Specifications  A specification is detailed description of a product and should always include:  Name of product  Federal grade or brand  Unit on which price is quoted  Name and size of container  Count per container or approximate number per pound  Additional info fresh fruits/vegs, canned foods, frozen foods, meats, dairy products  Issuing Bid Requests  Provides vendors with an opportunity to submit bids for specific items needed by a buyer  Includes quantities required and purchase specifications for each item, date needed, delivery method, terms of payment.  Developing Purchase Orders  Written requests to a vendor to sell goods or services to a facility.  Tabulating and Evaluating Bids  In most instances, public purchasing laws specify that the award be made to the lowest reasonable bidder  Awarding Contracts  The general conditions of the contract should include:  Services to be rendered  Dates and methods of delivery  Inspection requests  Grade certificates required  Procedure for substitutions  Conditions of payment  Law relating to Competition and Pricing  Sherman Antitrust Act => prohibits conspiracy and/or collusion where the intention is to restrict trade in interstate commerce  Federal Trade Commission Act => enables the FTC to challenge companies that promote unfair competition through deceptive advertising and promotions  Clayton Act => makes it unlawful for a supplier to require purchase of one product before allowing purchase of another  Robinson-Patman Act => protects buyers from unfair pricing strategies. Ch 9 Service:  The goals of a delivery and service system include the following: 1. Maintain quality food characteristics 2. Ensure microbial safety of foods 3. Serve food that is attractive and satisfying to the consumer  Methods of assembly, delivery, and service  Distribution or delivery refers to the transportation of prepared foods from production to place of service  Service involves assembling prepared menu items and distributing them to the consumer  2 major on-premise delivery systems: centralized and decentralized  Centralized Delivery-Service System  Prepared foods are portioned and assembled at a central area  Completed orders are transported and delivered to the consumer  Used in fast food restaurant, table or counter service restaurants, hospitals, long term care facilities.  Advantages: close supervision and control of food quality, portion size, accuracy of menu items, temperature control.  Decentralized Delivery-Service System  Bulk quantities of prepared foods are sent hot and cold to serving kitchens located throughout the facility, where reheating, portioning, and meal assembly occur  Serving galleys have refrigerators, ovens for reheating, temperature-holding cabinets, counter for tray assembly  Used in facilities that are spread out in design or where there are great distances from the main kitchen to the consumers (large hospitals, medical centers, school districts, large hotels)  Assembly  Fitting together of prepared menu items to complete an entire menu  Tray assembly, 2 major systems: 1. Central Location  Usually production kitchen  Tray line is often utilized 2. Decentralized Units  Transport food in bulk to another area  Cook/chill tray line (conveyor belt with perpendicular equipment)  Parallel cook/serve tray line (straight roller conveyor with parallel layout  Cook/serve circular tray line (conveyor with parallel mobile support equipment  Factors Affecting Choice of Distribution Systems  Type of food service system 1. Conventional 2. Ready-prepared 3. Assembly serve 4. Commissary  Only system requiring delivery trucks to take prepared foods to satellite units  Foods held frozen, chilled, or hot – each requires different distribution equipment  Kind of food service organization  Schools, colleges, industrial plants, fast food, hospitals and nursing homes, table service restaurants, and hotel  Size and Physical layout of facility => consider size and building arrangement  Style of Service =>  Self-Service => cafeteria, buffet, vending, pickup  Tray service => centralized or decentralized  Wait service => table, counter, drive-up  Portable Service => meals delivered to home or office throughout an industrial plant  Skill level of available personnel => labor needs and required skills vary for different types of delivery systems and for the equipment used  Economic Factors => labor and equipment needed must be calculated and evaluated in relation to budget allocations  Cost comparisons of the carts and trucks for transporting food should precede the selection of a specific delivery and service system.  Quality Standards for Food and Microbial Safety => management establishes standards for food quality and safety, then selects equipment for heating, holding, and transporting.  Timing Required for Meal Service => consider the time of day desired of established for meals (need hold times? Serving immediately?)  Space Requirement or Space Availability => if possible the delivery service system preferred should be stated early in the facility planning process  Energy Usage => consider energy use and conservation, systems that use numerous pieces of electrically powered equipment are more costly to operate than those that use “passive” temperature retention equipment  Equipment Needs  Equipment for delivery and service may be classified in several ways  General => fixed or built in, mobile, and portable  For a Specific Use => reheating, assembling, temperature maintenance, transporting, serving  For Each of the Four Foodservice Systems => conventional, commissary, ready-prepared, assembly-serve.  General Classification of Delivery-Service Equipment  Fixed or built in equipment  Planned as an integral part of the structure at the time the facility is being built  Mobile Equipment  Delivery trucks for off-premise transport (commissary or central kitchen) to sites  Movable carts and trucks for on-premise transport of bulk food or plated food  Portable Equipment  Can be carried – pans with lids, totes  Pellet disc – plated meals placed on base with preheated metal disks  Insulated trays with insulated covers  Equipment for Specific Uses  Reheating Frozen or Chilled Foods  With any rethermalization system, the objective is to heat the food product to service temperature and to retain nutrient content, microbial safety and sensory quality.  Convection, conventional, microwave, and infrared ovens.  Meal Assembly  Meal assembly requires that the various menu items that make up a meal be collected and put in one place  Most complex type of assembly is tray service  Temperature Maintenance and Holding  Short-time holding – includes refrigerated and heated storage units, infrared lamps.  Transportation and Delivery  When choosing transportation equipment, the manager must consider holding time, distance to be traveled, and the layout of the building  Serving:  Includes counters, buffet tables, trays, carts, serving stations  Style of Service  Self-Service  Cafeteria: 1. Traditional => employees are stationed behind the counter to serve te guests and encourage them with selections; food choices displayed. (rate of flow varies depending on the amount of food choices and patron familiarity with the set up) 2. Scramble System => separate sections of counter are provided for various menu groups; placed along 3 sides of the room and customers flow from the center to any section they desire. (Advantage: speed and flexibility; no need to wait for customers to be served)  Machine-Vended => complete meals can now be dispensed from a vending machine, can be cooled or refrigerated  Buffet => eye appeal is an important factor; food must be protected against patron contamination with sneeze guards)  Drive-Thru pick-up => popular with fast food to speed customer service  Tray Service => meals are assembled and carried on a tray to individual consumers. Hospital tray service is both centralized and decentralized.  Wait Service  Counter Wait Service => guests sit at a counter that makes for ease and speed of service  Proximity and location of the food preparation to the serving unit facilitates easy handling of food  U shaped counter design maximally utilizes space  French Service  Synonymous with “fine dining”  Food is partially prepared in the kitchen and finished in the dining room in view of the guests  Serving platters placed on a small heater called a Rechaud  The principle food server, responsible for all table-side preparation is the Chef de Rang  Commis de rang => assistant who carries the food to the table  Russian Wait Service  Food is completely prepared and portioned in the kitchen  Individual portions of food are transferred by a waiter from a platter to the guest’s plate  Disadvantage: if every guest orders a different entrée, many serving platters are required  Has replaced French service due to simplicity (only requires one waiter, needs little space in the dining room  Banquet  Present service and menu for a given number of people for a specific time of day  Salads, salad dressings, butter, or appetizers may be on the table before guests are seated  Either American or Russian service is used  Family Style  Food is placed in bowls and platters on each table – quantities appropriate for number of guests  Guests serve themselves  Portable Meals  Off-Premise Delivery  Delivering meals to homes of elderly or chronically ill  Pre-plated meals are covered and loaded into some type of insulated carriers to ensure food safety and proper delivery temperatures  On-Premise Delivery  Distribution of food to workers – use mobile heated or cooled carts  Mobile canteen – for company not having foodservice facilities  Room Service  Hotel-style service is one of the hottest trends for patient meal service in hospitals  Patients want to eat what they want when they want  Hospitals can remove centralized trylines Quantity Foods Final Review Ch 7: Receiving, Storage, and Inventory Receiving => the point at which a foodservice operation inspect products and take legal possession of the items ordered. Purpose => to ensure that food and supplies delivered meet established quantity and quality specifications. A good receiving program should include:  Coordination with other departments (coordination with production department with any changes that occur when receiving.  Purchasing, production, and accounting are three key areas that need a well defined working relationship with receiving personnel  Purchasing department determines the standards of qualty  Training for receiving personnel  Qualifications of the receiving clerk should include knowledge of food quality standards, written specifications, and documentation procedures  Consistent routine supervision of the receiving area is recommended.  Use quality standards to check delivery  Parameters of authority and supervision  Scheduled receiving hours  The purpose of defined receiving time is to avoid the busiest production times and too many deliveries happening at the same time.  Security measures  Deliveries should be checked immediately upon arrival, and then moved to proper storage.  Doors to the receiving area should be locked  Unauthorized personnel should not have access to the receiving area.  Theft tends to occur after the invoice issigned  Documentation procedures Potential consequences of a poorly planned receiving program include:  Short weights  Substandard quality  Double billing, inflated prices  Mislabeled merchandise  Inappropriate substitutions  Spoiled or damaged merchandise  Pilferage or theft  Facilities, equipment, and sanitation  A well-planned receiving area should be close to the delivery docks and storage  Receiving area should be large enough to accommodate an entire delivery at one time  Equipment needed: forklift for large facility, scales, thermometers, opening devices  Cleaning and sanitation procedures for the receiving area should be defined by policy.  The Receiving Process: 1. Inspect the delivery and check it against the purchase order 2. Inspect the delivery against the invoice 3. Accept and order only if all quantities and quality specifications are met 4. Complete receiving records 5. Immediately transfer goods to appropriate storage.  Receiving Methods 1. Blind Method => receiving clerk uses a receiving record (either invoice or PO) that has the quantity ordered blanked out. More time and labor, so less common. 2. Invoice Receiving => the receiving clerk matches delivered product (quantity/quality/price) to the original PO  Dry Storage  The main requisites of a food dry-storage area are that it be dry, cool, and properly ventilated.  Important to separate food and cleaning products  Temperature and ventilation  Temperature should not be over 70  A wall vent is the most efficient method of circulating air – removes moisture, reduces temperature, and eliminates odors.  Temp 50-70, and humidity 50-70%  Storeroom arrangement  All items stored on racks or shelves  Racks need to be away from wall to permit free flow of air  Food should be stored using the first in first out method (FIFO)  Helpful to use alphabetical arrangement for storage.  Everything must be dated and stored at least 6 inches from the ground  Food should be left in its original container  Never leave things on the floor  Sanitation  A regular cleaning schedule designed according to the volume of traffic is vital to maintaining cleanliness and sanitation.  Pest control should be a primary concern  Flooring: quarry tile, terrazzo, or concrete that is slip resistant.  Coved corners to eliminate dirt build up  Refrigerated and Freezer Storage  Temperatures:  Fresh fruits and Vegetables: 40-45  Meat, poultry, dairy products, and eggs: 32-40  Frozen Products: 0-10  Recommended Humidity range => 80-95%  Use FIFO method  Foods that absorb odors need to be kept away from foods that give off odors  Ideal to have walk-in refrigerators for general and long-term storage and reach-in units near workstations for daily perishables  Freezer storage generally are walk-in units.  Inventory Records and Control  Accurate records are essential to inventory control and provide basis for purchasing and cost analysis  Receiving:  All incoming supplies should be inspected and recorded on a receiving record form in a journal  Information should be checked with the PO, the delivery slip, and the invoice.  Storeroom Issues:  One employee should be designated responsible for receiving, putting away, and issuing goods from the storeroom (receiving clerk)  No food or supplies should be removed from the storeroom without authorization, except perishables that are to be used the day they are received.  Requisition Form => used to document food and supplies removed (issued) from the storeroom.  Should include: date, item issued, weight or quantity, price, authorization.  Needs to be signed by person requesting items and person filling the order.  Perpetual Inventory => a running record of the balance on hand for each item of goods in a storeroom.  Provides a continuing record of food and supplies purchased, in storage, and used  Additional info: date of purchase, vendor, brand, price  Should be verified monthly with a physical inventory.  Physical Inventory  An actual count of items in all storage areas at a specific time  Works best with 2 people  Simplified with printed form that contains items normally carried in stock  Serves as a check against perpetual inventory  Carelessness in filling requisitions of in record keeping = equal common reasons for error  Management of inventory is practiced to determine:  Quantiti


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