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ES 207 EXAM 1 notes (CH 1-6)

by: Andrea Lee

ES 207 EXAM 1 notes (CH 1-6) ES 207

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ES 207: Human Form and Function Extremely thorough notes that include lecture notes in addition to pictures Chapter 1: The Human Organism Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis of Life Chapter 3: ...
Human Form And Function
Wersinger, S
ES 207, ub, Human Form and Function, Scott Wersinger
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Date Created: 02/01/16
ES 207: CHAPTER 1 BODY SYSTEMS • Integumentary • Nervous • Skeletal • Endocrine • Muscular • Cardiovascular • Lymphatic • Urinary • Respiratory • Reproductive (M • Digestive +F) HOMEOSTASIS Receptor (Sensor) • Monitors value of variable • Ex: temperature Control Center (Processor) • Est. set point to be maintained • Ex: part of the brain (compare variable to the set point) Effector • Changes value of the variable Body temp: - Thermo receptors detect an increase in temp - Info  to hypothalamus o Blood vessels in skin relax o Effectors (sweat glands) produce sweat - Body cools - Effectors: sweat glands and blood vessels Body temp: - Effectors (sweat glands) aren’t stimulated and don’t produce sweat - Blood vessels constrict - Blood  to deeper regions - Hypothalamus  induces shivering Negative + Positive Feedback Negative: Ends correctional mechanism - Shuts it OFF - Positive: Stimulates correctional mechanism - keeps it going DIRECTIONAL TERMS Right Left Superior: above Inferior: below Anterior: toward front Posterior: toward back Ventral: toward front Dorsal: toward back Proximal: closer to the point of attachment Distal: farther from the point of attachment Medial: toward middle or midline of the body Lateral: away from middle or midline of the body Superficial: toward/on surface Deep: away from surface/internal   BODY PLANES Sagittal: - runs vertically - separates into L + R Mid-Sagittal: - runs down middle - separates into equal L + R Transverse plane: - runs horizontally - separates into top + bottom Frontal/Coronal plane: - runs vertically - separates into anterior + posterior Oblique plane: BODY CAVITIES Cranial cavity: brain Vertebral canal: spinal cord Thoracic cavity:  diaphragm - heart, lungs, thymus gland, esophagus, trachea Abdominal Cavity: diaphragm - stomach, intestine, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys Pelvic cavity: - urinary bladder, reproductive organs, part of large intestine Pericardium: heart - Pericardial cavity: around heart Pleura: lungs - Pleural cavity: around lungs Peritoneum: abdominopelvic - Peritoneal cavity: around abdominopelvic cavity Visceral: coats organs Parietal: coats body wall MEMBRANES MESESNTERY o double layered membrane o covers organs o anchors them to body wall SEROUS MEMBRANE o cover organs o line cavity walls o helps with sliding around so no friction Types of Serous membranes: o Visceral membrane: covers organs o Parietal membrane: lines cavity walls 2A: CELL OVERVIEW + THE MEMBRANE THE CELL Organelles: - Specialized structures in cells that perform specific functions - Ex: nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes Cytoplasm: - Location: inside cell - Characteristic: Jelly like substance (fluid) - Function: give cell shape and hold organelles in place Cytoskeleton: What is it? - Cell’s framework - Made of proteins Functions: - Provide support - Hold organelles in place - Enable cell to change shape Components of the Cytoskeleton: - Microtubules o Largest diameter o Provides structural support o Form cilia and flagella - Intermediate filaments o Medium diameter o Maintain cell shape - Microfilaments o Smallest diameter Organelle Location Function s Plasma membrane Nuclear envelope Edge of nucleus Nuclear Surface of nucleus - where materials pass in and out of the nucleus pores - Characteristic: made of DNA and proteins Chromoso inside nucleus - Function: part of genetic makeup me Chromatin inside nucleus - Characteristic: loosely coiled chromosomes Nucleolus inside nucleus -Function: produce ribosomes Membrane bound ribosomes Golgi Apparatus Cis-Face of Golgi apparatus Trans face of Golgi apparatus Organelle Location Function s -contains genetic material (DNA) Nucleus Center of cell -contains nucleoli -site of RNA synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly Ribosomes Cytoplasm -site of protein synthesis Rough ER Cytoplasm -many ribosomes attached -site of protein synthesis Cytoplasm -site of lipid synthesis Smooth ER -participates in detoxification - closely packed, stacked membranes -modifies protein structure Golgi Cytoplasm -packages proteins in secretory vesicles Apparatus -collect, sort, pack, distribute proteins + lipids Secretory vesicle -contains materials produced in the cell Cytoplasm -formed by the Golgi apparatus (of golgi -secreted by exocytosis apparatus) Lysosome Cytoplasm -has enzymes that digest foreign material taken into the cell -site of aerobic respiration Mitochondr Cytoplasm -major site of ATP synthesis ion -contains folds  cristae Mitochondrion Cristae of mitochondrion Microtubul -largest diameter e Cytoplasm -provides structural support: Supports cytoplasm -assists in cell division -forms components of cilia and flagella - Smallest diameter Microfilame nt -Medium diameter Intermedia te filament -Maintain cell shape Centrioles Cytoplasm -Facilitate movement of chromosomes during cell division Cilia cell surface (many on each cell) -Move substances over/ across surface of certain cells Flagella sperm cell surface (1 per cell) -Propel sperm cells -Increase SA of cells (more things can now pass through) Microvilli Extensions of cell surface (many on each cell) -helps in absorption of substances into the cell -abundant in intestinal cells     Centrosome Endocytic vesicle Peroxisome CELL MEMBRANE - Outermost component of a cell Functions: many functions, borders cell Extracellular: material outside the cell - Extracellular matrix: outside Intracellular: material inside the cell - Intracellular matrix: inside (cytoplasm) Inner leaflet: inside crust of fat sandwich Outer leaflet: outside crust of fat sandwich (away from cytoplasm) **EXAM QUES** Name the structure in the component of the cell membrane that faces the intracellular fluid inner leaflet STRUCTURE of the CELL MEMBRANE - FLUID MOSAIC MODEL  Membrane, fatty layer, then things can float around - Made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS o Also contains proteins and other substances - Phospholipids form a BILAYER –a fat sandwich Lipid Bilayer Polar Heads of Lipid Bilayer Fatty acid tails of lipid bilayer o Phospholipids: polar and nonpolar regions  Polar regions:  Heads  Hydrophilic  Faces fluid (extra or intra)  Nonpolar regions:  Tails  Hydrophobic  Form inside of the plasma membrane  Tails link up to form a nonpolar layer, very stable Membrane channel protein Membrane channel Membrane channel pore Transmembrane protein Proteins that go across the membrane Peripheral membrane Integral membrane Cholesterol molecules Protein Protein in lipid bilayer Proteins associated with the membrane, but don’t go through it Glycocalyx Glycolipid Glycoprotein 2B: MOVEMENT THROUGH the CELL MEMBRANE - Cell membrane selectively determines what can pass in and out of the cell o Enzymes, glycogen, and potassium are found in higher conc. INSIDE the cell o Sodium, calcium, and chloride are found in higher conc. OUTSIDE the cell Ways molecules pass through the cell membrane: 1. Directly through (diffusion) o H  L concentration o O2 AND CO2 (small molecules) 2. Membrane channels o Proteins that extend from one side of cell membrane to other o Size, shape, and charge (+/-) determine what can go through o Ex: Na+ passes through Na+ channels 3. Carrier molecules o Bind to molecules, transport them across, and drop them off o Often called transporters o Ex: glucose, dopamine, serotonin (transporters) 4. Vesicles: o Can transport a variety of materials o Membrane bound spheres in the cytoplasm o Fuse with cell membrane DIFFUSION What is it? o Movement of molecules from areas of high to low concentration Solution: o Solid, liquid, or gas that contains one or more solutes Ex: add salt to Solute: o Substance added to solvent that dissolves H2O Solvent: o Substance such as H2O that solute is being added to H2O = solvent Salt = solute Concentration gradient: o Measures conc. difference at 2 points o Greater the distance the faster the solute will travel o Movement toward the lower concentration Filtration: o Movement of fluid through a partition with holes MEDIATED TRANSPORT MECHANISM Facilitated diffusion: o Diffusion with aid of a carrier molecule o Requires no ATP Active transport: o Move substances from LOW  HIGH conc. o Move UP conc. gradient o Requires ATP OSMOSIS What is it? The diffusion of water across a cell membrane o Not literally going through phospholipid bilayer, but passing through membrane via a channel Osmotic pressure: o Force required to prevent movement of water across cell membrane ** EXAM QUES: ** Predict which way water and/or molecules would move: TYPES of OSMOTIC SOLUTION Hypotonic solution: o Lower conc. of solutes outside the cell o Higher conc. of H2O outside the cell o H2O moves into cell o Lysis (burst) Hypertonic solution: o Higher conc, of solutes outside cell o Higher conc. H2O inside cell o H2O moves out o Crenation (shrinks) Isotonic solution: o Equal conc. of solutes o Water doesn’t move ENDOCYTOSIS What is it? Process that brings materials INTO cell using vesicles 2 types 1. Phagocytosis - Cell eating (solid particles) 2. Pinocytosis:   - Cell drinking (liquid particles) EXOCYTOSIS What is it? Process that brings materials OUT of cell using vesicles EPITHELIUM Number of layers or category Shape of cells Simple: • Squamous single layer of cells • Cuboidal • Columnar • Squamous Stratified: -Non-keratinized more than one layer of cells -Keratinized • Cuboidal + Columnar (very rare) Pseudo stratified: • Columnar Modification of simple epithelium Transitional: • Roughly cuboidal to columnar when not Modification of stratified epithelium stretched + squamous-like when stretched SIMPLE EPITHELIUM Epithelium Structure Function Location - blood vessels Simple - Single layer - Diffusion - lungs Squamous - Thin, flat cells - Filtration - heart Epithelium - kidney - Active transport - glands Simple - Single layer - Facilitated diffusion - ovaries Cuboidal - Cube like cells - Secretion - kidneys Epithelium - Single layer - movement of particles Simple - tall, thin, cellsout of bronchioles w/ciliated - resp. tract Columnar cells - Some have cilia - Stomach, intestines Epithelium or microvilli - secretion mucus (goblet cell) - absorption Pseudo- - single layer - secretes mucus—covers stratified - tall, thin, cells its free surface - Nasal cavity Columnar - respiratory tract (like the Epithelium -appears - propels debris out if trachea) stratified, but isn’t resp, tract (cilia) (pseudo: false) STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM Epithelium Structure Function Location - several layers - protection against - Keratinized: abrasion outer layer of skin Stratified Squamous - surface: flat, tile-like Epithelium cells - forms barrier against - Nonkeratinized - deepest cells: cuboidal infection (moist): mouth, throat, or columnar esophagus - absorption Stratified - several layers of Cuboidal cuboidal epithelium - secretion Epithelium - rare - protection - several layers - absorption - only surface cells are Stratified Columnar columnar - secretion Epithelium - deeper layers: cuboidal - protection or irregular - Stratified epithelium Transitional - lines cavities that Epithelium changes shape: expand a lot - when stretched: squamous - protects structures - when not stretched: from the effects of urine cuboidal CHAPTER 4: TISSUES What is a tissue? - Group of cells w/similar structure and function _+ extracellular substance (matrix) Histology: study of tissues TYPES OF TISSUE 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscular 4. Nervous EPITHELIUM: - A lining or a coating - Classify based on # of layers + cell shape Characteristics: - Cells close together - Very little extracellular matrix Two surfaces: - Free surface - Basal surface  Attaches epithelial cells to underlying tissues FUNCTIONS of Epithelial Tissues 1. Protect (squamous) 2. Act as a barrier 3. Diffusion + Filtration 4. Secretion (cuboidal) 5. Absorption (cuboidal) TYPES of Epithelial Tissues  Simple Epithelium - One layer of cells  Stratified Epithelium - More than one layer of cells Simple Epithelium SIMPLE SQUAMOUS • Structure: one layer of flat, tile-like cells • Function: diffusion + filtration o Short, flat cell allows materials to easily move through • Location: blood vessels, lungs, heart, kidney SIMPLE CUBOIDAL • Structure: one layer of square-shaped cells • Function: secretion • Location: glands, ovaries, kidneys SIMPLE COLUMNAR • Structure: one layer of tall, narrow cells • Function: secrete mucus + absorption • Location: stomach, intestines, resp. tract PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR • Structure: one layer of tall, narrow cells o Appears stratified, but isn’t • Function: secrete mucus, propel debris out of resp. tract (cilia) • Location: Nasal cavity, respiratory tract (like the trachea) Stratified Epithelium STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS • Structure: many layers of flat,tile-like cells • Function: protects, acts like a barrier • Location: skin, throat, mouth, esophagus TRANSITIONAL • Structure: special type od stratified epithelium o Stretched: squamous o Not stretched: cuboidal • Function: holds fluids • Location: urinary bladder CELL CONNECTIONS Tight junctions: - Bind adjacent cells together (Ex: intestines) - A result of a desmosome Desmosomes: - Mechanical links that bind cells CONNECTIVE TISSUES Classification of Connective Tissues Loose: few fibers, more ground substance  Aereolar  Adipose  Reticular Connective Tissue Proper Dense: more fibers, less ground substance  Dense, regular  Dense, irregular Cartilage: semisolid matrix  Hyaline  Fibrocartilage  Elastic Supporting Connecting Tissue Bone: solid matrix  Spongy  Compact Blood: • RBC • WBC Fluid Connective Tissue • Platelets Hemopoietic Tissue: • Red marrow+ Yellow marrow CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER Connective Structure Function Location Tissue— LOOSE - Mostly collagen fibers + - throughout whole body few elastic fibers - Loose packing Areolar - substance on which Connective - spaces between fibers - nourishment epithelial basement Tissue (macrophages + fibroblasts for structures membranes rest located here) -attaches skin to underlying tissues - packing material - adipocytes (fat cells) Adipose - thermal Tissue - composed of large cells + insulator small amt. of extracellular matrix - energy storage - protects organs against injury - structure for lymphatic + -spleen Reticular - reticular fibers hemopoietic - lymph nodes Tissue tissues - bone marrow Connective Structure Function Location Tissue— DENSE - collagen fibers - Tendons: bone Dense regular: Dense  In tendons + ligaments - withstand - Ligaments: Bone to Collagenous Collagen fibers in same pulling forces in bone Connective direction of direction Tissue fibers - dermis of skin Dense irregular :  In dermis + organ - organ capsules capsules  Collagen fibers in diff. directions - vocal cords (same Dense direction of fiber Elastic orientation) Connective - abundant elastic fibers - stretch + Tissue among collagen fibers recoil - elastic ligaments - walls of large arteries (diff. direction of fiber orientation) SUPPORTING CONNECTIVE TISSUE: CARTILAGE Cartilage Structure Function Location - covers ends of Hyaline - small collagen bones - growing long bones * most fibers - costal cartilages abundant (where they come tg to form joints - withstands Fibrocartilage - LOTS of collagen compression - discs between vertebrae fibers -resists pulling or tearing forces - elastic fibers in - ext. ear addition to - able to recoil to Elastic collagen + original shape when - epiglottis proteoglycans bent - auditory tube - coiled fibers among bundles of collagen fibers CONNECTIVE TISSUES: - cells far apart - contain large amounts of extracellular matrix - classified based on type of extracellular matrix + function -Blast: build -Clast: remodel Extracellular matrix - Protein fibers, ground substance, fluid TYPE of PROTEIN FIBERS  COLLAGEN FIBERS - Looks like ropes - Flexible but resist stretching (don’t stretch)  RETICULAR FIBERS - Supporting network - Fills spaces between organs + tissues  ELASTIC FIBERS - Recoil after being stretches FUNCTIONS of Connective Tissue 1. Enclose + separate - Ex: around organs + mm. 2. Connect tissues - Ex: tendons: connect bone to mm. - Ex: ligaments: connect bone to bone 3. Support + movement - Ex: bones 4. Storage - Ex: bones store calcium + adipose tissue stores fat 5. Cushion + insulate 6. Transport - Ex: blood 7. Protect: - Ex: immune cells DENSE: • Structure: collagen fibers packed close together • Function: connect + can withstand pulling forces • Location: tendons, ligaments, skin ADIPOSE • Structure: collagen + elastic fibers o Cells filled w/lipids • Function: storage, insulate, cushion • Location: under skin + around organs CARTILAGE - Composed of chondrocytes o Chrondro: cartilage o Cytes: cell - Contains collagen - Withstands compression - Provides support, flexibility, + strength HYALINE cartilage • Structure: some collagen fibers • Function: reduce friction (cushion) • Location: covers ends of bones FIBROCARTILAGE • Structure: LOTS of collagen fibers • Function: withstand compression • Location: between vertebra ELASTIC cartilage • Structure: elastic fibers • Function: can recoil • Location: ear + tip of nose BLOOD - Liquid connective tissue - Components: Erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC), Platelets - Function: transport food, oxygen waste, hormones MUSCLE MUSCLE TISSUE Muscle Structure Function Location Type - allows - striated movement - attached to bone or Skeletal - long + cylindrical other connective tissue - many nuclei - under voluntary control - striated - cylindrical - pumps blood - single nucleus Cardiac - under - heart - branched + connected to involuntary each other by control intercalated disks w/gap junctions - moves food through digestive - not striated tract - hollow organs (stomach) Smooth - tapered at each end - single nucleus - regulates size of - skin+ eyes organs - under involuntary control NERVOUS TISSUE Tissue Structure Function Location consists of: neurons + support cells Neuron: conducts action - coordinates + potential controls body activities Nervous Cell body: contains - forms brain, spinal Tissue nucleus—site of general cord, and nn. cell function - for awareness, emotions, reasoning Dendrites: receive stimuli skills, and memory - leads to electrical changes to increase or decrease action potentials Axons: where AP originate - CH 5: INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Integument: Means covering Components: Skin, Hair, Nails, Glands FUNCTIONS: 1. Protection - Water loss, protection from microbes and UV light 2. Sensation: (of nervous tissue) - Hot, cold, pain, pressure - Tells us about the outside world 3. Temperature Regulation: - Maintains temperature homeostasis 4. Excretion: - Removes waste 5. Vitamin D production: - UV light stimulates production 6. Endocrine Organ SKIN FACTS  Weighs 9 lbs.  Endocrine organ  Main regions: epidermis and dermis  Hypodermis: contains adipose tissue + blood vessels SKIN Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis Has thick and thin skin—thicker at fingertip                      EPIDERMIS:  First major skin region (outside) Stratified squamous epithelium  Keratinization: o Process where new cells (w/keratin) push old cells to the surface o 40-56 days for new cells to reach surface Strata of Epidermis:  Stratum corneum: dead squamous • Most superficial layer of epidermis • 20-30 layers of dead squamous cells filled with keratin • accounts of 75% of epidermal thickness  Intermediate strata: squamous  Everything in between basal layer and dead statum corneum  Living cells  Stratum basale: cuboidal or columnar  Deepest layer of epidermis  Single layer of cells  Has stem cells o Continuously divide via mitotic divisions to replace the cells above it  Firmly attaches to the dermis DERMIS  2nd major skin region Dense connective tissue Contains collagen + elastic fibers o Gives it strength and structure Contains fibroblasts, nerve endings, smooth mm., glands blood vessels, and hair follicles o Fibroblasts: make connective tissue  Cleavage lines: o Area where skin is most resistant to stretching o Due to orientation of collagen fibers o Important in scarring Layers of Dermis:  Papillary layer: • Thin connective tissue layer • Contains blood vessels  Dermal Papillae:  Projections that extend up into epidermis  Remove waste  Help regulate body temp.  Ridged on hands and feet (fingerprints) o Pattern is genetically determined  Reticular layer:  Deepest layer of dermis  Accounts for 80% of dermis HYPODERMIS Below dermis  Foundation of skin Attatches skin to underlying muscle and bone Contains loose and adipose tissue Contains ½ of body’s fat o Insulation + energy storage o BF for females: 20-30%, males 13-25% SKIN COLOR + VARIATIONS Determined by: • Pigments • Genetics • Blood circulation • Thickness of stratum corneum o Stratum corneum: dead cells Melanocytes of darker skin people produce more and darker melanin than fair skinned people SKIN PIGMENTS *Melanin: • Produced by melanocytes • Ranges from yellow to reddish-brown to black • Responsible for hair and eye color • Provides protection against UV light • Amount produced determined by genetics, UV light, hormones • Freckles: accumulation of melanin • Albinism: absence of melanin Carotene: • Yellow-orange pigment found in plants • Accumulates in stratum corneum Hemoglobin: • Gives pinkish-red color • Found in RBC TANNING + SUNBURNS • Exposure to UV light stimulates melanocytes to increase production of melanin • Melanin builds up to protect skin against UV radiation (tan) • Sunburn: the skin reacting to UV exposure • UV light causes elastic fibers to clump + become leathery • UV light can alter DNA in cells causing them to mutate (cancer) SKIN COLOR + DISEASE: • Redness: Fever, hypertension, inflammation, allergies • Pallor: Anemia or low blood pressure • Jaundice: liver disorder (yellowing of skin) • Bronzing: Addison’s disease (kidney disease) • Bruising: broken blood vessels HAIR HAIR COMPONENTS Hair/shaft • Flexible strands of keratinized cells • Keratin: a protein Root • below skin (scalp) Hair Bulb: • Base of hair root (located in dermis) • Where hair is produced Hair follicle: • Group of cells that surround root and bulb Hair shaft Keratinocytes • Gives hair different shapes Hair Follicle Histology Epidermis Hair Hair Follicle Sebaceous Gland HOW IS HAIR PRODUCED? • Hair is produced in hair bulb • Hair bulb rests on blood vessels to supply it with nutrients • Hair grows longer as cells are added to base of the hair bulb (as they are added to the bottom) o Add stuff from the bottom o Add cells to push hair up HAIR FACTS; • Testosterone + good nutrition promote hair growth • Growth occurs in cycles: active + resting • Scalp hair grows for 3 years and rests for 1 year • Eyelashes grow for 30 days and rest for 105 days • We lose about 90 scalp hairs/day • Grey hair is the loss or fading of melanin • Male pattern baldness is from the loss of the hair follicle HAIR MUSCLES  Arrector Pili: • Smooth muscle • Surrounds each hair follicle • Contracts and hair stands on end (goose bumps) o Helps with thermoregulation Sebaceous sweat glands: Epidermis Hair follicle Arrector pili m. Sebaceous gland Eccrine sweat glands: Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis Eccrine Sweat glands GLANDS:  Sebaceous glands: • Connected to hair follicle • Sebum: oily substance o Lubricates hair and skin to prevent drying  Eccrine Sweat glands:  All over body  open into sweat pores  Water and salt secretions  Apocrine sweat glands  Only in armpits and genitalia • Open into hair follicles • Thick, rich, secretions • Become active during puberty + cause body odor NAILS What are they?  Thin plate with layers of dead stratum corneum cells with hard keratin Nail Body Free edge Eponychium Nail root Nail Body: visual part Nail Root: covered by skin Cuticle: stratum corneum that extends into nail body Nail matrix: where growth occurs VITAMIN D PRODUCTION:  UV light causes skin to produce a precursor molecule of Vitamin D o Precursor is carried by blood to liver where it is modified o Next to kidneys where it is modified again to form active vitamin D o UV to Skin  precursor to liver  kidneys  Vitamin D can also be ingested through fish oils, fortified milk, eggs, butter  Vitamin D stimulates intestine to absorb calcium + phosphate o (bone growth + mm. function) TEMPERATURE REGULATION  Body temp should be 37 C  Rate of chemical reactions ( metabolism) is altered by changes in temp  To COOL body: o Blood vessels in dermis dilate and heat is transferred from deep in tissues to skin + sweat is produced  To HEAT body: o Blood vessels constrict to reduce blood flow to skin and heat is retained CHAPTER 6: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS 1. Support 2. Protect 3. Movement 4. Storage 5. Blood cell production COMPONENTS of SKELETAL SYSTEM  Bone  Cartilage: - Reduce friction o Important at the joints - Provides a model for bone formation (a template for bone to fill up) - Cushion vertebra; disks  Tendons: - Attach bone to muscle  Ligament: - Attach bone to bone EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX  Bone: o Collagen + minerals  released by osteocytes  Allows for a rigid structure o Flexible o Able to bear weight  Cartilage: o Collagen + proteoglycans o Good shock absorber  Tendons + Ligaments: o Extracellular matrix is collagen o Very strong + tough CLASSIFICATION of BONES  Shape: - Long, short, flat, irregular  Type of bone tissue: - Compact or spongy (cancellous/trabecular) BONE SHAPES Long - Femur, tibia, fibula Short - Carpals, tarsals, phalanges Flat - Ribs, sternum, skull Irregular - Vertebrae, facial LONG BONE STRUCTURE Diaphysis: shaft (the body) - compact bone tissue (on outside)—made of osteons - open space in the middle –medullary cavity Epiphysis: the ends - Spongy bone tissue Articular cartilage: - Coating of end of bone  - Goes into a joint Epiphyseal plates: - Site of bone growth - Between diaphysis + epiphysis Medullary cavity - Center of diaphysis - Full of red or yellow marrow o Red: make blood cells o Yellow: lots of fat Periosteum: (Peri-: around, Osteum: bone) - Thin layer of epithelium (membrane) around bone’s outer surface - Has a rich vasculature Endosteum: (Endo-: inside) - Membrane that lines the inside (the medullary cavity) COMPACT BONE TISSUE Location: - Outer part of diaphysis (long bones) - Thinner surfaces of other bones **Osteon: - Structural unit of compact bone - Mature bone cells - Includes lamella, lacunae, canaliculus, central canal, osteocytes Lamella: - Rings of bone matrix  Lacunae: - Spaces between lamella Canaliculus: - Tiny canals - Transport nutrients +remove waste Central canal: - Center of osteon SPONGY BONE TISSUE: cancellous bone Location: - Epiphyses of long bones + center of other bones Trabeculae: - Interconnecting rods - Spaces contain marrow **No osteons VIDEO 2: BONE CELLS Osteoblasts - Build bone Osteocytes: - Maintain bone matrix Osteoclasts: - Carve bone OSSIFICATION Ossification: Process by which bone forms  Intramembranous (intra: inside, membranous: membranes) o Take something inside membranes, and turn it to bone  Endochondral (Endo: inside, chondro: cartilage) Ossification center - where bone formation begins Primary Ossification center: st - Where bone 1 begins to appear - Forms diaphysis Secondary Ossification center - Forms epiphyses  INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSIFICATION o Bone formation within connective tissue membranes o Osteoblasts build bone o Skull bones  ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION o Bone formation inside cartilage o Cartilage model  are replaced by bone o All bones except skull STEPS in endochondral ossification: 1. Chondroblasts build a cartilage model  Chondroblasts (change + mature) +become  chondrocytes 2. Cartilage model calcifies (hardens) 3. Osteoblasts invade calcified cartilage  a Primary ossification center forms diaphysis  (osteoblasts will go where the cartilage is and turn it into bone) 4. Secondary ossification centers form epiphysis 5. Original cartilage model is almost completely ossified (cartilage almost all bone)  Remaining cartilage is articular cartilage BONE GROWTH Infancy + youth - Long bones lengthen at epiphyseal plate - Long bones widen by adding more lamella End of bone growth (in length): - Epiphyseal plate is replaced by an epiphyseal line BONE REMODELING (replacing/remodeling bone) - Removal of existing bone by osteoclasts - Deposition of new bone by osteoblasts - Occurs in all bones—it’s a normal process - Responsible for changes in: o bone shape, bone repair, adjustment of bone to stress, and calcium ion regulation BONE REPAIR 1. Broken bone causes bleeding and a blood clot forms 2. Callus forms - a fibrous network between two fragments 3. Cartilage model forms first - then, osteoblasts enter the callus + form cancellous bone for 4-6 weeks after injury Video 3: HEMATOPOIETIC TISSUE What is it?  Tissue that makes blood cells Red marrow  Location of blood forming cells Yellow marrow:  Mostly fat Location of hematopoietic tissue in newborns:  Most bones (red marrow) Location of hematopoietic tissue in adults  Red is replaced with yellow marrow  Red marrow is mainly in epiphyses of femur and humerus BONE ANATOMY Foramen: hole  Ex: foramen magnum Fossa: depression  Ex: Glenoid fossa Process: projection  Ex: Mastoid process Condyle: Smooth, rounded end  Ex: occipital condyle Meatus: canal-like passageway  Ex: external auditory meatus Tubercle: lump of bone  Ex: Greater tubercle AXIAL SKELETON Styloid process: attachment site for tongue Mandibular fossa: depression where lower jaw and skull meet Glenoid fossa: where humerus meets scapula Hard palate: roof of the mouth Foramen magnum: hole where spinal cord joins brainstem Zygomatic: cheek bone Mandible: lower jaw Maxilla: upper jaw VERTEBRAL COLUMN  7 cervical vertebra  12 thoracic vertebra  5 lumbar vertebra  1 sacrum  1 coccyx Atlas: 1 vertebra - holds head nd Axis: 2 vertebra - rotates head FUNCTIONS of the VERTEBRAL COLUMN  support  protect spinal cord  movement THORACIC CAGE  Protects vital organs  12 pairs of ribs Sternum: breastbone True ribs: - attatch directly to sternum by cartilage (costal cartilage) False ribs: - attach indirectly to sternum by cartilage - Floating ribs: - not attached to sternum APPENDICULAR SKELETON PECTORAL GIRDLE Scapula: shoulder blade Clavicle: collar bone   UPPER LIMB BONES Humerus: upper limb Ulna: forearm Radius: forearm Carpals: wrist Metacarpals: hand PELVIC GIRDLE: Pelvis: includes pelvic girdle + coccyx Ischium: inferior and posterior region Ilium: most superior region Acetabulum: hip socket (joint) LOWER LIMB BONES: Femur: thigh Patella: knee cap Tibia: large lower leg Fibula: small lower leg Tarsals: ankle Metatarsals: foot Phalanges: toes + fingers ARTICULATIONS Synarthrosis: nonmovable joint - ex: the skull amphiarthrosis: slightly movable joint - ex: between vertebrae Diararthrosis: freely movable joint - ex: knee, elbow, wrist TYPES of SYNOVIAL JOINTS TYPES of MOVEMENT Flexion: bending Extension: straightening Abduction: movement away from the midline Adduction: movement toward the midline Pronation: rotation of forearm with palms down Supination: rotation of the forearm with palms up Rotation: movement of a structure about the long axis CHAPTER 1: THE HUMAN ORGANISM  Regional anatomy: - Study of body by areas  Systemic anatomy: - Study of body by systems  DEFINIITON OF PHYSIOLOGY: - Study of scientific discipline - Deals with processes/functions of living things - Goals: o Understand + predict the body’s responses to stimuli o Understand how the body maintains conditions within a narrow range of values in the presence of continuous change  Six levels of body organization 1. Chemical  Atoms combine  molecules 2. Cell  Molecules form organelles  organelles make up cells 3. Tissue  Group of similar cells 4. Organ  Different tissues (2+) that form common functions 5. Organ system  Group of organs classified as a unit b/c of a common function 6. Organism  Living thing considered as a whole  Made up of organ systems  Six Characteristics of Life 1. Organization 2. Metabolism 3. Growth 4. Development 5. Reproduction 6. Responsiveness  HOMEOSTASIS: existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body despite fluctuations in the environment o NEGATIVE Feedback:  Deviation from set point is made smaller  Ends correctional mechanism  Ex: it gets hot, so you sweat  Receptor (sensor): monitors  Control center: est. set point  Effector: changes value o POSITIVE Feedback:  Initial stimulus further stimulates the response  Deviation from set point even greater—keeps reaction going  Ex: birth, contractions stimulate even more contractions  **ANATOMICAL POSITION** o Stand erect o Face forward o Upper limbs to the sides o Palms facing forward CHAPTER 2: CHEMISTRY Atom: always neutral o Protons = # electrons (neutral) o Atomic #: Protons o Atomic mass: Protons + Neutrons (E have no mass) o Matter= stuff o Mass= measure of stuff (matter) o Weight= gravitational force Ionic/Covalent bond o IONIC:  Complete transfer  Result: opp. Charged ions  Creates salts: NaCl Ionic bond in water Water dissolves bonds **Produces electric current –electrocytes (are salts)** o COVALENT:  Equal or unequal sharing of electrons  Equal sharing: nonpolar  Asymmetrical electric charge  Unequal sharing: polar  Symmetrical electric charge Molecule vs. compound Molecule: o 2 or more atoms chemically combine to form a structure that behaves as an independent unit o ex: water Compound: o Substance resulting from the chemical combo of two or more different types of atoms o Ex: water  CHEMICAL REACTIONS o Synthesis  A + B  AB  Anabolism o Decomposition  AB  A +B  Catabolism  Ex: digestion  Usually associated with things that release energy o Exchange:  AB + CD  AC + BD  Combo of decomp and synthesis  FACTORS THAT AFFECT RATE OF CHEMICAL RECTIONS o Reactants o Concentration  conc., rate o Temperature  temp, rate o Catalysts  rate of reaction  ex: enzymes  ACIDS + BASES o Acid: < 7.0  More H+  Proton donor o Neutral: 7.0 o Base: > 7.0  More OH-  Proton acceptor o <7.35: Acidosis o >7.35: Alkalosis  BUFFERS: o Maintains pH levels—doesn’t let it get too acidic o Resists changes in pH when an acid or base is added o Binds to H+ to prevent from lowering pH (from getting too acidic)  INORGANIC CHEM: no carbon o O2 o CO2 o H2O  ORGANIC CHEM: o Carbs  CHO  BB: monosaccharides o Lipid  CHO (P,N)  BB: fatty acids + glycerol o Protein  CHON (s)  BB: Amino Acids o Nucleic Acids  CHONP  BB: nucleotides CHAPTER 3: CELL STRUCTURE + FUNCTION **know ribosomes—protein synthesis  Rough ER: have ribosomes, protein synthesis  Smooth ER: no ribosomes, lipid synthesis  Lysosomes: decomposition o Has enzymes to digest and breakdown material o Ex: you are in a stomach, what cell would you find her?  MOVEMENT in CELL o Passive membrane transport: NO ATP  Diffusion  Osmosis  H  L concentration  Facilitated diffusion o Active membrane transport: ATP  Active transport  Secondary active transport  Uses energy from active transport to move something  Endo/exo cytosis  HYPO/HYPER TONIC o HYPOtonic:  Low solute  High water  Water goes INTO cell  Cell swells: LYSIS o HYPERtonic:  High solute  Low water  Water LEAVES cell  Cell shrinks: CRENATION  GENE EXPRESSION o Transcription + translation o TRANSCRIPTION  Making a copy of a gene  In NUCLEUS  Copy = mRNA  Travels from nucleus  ribosomes  tRNA= transfer RNAs  carry AA to ribosome o STEPS: 1. DNA determines structure of mRNA through transcription 2. Double strands of DNA separate 3. DNA nucleotides pair with RNA a. DNA: + RNA:  C-G  G-C  A-U  T-A 4. mRNA segment is formed 5. info in mRNA carried in groups  CODONS o TRANSLATION:  Synthesis of proteins based on info in mRNA  In RIBOSOMES  Needs tRNA and rRNA o STEPS: 1. Ribosome binds to an mRNA 2. Ribosome aligns the mRNA w/tRNA a. Anticodons of tRNA can pair with codons of mRNA 3. Enzyme associated with the ribosome makes a peptide bond between AA bound to the tRNAS 4. Ribosome moves down the mRNA one codon at a time a. Releases one of the tRNA b. Allows the next tRNA to move down to position 5. Polypeptide chain formed 6. end of translation: at a stop codon on the mRNA 7. polypeptide chain released a. folded into a 3D protein structure w/specific functions ** what is the largest phase in a cells life? o INTERPHASE **APOPTOSIS: o Programmed cell death o Cell numbers in various tissues are controlled and adjusted ES 207 EXAM 1: PART II CHAPTERS 1-5 1. Basement membranes  Function as a filter and barrier to cell or pathogen movement  attach epithelial cells to underlying tissue  Are secreted partially by epithelial cells and partially by cells of the underlying tissue 2. A cell that was producing large amounts of lipoproteins (proteins combined with lipids) for secretion from the cell would have large #s of.  Golgi apparatus 3. _______________ are a common fuel nutrient that has glycogen as a storage form  Carbohydrates o CHO o Glycogen  glycolysis 4. Which of these epithelial types is correctly matched with its major function?  Simple squamous epithelium—diffusion or filtration  Stratified squamous epithelium—protection from abrasion  Simple cuboidal epithelium—active transport, facilitated diffusion, or secretion  Simple columnar epithelium—secretion or absorption 5. The type of membrane transport that involves the ingestion of solid particles by vesicle formation is  Endocytosis 6. You would normally expect to find ___________ lining the small intestine.  Simple columnar epithelium 7. In living things, which of these is most important for regulating the rate of chemical reactions?  Changing concentration + activity of enzymes catalyzing the reactions 8. When you scratch a cats back along a spine, which of the following terms would apply to the skin you are scratching?  Dorsal, superior, medial, superficial 9. Which of the following pathways correctly follows the flow of nutrients needed by the osteocytes in compact bone?  Blood vessels in periosteum + endosteum  blood vessels in central canals  diffusion through the canaliculi  lacuna  osteocyte 10.The connective tissue that covers muscles, glands, and nerves is:  Loose or areolar connective tissue 11.The nail grows from the  Nail matrix 12.Growth of the long one, and site of growth in length is the  Epiphyseal plate 13.Which of the following would NOT lead to an increase in the strength and compression resistance of a connective tissue:  Increase the # of collagen fibers in the matrix o strength  Decrease the # of collagen fibers in the matrix o strength  Increase the concentration of proteoglycans in the ground substance  Align the fibers in the matrix in direction of most stress or force o strength 14. If the products of a chemical reaction contain less PE than the reactants:  energy has been released by the breaking of molecular bonds o if products < PE than reactants o energy released 15.The chemical compound that is represented by the acronym ATP:  Is synthesized using energy released during the breakdown of food molecules and is a common temporary storage form of immediately usable energy within cells 16.Cells of the epidermis are linked together via ________________, which rivet the plasma membranes of the 2 cells together with a network of fine proteins + intercellular cement.  Desmosomes 17.When placed in a ___________________ solution, a cell will exhibit a net loss of water. The specific process by which the water leaves the cell is called _________________.  Hypertonic, osmosis o Hypo  solute water  lysis o Hyper  solute water  crenation 18.In _____________, carrier molecules move a substance against (up) the concentration gradient.  Active transport o L  H conc. o Active transport, secondary active transport, endo/exocytosis o Uses ATP 19.Which of the following bones were not likely produced through endochondral ossification? Endochondral: cartilage  Femur  Frontal  Parietal  Temporal 20. length of bone: at epiphyseal plate  width of bone: appositional growth Bone growth: deposition of new bone lamellae onto existing bone or other connective tissue 21.Increases of CO2 in the blood increases respiration (breathing) rate. Which of the following statements would apply to this mechanism?  This is negative (-) feedback because increased respiration rate decreased CO2 in the blood 22.A gene is a sequence of _____________ providing a chemical set of instructions for making a ____________.  Nucleotides, protein 23.If blood calcium levels are too high, ___________________ activity decreases, while ____________________ activity increases.  Osteoclast, osteoblast blood Ca  activity by osteoclasts by  osteoblasts 24.After a neutral atom accepts an additional electron, it becomes  Both negatively charged and an ion at the same time 25.The extracellular matrix of tendons and ligaments is made up of  Primarily collagen o Collagen + proteoglycans  cartilage o Collagen + minerals  bone


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