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Social Psych 206 Bundle Weeks 1-4

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by: Casey B

Social Psych 206 Bundle Weeks 1-4 Social Psych 206

Casey B

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Three PowerPoints: * Introduction of Social Psych * Research Methods * Group Processes
Social Psychology
Mitsuru Shimizu
social psych, SIUe
75 ?




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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Casey B on Monday February 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Social Psych 206 at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Mitsuru Shimizu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Social Psychology: Personality Psych vs. Social Psych: personality psych: focus on individual difference in social behavior social psych: focus on individual on situational factors underling social behavior Sociology vs. Social psych: sociology: focus on group level and the relation between people’s behavior and societal variables such as social class social psych: focus on psychological processes underling social behavior Two axioms of social psych: situationism: our behavior is dramatically shaped by the behavior of others constructivism: we actively create and construe much of what we perceive **Stockholm Syndrome- hostages express empathy and sympathy towards their captors by agreeing with them **Self-Fulfilling Prophecy- process by which ones expectations about a person eventually lead that person to behave in ways that that confirm the expectations Social situations dramatically shaped our behavior- including behavior that we don't malleable. Things as important as conformity, and intellectual performance are subject to subtle but potent social influences. Group serving bias: * there is no one objective physical or social reality out there, instead much of our expectations such as... we construe and create more of what we perceive. * Norms, schemata, scripts, stereotypes, etc. A (affect) B (behavior) C (cognition) Descriptive Research: Case study: systematic analysis of a particular person or group of people, which is often used for generating new theories single-variable research: research designed to describe a single specific property of a large group (a) census (b) population survey (c) single-variable research in convenience sample Multi-variable research: approach in which researchers gather a set of observations about a group of people and test for associations between different variables. (e.g. correlational study) -However, correlational studies do not show causality. Researchers want to see: (1) watching violent cartoons causes aggressive behavior (2) kids who are violent tend to watch violent cartoons - reverse causality (3) permissive parents are more likely to allow their kids to watch violent cartoons and less likely to scold at them when the show aggressive behavior confounds or third variables Experiments: - a research design in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to conditions and manipulates one or more independent variables and then observes the consequences for one or more dependent variables. * To understand causes or processes underlying social behavior, we usually conduct experiments. Anytime experiments must have at least two groups of participants: (a) experimental group- receives the treatment or change (b) control group- it stays the same, nothing changes. Factorial Design: * designs that have at least two independent variables that completely crossed. * Factorial designs are usually to see if two (or more) variables work together (Example) IV1: watching violent cartoons vs. nonviolent cartoons IV2: low social status target vs. high social status target **One weakness of true experiments is low in external validity, because they are artificial Mundane Realism: degree to which the physical setting in an experiment is similar to the real world setting. Generally, field experiment is high in mundane realism Experimental (psychological) realism: degree to which the subjective experiences of research participants are realistic or psychologically meaningful. Qusai-experiments: * social psychologists often make use of qusai-experiments in which they manipulate at least one independent variable and measure at least one of the intendant variable Ethics in social psychological research: * 1958 APA published the first version of ethical codes. Five Codes: (1) informed consent (2) freedom of coercion (3) protection from harm (4) risk-benefit rule (5) debriefing (1) Informed Consent: * before participants agree to take part in research, they must be informed with all the potential risks of the research. -> It is used to provide Freedom of choice and reduce psychological stress from participation in the research (2) Freedom of Coercion: * no undue pressure should be placed on participants to take part in study. -> Researcher needs to be aware of the power differential between the researcher and the participants. (3) Protection from Harm: * researchers may not knowingly place participants in any kind of meaningfully risky situation -> participants privacy is always protected (4) The Risk-Benefit Rule; * kinds of risks to which people can be exposed during research shouldn't be greater -> even if a study exposes participants to only very small risks, researchers must consider the benefit must always outweigh the risks. (5) Debriefing; * whenever possible, participants should leave the study in a psychological state that is at least as positive as the state in which they showed up Deception in Research (APA, 1992) * studies involving deception are not conducted unless it has been determined that the use of deceptive techniques is justified by the study's prospective scientific educational or applied value. * Researchers never deceive participants about significant aspects that would affect their willingness to participant. Group Processes: (1) Characteristics of group (2) Social facilitation (3) social loafing (4) deindividuation (5) group performance (6) group polarization (7) group think (8) intergroup conflict (1) Group: set of individuals who interact over time & have shared fate and goals Why Join a Group: * important part of people`s feelings of self-worth comes their identification with particular groups. > social identity theory- people favor ungroup self-esteem > need to belong Norms: * rules for accepted & behavior formal * could be formal or informal * influenced by culture but some norms are universal Roles: * set of norms that define how people in a given social position caught to behave * could be formal or informal * set of clear roles is beneficial to a group Cohesiveness: * extent to which members of a group are bound together * influenced by size, group pride, commitment to the group task, number and intensity of interaction * generally group performance improves (2) Triplett (1897) * later found out that sometimes the presence of others enhanced performance; presence of others enhanced performance at other time, performance declined * Social facilitation: process Where by the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult tasks Zajonc (1965) * presence of others create general physiological arousal which energizes behavior * increased arousal enhances an individual's performance of easy tasks but interferes the performance of difficult tasks > easy tasks are dominance response * Mere presence theory: of others is sufficient to produce social facilitation effects Two alternative explanations (theories) 1) Evaluation apprehension theory (Hench+Glass 1968) -> Performance will be enhanced, or impaired, only in the presence of others who are in a position to evaluate that performance 2) distraction-conflict theory (sanders, 1981): -> being distracted while individuals are working on a task creates -> Attentional conflicts Blascovich et al (1999): * Challenge and threat are a function of evaluations of perceived situational demand and perceived personal resources >challenge: resources > demands > Threat: resources < demands * Challenge results in activations of the sumpathetic-adenomedullary (SAM), increased cardiac function and dilation of blood vessels > higher cardiac output and lower total peripheral resistance * Threat results in activations of both the SAM and pituitary-adrenocortical (PAC) inhibiting dilation > in changed cardiac output and higher total peripheral resistance *when individuals perform well-learned tasks in the presence of others they should show greater challenge response - interferes with easy tasks * When individuals perform unlearned tasks in the presence of others, they should show greater threat response - interferes with difficult tasks (3) Ringel man (1913) * When a group of men were asked to pull on a rope, they each pulled less hard than when pulling alone * Social loafing: tendency for individuals to exert less effort when they work in a group than when they work alone (Key element)- Perception that individual efforts are unnecessary Theories:  Social impact theory: group size increases each member less responsible for the task being performed  Collective effect model: individuals will exert effort on a collective task to the degree that they think their individual efforts will be important and meaningful for reaching group goals How to fix it: a. Make individuals contributions identifiable b. Make individuals feel valuable c. Keep groups small as possible (4) Deindividuation: * Loss of a person’s sense of individually and the reduction of normal constrains against bad behavior * It plays a huge role in social loafing * Also fuels aggressive behavior Circumstances that elicit deindividuation: a. Group size b. Physical anonymity c. Arousing and distracting activities ** But, remember deindividuation sometimes influences people for better  Recall Milgram’s obedience study o Follow-up study found anonymous participants wearing KKK costumes delivered more electric stocks  Anonymous people wearing nurses costumes received less (5) Types of tasks: * Addictive tasks: group product is the sum of all the members * Conjunctive tasks: group product is determined by the member with the lowest performance * Disjunctive tasks: group product is determined by the member with the highest performance **setting group goals helps**  Leadership: process through which one member of a group influences other group members towards reaching group goals Contingency models of leadership:  Task oriented leaders: focus on getting it done  Relationship oriented leaders: focus on friendly relationships with their followers Normative model of leadership:  Autocratic leaders: make decisions unilaterally  Declarative leaders: ask others to make decisions  Democratic leaders: invite input from followers Other leadership styles:  Directive-permissive dimension: dictate but ask for input  Directive leaders: dictate how followers should carry out assigned tasks  Transactional leader: gains compliance and support form followers primarily through goal setting and rewards  Permissive leaders: give followers the freedom to work as they wish  Transformational leader: inspires followers to transcend their own needs in the interest of a common sense


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