New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

chapter 1-6

by: Kasi Greer

chapter 1-6 2605

Kasi Greer

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Introduction Law & Ethics Terminology Administration of Medicine Basic Mathematics Measurement Systems
Intro To Pharm
Matthew Ozanich
75 ?




Popular in Intro To Pharm

Popular in Applied Mathematics

This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Kasi Greer on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 2605 at Youngstown State University taught by Matthew Ozanich in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Intro To Pharm in Applied Mathematics at Youngstown State University.

Popular in Applied Mathematics


Reviews for chapter 1-6


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/02/16
YOUNGSTOWN STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS COLLEGE OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COURSE: INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOLOGY COURSE CODE: 22941 CATALOG: MATEC 2605 SPRING 2016 Instructor: Matt Ozanich, MHHS, NRP  Office: Cushwa Hall Room #1116  Office Hours: By Appointment Only  Department Phone: (330) 941­3327  Class Site: Cushwa Hall Room#1408  Class Day/Time: Tuesday and Thursday 8:00­9:15 AM  E­Mail:  *Note: In the event needed to contact me outside of class or scheduled appointments,            Send a message via e­mail. Messages will be responded to in a timely fashion. * Chapter One Pharmacists are now in clinical hospitals to make sure patients medicines doesn’t cause any  reactions. Pharmacology is the study of drugs. A Drug is a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or  used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well­being.  E.g. A drug can be medication, or a plant   Can never create a reaction  ONLY alter the body normal processes Pharmacodynamics ­ effect of the drug on the body, as a mechanism of action (MOA) The adverse effect can will with the initial issue and also cause side effects. E.g. Pain medications can cause medication Dose­ effect relationship, other things that will affect the drug Concentration Drug effect  The drug is inserted into the body and begins to work. It then levels off and diminish  once the drug starts to wear off.  3 levels of the concentration drug effect 1. Overdose 2. Therapeutic Range 3. Under dose  To maintain in the Therapeutic Range, it is recommended that the patient is consistent  with taking the medication as directed.  Missing one dosage may not affect the body but it is not recommended to miss any dosages.   Overdosing is never good  Under dose will not affect the body, however it is not guaranteed to work Agonist­ binds to the receptor and causes action Antagonist­ binds to the receptor and prevents action Factors affecting drug actions: 1. Half­life (t ½)­ the amount of time the body takes to break down ½ of the drug dose  Duration of action correlates with half­life but is not exactly the same. 2. Age  Younger people have higher metabolism and elder people have lower metabolism.  Therefore younger people would need a higher dosage compared to an elder person 3. Gender  Male and females have different chemicals in their bodies 4. Body Weight  Dosage based of body mass, the heavier the higher the dosage and vice versa 5. Circadian Rhythm  Based off of daily activities. E.g. getting at least 8 hours of sleep? 6. Disease  Elderly are more common to develop diseases. Diseases have more of a strain on the  body and are more effective.  Pharmacokinetics ­ how the body gets rid of the drug Absorption Bioavailability Bioavailability­ how much of the drug can be used by the body. e.g.:  Opioid inserted into the body for pain Fentanyl through IV (vein) bioavailability is 100% is 100mcg. Fentanyl through IN (nasal) bioavailability is 50­70% is 50­70mcg. Fentanyl through IM (muscular) bioavailability is 90% is 90mcg. Fentanyl through topical (transdermal) bioavailability is 20­50% is 20­50mcg. If there is a bad peripheral the bioavailability will be low than a good peripheral that is higher Drug absorption: is the movement of a drug into the bloodstream after administration. This can  be affected by the coding; the coding causes the drug to last longer. Physiochemical properties of the drug are how easily the drug is broken down. Route of administration­ how the drug is inserted into the body  1  pass effect­ goes through the GI tract into the liver. After it is broken down it goes into the circadian effect. st  E.g. some antibiotics cannot be taken orally and some can. Those who can are called the 1   pass effect. Drug Distributions­ drugs that go where it can absorb.   E.g. Benzodiazepines­ cross blood­brain barriers because they are lipid soluble­ the  respiratory system. Drug Metabolism­ same drugs metabolize quicker   Acetochylotine ( faster) vs. Succinylcholine  (slower) Pharmcotherapeatics­ benefits the body will get from the drug. Toxicology­ review/ the study of the drug toxic properties. Biotransformation­ breaks down the drug to get rid of it  Oxidation­ loss of electron (e­)  Reduction­ gain of electron (e+)  Hydrolysis­ reaction with water (H2O)  Conjugation­adding weight for GI excretion Drug Excretion via:  Lungs­ anesthetics, deep breathing, cough, exercise  Urine  Sweat­ drink water, shower  Tears­ drink water, shower, chew gum  Saliva­ drink water, shower  Bile/feces  breastmilk Important terms:  overdose­ above the therapeutic dose/ more than what was Rx/ taking someone else’s  medicine  side effects­ non therapeutic effects/other reactions that the body can have  adverse effects­ type of side effects that is harmful  drug interactions­ idiosyncratic/ don’t know why the reaction with two drugs accrued  Synergism­both medicines (drugs) benefit each other.  Potentiation­ one medication makes the other more potent  Cumulative effect­ buildup of the drug over a period of time  Tolerance­ desensitization of the body to that medicine (drug) Chapter 2: Drug Law 19  century, virtually no regulation on drugs Pure food & Drug Act­ required detailed labeling Sulfanilamide (antibiotic) Disaster 1937  Led to 107 deaths  Drug used to treat streptococcal infections  Tablet and powder form  Diethylene glycol, a chemical normally used as an antifreeze Food Drug & Cosmetic Act­ required testing prior to marketing Thalidomide Disaster 1962  Helps pregnant women sleep  Babies were being born without limbs Controlled Substance Act 1970  Created 4 schedules of Drugs  Schedule 1: Most Addictive Drug Chapter 4: Medication Administration Pediatric (children) Consideration  Cooperation  Needles st  Demonstrate 1  Cover the pain  Equipment  Smaller  Burette (for premeasurements)  Dose  Weight based Geriatric (elderly) Consideration  Cooperation  Right to self­determination  Explain  Side effects  Options  Educate  Empathy  Equipment  Normal size (may be smaller than pediatrics)  Dose  Smaller (slower metabolism) Religious Beliefs  Always Ask!  Some cannot have medicine made with pork  Some do not believe in blood transfusions  OTC (over the counter) may cause interactions Rights of Medication Administrations: 1. Right Patient 2. Right Drug ( make sure the Pt isn’t allergic) 3. Right Dose 4. Right Route 5. Right Time 6. Right Technique 7. Right Documentation Routes of Drug Administration Enteral Route  GI area, stomach, intestines Oral Route  Oral Discentergated Tablets (ODT) – dissolves  Sublingual (needs saliva0 Buccal Route  Lozenges  Cheek & tongue area  NG/OG tubes – crushed to be put in the patient nasal/oral tube  Oral administrated in general (swallow pill, capsules, tablets, etc.) Parateral route  Skin area  Equipment used are different kinds of needles  Bevel (point of the needle)  Cannula (the “canal”)  Hub (the end of the needle, usually color coded)  Gauge/size ( the smaller the number, the larger the needle size is)  Ampules/vials Intradermal Route   Injected with a small needle at approx. 10º angle  Watch a wheal appear   Wheal is a red, swollen mark left on flesh by a blow or pressure  If the wheal goes away then no signs of TB  If the wheal does not go away then there is a sign of previous TB Subcutaneous (Sub­Q) Route  Injected with a small needle at approx. 45º angle Intramuscular Route  Pinch the skin and Injected with a small needle at 90º angle  If not pinched, the medicine can come back out  Pinch is also known as the Z route Intravenous Route  Injected with a small needle at approx. 30º angle  Inserted in the veins, straight to the vascular system  Only takes 5 seconds to travel to the heart ( Normally need two people for injection) Other Routes  Nasal routes ( most popular)  Transdermal (most popular)  Optic route  Ophthalmic route  Vaginal route  Rectal route  Inhalation route Chapter 5&6 kg < L > d > g > mg > mcg g to mg­ multiple by 1000 1g=1000mg Complex Fractions  fraction with in a fraction   Dose × patient weight (kg) × drip set× size of bag ÷ total dose in bag °F to °C subtract 32 then divide by 1.8 °C to °F multiple by 1.8 then add 32 Terms ­ We can convert between systems; however, it is less accurate. Limit the amount of conversions.  Apothecary (most outdated) ­ drains, fluidounces, grains. Fair accuracy e.g. antibiotics  Household (use to cook with) ­ tsp, tbsp., cups. Familiar to the general population. Less  accuracy  Metric (most preferred in medicine) ­ mg, g, kg, mL, L. Familiar to the general  population. Most accuracy Physicians Orders Convert the physicians order to find out the method of the pharmacist by cross multiplying then  cancel out any common measurements. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.