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Intro to Music Lit Bundle no. 1 weeks 1 - 3

by: Chappy

Intro to Music Lit Bundle no. 1 weeks 1 - 3 MUL2010

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Weeks 1 - 3 notes! Includes everything from basic music vocab to history of music in the Renaissance! If you don't want to buy them individually. Keep a lookout for the next study guides/bundles! I...
Introduction to Music Literature
Frusco,Jeremy A
Music, Music literature, Intro to music lit, MUL2010, Study Guide, introduction to music literature, UF
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Chappy on Monday February 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MUL2010 at University of Florida taught by Frusco,Jeremy A in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music Literature in Music at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯1 Introduction to Music Literature ♪ STUDY GUIDE no. 1 of 4 ♪ ▯ ♪ WEEK 1 NOTES ♪ ▯ Main Theme ♪ PROPERTIES OF SOUND Scientific Terms Musical Terms • Duration (seconds, etc) •hhy • Frequency (Hz) hctiP • Volume (dB) • Dynamics • Waveform • Tone color/Timbre all sounds must have these properties. Rhythm • Beat - meter • Tempo - accelerando, ritardando, rubato, subito • Rhythmic value • Pace - rhythmic value are longer or shorter Pitch • Melody - main line ⁃ contour ⁃ conjunction ⁃ interval ⁃ range • Harmony - enhancer to melodic idea ⁃ drone ⁃ consonance vs. dissonance • Modes ⁃ tonality Dynamics • crescendo, decrescendo • dynamic range ⁃ pianissimo ⁃ piano ⁃ mezzo piano / mezzo forte e t r o⁃ f om i s s i t r o⁃ f Timbre - color quality of sound • size of instrument • construction • sound production ⁃ Human voices ⁃ gender ⁃ range ⁃ age ⁃ Chordophones - stringed instruments ⁃ bowed or plucked Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯2 ⁃ Aerophones - winds and brass ⁃ reeds, breath flow ⁃ trumpets and woodwinds have very different timbre (even within their sections) despite similar sound production ⁃ Membranophones - drums and pitched percussion ⁃ membranes stretched over frames to produce a definitively toned pitch - percussion ⁃ Idiophones - non-drum indefinite/definite pitch percussion Form mrof stse ⁃ repetition AA ⁃ variation AA’ ⁃ contrast AB ⁃ recapitulation/return ABA • Western ⁃ binary - two distinct parts - AB ⁃ ternary - three parts - A B A’ ⁃ Rondeau - reccuring refrain - ABABA/ ABACA ⁃ Through composed - ABCD… (etc.) ⁃ Queen Bohemian Rhapsody • Popular Music ⁃ T-swift classic - CVVCVBCC ⁃ 32 bar song form ⁃ 12 bar blues ⁃ bar form AAB • Genre - impacted by form ⁃ song ⁃ symphony - multi movement ⁃ instrumental predominant ⁃ Opera - staged musical drama ⁃ acting/singing w/ people as focus ⁃ Concerto ⁃ soloist w orchestra ⁃ Sonata ⁃ instrument w piano ⁃ piano itself ⁃ Chamber music ⁃ any ensemble smaller than a bonafide symphony ▯ ▯ SOCIETY AND MUSIC Cognitive development by method of music • must happen after brain develops • understanding of music can only be gained with a prior fundamental understanding • music cognitive therapy can improve creativity • Mozart effect - music makes you smarter (debunked—must happen under circumstances) Culture • Music forms practically ⁃ steel drums are inherently Caribbean Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯3 • Cultural context of music is directly related to understanding ⁃ either societally or between individuals ⁃ emotion • Indexicality - association of a song with an outside concept ⁃ (ex. Don’t You Forget About Me & Breakfast Club) ⁃ Iconicity - derivation of indexicality ⁃ Nationalistic / identical, financial, etc. benefits Genre • Popular ⁃ here today, gone tomorrow • “Classical” ⁃ anything predominantly western before 20th century as defined by music industry ⁃ endures the test of time - usually harmonically good music ⁃ true period was 1725-1815 ⁃ note: Opera is not a genre (despite the fact that it contains genre classifications) • World ⁃ everything else • Problematic division of music ⁃ preferences western ⁃ ignores the diversity in general cultural music taste • Divided into secular and sacred works ⁃ determines how the work is used in culture ⁃ possible to blur the lines • Historical/chronological, stylistic, timbre & instrumentation sub genres • Jazz ⁃ different harmonic classification and development over time as well as instrumentation History • Ancient (everything - 400 AD) • Medieval (400-1430 AD) s t e t ⁃oM ⁃ Male choirs • Renaissance (1430- 1600 AD) ⁃ development of choir ⁃ boys joined ⁃ dominance of sacred music ⁃ women joined choirs in late part but still were not allowed much liberty • Baroque (1600-1750 AD) - recognizable today ⁃ italian fundamentals ⁃ english art song fundamentals ⁃ plucked and strung instrumentation ⁃ strings popularity ⁃ early classical influence ⁃ development of the clavier/harpsichord • Classical (1750-1820 AD) ⁃ Widespread use of basso continuo ⁃ opera development (italian, early german) ⁃ Mozart ⁃ ‘too many notes’ ⁃ Early Handel Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯4 • Romantic (1820-1900 AD) ⁃ Flowing, imagery-rich music ⁃ English and German Opera ⁃ piano’s best period ⁃ Beethoven’s period ⁃ Large, symphonic music ⁃ Puccini in the late • Modern (20th century) ⁃ development of musical theatre and vaudeville ⁃ american art song ⁃ jazz, swing, R&B, disco, hip hop, rap, trap, general african american music culture extreme success ⁃ development of contemporary • Contemporary (21st century) • Also problematic because genres still developed within overlaps of each musical era ▯ Countermelody ♪ Make sure to use words specific to music terminology. Jargon associated with a specialty or area of interest can help you and others explain things quicker and easier and help culminate ideas faster! woo!! ▯ ♪ WEEK 2 NOTES ♪ ▯ Main theme ♪ Texture • Monophonic/Monophony - single sound - single, unaccompanied melodic line ⁃ unison- multiple instruments or voices singing the same melodic line • Homophony/Homophonic - same sound - one main melody harmonized in chords ⁃ homorhythmic - all voices move together in same rhythms ⁃ melody and accompaniment - primary melody with underlying accompaniment • Polyphonic/Polyphony - many sounds - simultaneous performance of two or more melodic lines of melodic interest ⁃ imitation - melodic idea is presented by one performer, restated by another ⁃ strict imitation - each statement of melody is exactly the same, equal importance (rounds) ⁃ free imitation - melodic lines begin the same, but differ. ⁃ counterpoint (non imitative) - simultaneous performance of multiple discrete melodies combining to make a meaningful whole (Carol of the bells) ⁃ “contrapunal texture” ⁃ common in baroque period • Heterophony - not common in western music, more common in native american and eastern music ⁃ repeating while being heard - same melody w time delay • textures can change within a piece • Farandole from L’Arlesiene by Bizet ⁃ Two Main themes ⁃ Marchlike ⁃ marcato, lots of snare and crash ⁃ Dance theme Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯5 ⁃ violin heavy, glissandos ⁃ different manifestations of the textures Intro to the Medieval Period c. 450-1450 CE • Fall of roman empire; roman catholic church still reigned ⁃ church commissioned most music ⁃ boys raised in church • Expansion of texture (monophonic to polyphony) • rhythm and meter developed • Gregorian Chants - earliest documented form of western music y r o t s ⁃i H ⁃ Pope Gregory r. 590 - 604 did not create Gregorian Chant but was the leader of the religion at the time ⁃ many composers remain anonymous ⁃ official music of Roman Catholic Church up until 1960’s ⁃ Structure ⁃ Single melody with no harmony/accompaniment, monophonic, using sacred latin text ⁃ rhythmically flexible - non metric bc follows inflection of text. musical elaboration on significant text. ⁃ more important words are expanded + melismatic (more than one note per syllable) ⁃ sound is calm, ethereal ⁃ conjunct (stepwise), narrow range of pitches ⁃ notation showed melodic contour and uniformity and became norm outside of oral tradition • Chants - categorized by how text is set ⁃ Syllabic - one note per syllable of text ⁃ Neumatic - small groups of notes per syllable ⁃ Melismatic - long groups of notes per syllable ⁃ usually used in more important words ⁃ Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam ⁃ last syllable of alleluia melismatic ⁃ melody climaxes on Dominum (lord)—most important word ⁃ Organum - 700-900 CE, second melodic line added monophonic to polyphonic ⁃ initially improvised, later notated ⁃ similar/identical melodic contour w different pitch level ⁃ Organum evolution 900-1200 the added melody becomes more independent ⁃ movement in opposite directions ⁃ c. 1100 more rhythmic freedom, one line has a faster pace (obscures original chant) Late Medieval • Notre Dame School formed in 1163 in paris, the capital of polyphonic music ⁃ Leonin and Perotin: choirmasters/composers most important to the Notre Dame School ⁃ created measured rhythm : definite time values and meter ⁃ precise notation of pitches and rhythms ⁃ limited rhythmic patterns - simple complex style (groups of 3) • 14th century ⁃ social turmoil Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯6 ⁃ sensuality above divinity (human experience above holy experience) ⁃ secular music had no basis in chant ⁃ new system of music notation ⁃ beats of two or three ⁃ syncopation ⁃ Ars nova (new art) • Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300 - 1377) ⁃ offered music to noble patrons ⁃ secular and sacred works usually for four musicians ⁃ Notre Dame Mass ⁃ mass ordinary: church texts that remain consistent for most of the year
 e i r y ⁃ K ⁃ Sanctus ⁃ Gloria ⁃ Agnus Dei
 ⁃ Credo ⁃ consistently set throughout history ⁃ 1360’s, 4 voice parts ⁃ Agnus dei- prayer for mercy and peace ⁃ triple meter; rhythm complex for upper voices, lower voices slower rhythmic values ⁃ based on gregorian chants ⁃ variety of harmonies - open chords, stark dissonance, triads ⁃ three sections, divided by text Countermelody ♪ “Taking good notes” • Music Notation ⁃ Graphic representation of sound ⁃ symbolic language ⁃ set of detailed instructions for reproducing specific musical events • Efficiency ⁃ 9/8 w quarter note A ⁃ “establish a regular beat w a triple (meter of three) w each beat divided into thirds (compound subdivision). perform the pitch A5 (440Hz) for a duration equal to 2/3 of the beat,” - easier to just show what you want to do in notation than try to explain it ⁃ Music is far too complicated to explain to every single person in a small amount of time. Knowing how to read music is essential—music literacy improves understanding and artistry ⁃ Easier to just play the music than teach by rote • Does notation count as music? ⁃ is it instructions or is it the physical art form? must it be sound to be music? how to produce the music. ⁃ different levels of detail ⁃ different levels of ability • Notation - where did it come from? ⁃ Medieval Christian Church ⁃ necessity for external memory, standardization, pedagogical tools ⁃ much like note taking - take simple oral tradition melodies, write down to be reproduced ⁃ eventually evolved to modern notation w rhythmic and melodic distinction • Notation as a tool Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯7 ⁃ exploited to its fullest potential & new applications beyond original intention. Rarely anticipated at outset. ⁃ sheet music to MIDI files and graphic garage band • What did they do before 1000 CE? ⁃ rough estimates of what music sounded like from Ancient Egyptian and Greek and Japanese Empirical culture. ⁃ precisely traditional music. • Oral tradition ⁃ did not stop with the notation of music ⁃ quite common in music around the world ⁃ happy birthday ⁃ Jazz - changes w individual - oral tradition based on performer ⁃ Louis Armstrong vs. Sinatra - how do their styles differ? Oral Notated • Performance • Composition • shorter, less complex • longer, more complex • can be reinterpreted • can’t stray from notes on the page • improvisation • preplanned • repetition • dramatic contour • individualisation • standardization • performance practice • analytical + theoretical teaching • EXAMPLE: Jazz improvisation and • EXAMPLE: difference between classical musicians instrumentalists ⁃ taught to sound different from ⁃ taught to blend one another • Complexity ⁃ Mahler’s Third Symphony ⁃ 90 minutes long ⁃ six movements ⁃ large, symphonic orchestra plus choral and folk instruments ⁃ notation makes complex musical works possible • Theory and Analysis - aspects of notated music readily perceived, analyzed, or created in written form • Cantus Firmus • Augenmusik • Serial Music • Retrograde and inverted themes - Retrograde: melody is played backwards - reflected over y axis - Inversion: as if melody was reflected over the x axis (ex. well-tempered clavier) • Conclusion ⁃ history of western music has been a study in the notation and possibilities it creates since the middle ages ⁃ notation has created innovation in every style period ⁃ notation has changed musical/aesthetic culture of the west. ▯ ▯ ▯ Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯8 ♪ WEEK 3 NOTES ♪ ▯ Main Theme - The Music of the Renaissance ♪ MUSICAL FORM Form - the organization of musical elements in time • three techniques to establish form ⁃ repetition - enforces the security of a melody - unity (AA) ⁃ contrast - diversifies melodic landscape (AB) ⁃ key, rhythm, pitches, alternate motif ⁃ variation - hybrid of both repetition and contrast (AA’) ⁃ keeping one element while changing another ⁃ recapitulation/return ABA • Describing form ⁃ major sections: capital letters (ABC) ⁃ subsections: smaller letters (abc) • Western ⁃ binary - two distinct parts - AB (statement and counterstatement) ⁃ can be repeated immediately after itself, but there is no return to A. (ABB, AAB, AABB, etc) ⁃ example: Beethoven Contradance No. 7 in Eb ⁃ two distinct, contrasting parts ⁃ ternary - three parts - ABA/ABA’ ⁃ Rondeau - reccuring refrain - ABABA/ ABACA ⁃ Through composed - ABCD… (etc.) ⁃ Queen Bohemian Rhapsody • Popular Music ⁃ T-swift classic - CVVCVBCC ⁃ 32 bar song form ⁃ 12 bar blues ⁃ bar form AAB • Genre - impacted by form ⁃ song ⁃ symphony - multi movement ⁃ instrumental predominant ⁃ Opera - staged musical drama ⁃ acting/singing w/ people as focus ⁃ Concerto ⁃ soloist w orchestra ⁃ Sonata ⁃ instrument w piano ⁃ piano itself ⁃ Chamber music ⁃ any ensemble smaller than a bonafide symphony MUSIC OF THE RENAISSANCE SECULAR MUSIC • Brief history (The Renaissance, 1450—1600) Power of the church declines, as society turns to an interest on humanism. ⁃ 1456: Gutenberg Bible Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯9 ⁃ 1492: Columbus reaches america ⁃ 1500-1510: Da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael create some of their most famous works ⁃ 1517: Martin Luther’s 95 Theses ⁃ late 1500’s: Elizabethan era arts evolve, Shakespeare writes and stages Romeo and Juliet • Historical setting of music ⁃ jobs in churches ⁃ church choirs increased ⁃ royalty became well known contributors to the church ⁃ town musicians ⁃ virtuoso: performer with exceptional skill ⁃ rise in social setting for music creation and recreation ⁃ manuscripts available and widespread with the invention of the printing press in 1440 ⁃ composers now took credit for works. ⁃ Flanders region (modern day Belgium, Holland, France) • The rise of vocal music ⁃ remains more prominent from middle ages ⁃ women join choir, although boys are still the vast majority for higher parts ⁃ castrati appear in mid 16th century in italy (previous existence of castrati goes back to 11th century, but this is when it became popular in western music culture) - men castrated to preserve higher voice yet develop adult-level breath control and voice support. Many complications and mutilations, but those who did survive procedure experienced relatively good wealth and fame, respect as castrati and musicians. Dedicated life to music. ⁃ word painting—musical representation of poetic imagery, composition technique ⁃ “descending from heaven” - perhaps a flowing, descending scale ⁃ belief that music should follow the emotional implications of the words both melodically and harmonically ⁃ music stays moderate - no major changes in dynamic, tempo, or tone color within a piece e r u t x e⁃ T ⁃ imitative in nature ⁃ primarily polyphonic, 4-6 voices or less ⁃ dance-like texture ⁃ Melody with accompaniment very popular in England with the origins of British Art Song, in which a plucked instrument such as a lyre would be played with the singer (thus, lyric poetry turns into lyric song) ⁃ Exploration of techniques ⁃ fuller sound with the addition of bass register and early beginnings of “basso continuo” concept ⁃ chordal textures; propensity towards triads (previously, chants heavily based around perfect intervals such as 4ths and 5ths, eventually evolved into triads and more complex harmonic structure). Composers made music by writing chords all at once instead of fitting a harmony to a melody • A Cappella - choral music; only voices “In the manner of chapel” - instruments not allowed in the church in practice - instruments would double or replace voices, but not be used to enhance harmonic structure Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯10 - Rhythmic flow vs. steady beat - the beat is not strongly emphasized - staggered phrases - melodies move stepwise, some voice crossing but generally stay within a designated range per part in the song • Madrigal - a musical piece with contrasting textures set to short poems (usually about love) written for several voices, similar to motet, but word painting is more common ⁃ italian in origin - Luca Marenzio and Carlo Gesualdo ⁃ Super popular in England ⁃ lighter style, simple melodies and harmony ⁃ Thomas Weelkes (c. 1575 - 1623) - organist and church composer ⁃ english madrigalist ⁃ As Vesta was Descending (1601) from “The Triumphes of Oriana” (a homage to Queen Elizabeth) ⁃ word painting • Ballett (“Fa-La”) ⁃ dance like song for several solo voices, same music for a stanza, simpler than madrigal, homophonic, fa la la refrain ⁃ melody in highest voice ⁃ Now is the Month of May - Thomas Morley 1595 ⁃ form: AABB each ending in falala refrain INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC • strong ties to vocal music; doubling or accompanying vocal parts • sometimes music was not written but simply adapted for instrumental parts • 16th century experienced growth in instrumental compositions •epP ⁃ dances - c i s um t r u o⁃ c pavane or galliard ⁃ Galliard - lively, complex (grouped in three) meter dance theme ⁃ aa’ bb’ cc’ a’ b’ c’ ⁃ Passamezzo - stately, simple (duple, grouped in two) meter dance theme ⁃ less complex form than Galliard: aa’ bb’ cc’ ⁃ Both contained and arranged by Michael Praetorius in Terpsichore: A collection of dance tunes. • Instruments grouped by function ⁃ familial classification of instruments ⁃ common instruments: trumpet, shawm (ancestor to oboe), early stringed instruments (violoncello), lutes, lyres, reeds SACRED MUSIC mostly choral works • Motet - shorter work set to latin text not in the Mass Ordinary ⁃ composed in both sacred and secular texts ⁃ Josquin Desprez (1440-1521) ⁃ flemish composer ⁃ Ave Maria virgo serena (1475) - four part motet ⁃ polyphonic texture shifts, lots of imitation, mostly duple meter, elongated musical emphasis on last passage • The Renaissance Mass - polyphonic, multi-movement work set to the texts of Mass Ordinary (see week 1 notes) Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯11 ⁃ G. P. da Palestrina (1525-1594) - church composer during counter reformation (catholic church vs. protestants) ⁃ 104 masses and 405 or more sacred works ⁃ Council of Trent (1545-1563) addressed future of church and church music ⁃ wanted to revert to chant (still remains official music of Catholic church until 1960’s) because the music of the church had strayed from “appropriate” style and the council wanted an emphasis on the sacred texts and the understanding of those texts to highlight the spiritual influence of god in music; believed polyphony and secular influences muddied the meaning of the text ⁃ Palestrina’s music was an example of how polyphonic music could still be representative and formative to the catholic church and the future of catholicism in europe—his style was understandable yet still played into complex harmonic structure and music’s progress. music is “calm and contemplative”; studied in theory classes by music students today ⁃ Pope Marcellus Mass - 1562-63 “Savior of Polyphony” ⁃ in honor of Pope Marcellus, who reigned during Palestrina’s years in the papal choir ⁃ 6 voices (SATTBB) a cappella e i r y ⁃ K ⁃ chant like - represents ideals of council of trent ⁃ three sections (follows text) ⁃ growing texture ▯ Countermelody ♪ A - Why am I the only one clapping? • When to clap ⁃ After a piece has ended - including all movements, sections, cadences, fermatas, and whatever else that is a false pretense to the actual, bonafide “finale” of a piece ⁃ don’t clap when you think it’s done, clap when it’s over. staying silent is still a relatively late idea though - it used to be that the audience would react to each movement- benefit to waiting, because you can see relationships between pieces without interruptions • Construction of a piece KRO W EGRA ⁃ L ⁃ movement I ⁃ complete by itself in a way, but usually belong to the set ⁃ self contained section, or part of a larger musical structure ⁃ movement II ⁃ description of movement is usually in title; describes tempo or effective style ⁃ movement III . c t⁃ e • Why do we have pieces like these? ⁃ Masses - have parts that don’t change (mass ordinary), various musical settings, composers, etc. separated by time and text, language, function (liturgical calendar). Used to enhance prayers, structure the chronological order of a mass. ⁃ kyrie - in greek, rest in latin ⁃ credo - pretty long Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯12 ⁃ Dance suite - longer, multi movement suite composed to keep people dancing and entertained, make it seem as if musical works have similar ideas/motifs, belong together ⁃ similar to DJing - how keys are changed, synths are blended into one another, matching up lyrics and mashups and remixes to make people stay on the floor ⁃ transition to concert music • Large works ⁃ themes represented in each movement based on a motif or musical idea. ⁃ relationships between keys - major, relative minors, modes, etc. ⁃ overarching dramatic structure - somewhat of a storyline established ⁃ extramusical subject matter ⁃ being set to a ballet? ⁃ based around interpretation of text but set to instruments ⁃ Examples ⁃ Green Day - A lot of albums are concept albums, music follows an overarching dramatic line like in 21st century breakdown, in which “Jesus” is the main character, essentially a pseudo-satirical album on punk culture, suburban burn- out life, the modern impact of the US war in the 2000’s, and based loosely around biblical stories. If you look at the full album, you’ll see that it follows a story line—some songs are even reprised (like viva la gloria). 21 Guns even has a music video with full concept by green day, which kind of shows the story behind 21st century breakdown’s writing. You listed ⁃ Schubert Winterreise - “Winter Travels” a song cycle (poems set to voice and accompaniment that tell a story) in which a man reflects on his love in winter, his realization that he will never see the woman he loves again, overarching german themes of winter synonymous to death and/or the end of something, opposite of spring and may, the beginning of love and all things being beautiful. B - Words and Music • Why does music have so many words? Why are words set to music so often? Is it more effective to say words or simply listen to music? • Lyricism of music eventually presented itself to composers; think how chant evolved. Natural rhythm and melody of words eventually became accentuated and highlighted (declamation), creating music. ⁃ musical emphasis and textual emphasis differ; think of strong syllables and how regular they are in each (more irregular in text) • Words set to music are set in these ways: ⁃ Syllabic - one note per syllable ⁃ promotes clarity of the text ⁃ emphasis on certain words ⁃ Melismatic - multiple notes per syllable ⁃ not as clear as syllabic ⁃ more emphasis on musical elements. • We also set words to music when music can be representative of subtext • What to listen for ⁃ understanding text ⁃ clear meaning - both concrete and subtextual ⁃ music’s enhancement to text - diminish the meaning or accentuate it? ⁃ what is the more important element, music or words? ⁃ emphasized moments in each music and words, and whether or not they unify Modules 1 - 3 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯13 ⁃ piece? How does it change?sic unfolds? What is the message portrayed by the whole ▯ ▯ Thanks for reading these study notes! Good luck! Any questions or comments? visit find more notes on Music Lit, Theory, and History on Studysoup! ▯ need more study guides? ▯ Study Guide no. 1 of 4 contains: Module 1 through 3 Released Feb. 1st ▯ Study Guide no. 2 of 4 contains: Module 4 through 6 Released Feb 22nd ▯ *Mid-Course Study Guide* contains: Module 1 through 6 Released Feb. 22nd ▯ Study Guide no. 3 of 4 contains: Module 7 through 9 Released March 7th ▯ Study Guide no. 4 of 4 contains: Module 10 through 12 Released Mar 21st ▯ *End-Course Study Guide* contains: Module 7-12 Released March 21st ▯ ULTIMATE STUDY GUIDE contains: Module 1 through 12 released March 21st


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