Hist Ch 12 & 13 notes
Hist Ch 12 & 13 notes HIST 1113
Popular in Survey of American History
Popular in History
This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Jasmine Bailey on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIST 1113 at Oklahoma State University taught by Nadeau, Peter Mark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History in History at Oklahoma State University.
Reviews for Hist Ch 12 & 13 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/02/16
CHAPTER 12 • The Reform Impulse 1. Utopian Communities 1. About 100 reform communities were established in the decades before the Civil War. 2. Nearly all the communities set out to reorganize society on a cooperative basis, hoping both to restore social harmony to a world of excessive individualism and also to narrow the widening gap between rich and poor. 1. Socialism and communism entered the language. 2. The Shakers 1. The Shakers were the most successful of the religious communities and had a significant impact on the outside world. 2. Shakers believed men and women were spiritually equal. 3. They abandoned private property and traditional family life. 3. The Mormons' Trek 1. The Mormons were founded in the 1820s by Joseph Smith. 2. The absolute authority Smith exercised over his followers, the refusal of the Mormons to separate church and state, and their practice of polygamy alarmed many neighbors. 3. Mormons faced persecution in New York, Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois; Smith was murdered. 4. Smith's successor, Brigham Young, led his followers to the Great Salt Lake. 4. Oneida 1. The founder of Oneida, John Noyes, and his followers practiced "complex marriage." 2. Oneida was an extremely dictatorial environment. 5. Worldly Communities 1. The most important secular communitarian was Robert Owen. 2. Owen established New Harmony, where he hoped to create a "new moral world" 3. At New Harmony, Owen championed women's rights and education. 6. Religion and Reform 1. Some reform movements drew their inspiration from the religious revivalism of the Second Great Awakening. 2. The revivals popularized the outlook known as perfectionism, which saw both individuals and society at large as capable of indefinite improvement. 3. Under the impact of the revivals, older reform efforts moved in a new, radical direction. 1. Prohibition, pacifism, and abolition 4. To members of the North's emerging middleclass culture, reform became a badge of respectability. 5. The American Temperance Society directed its efforts at both the drunkards and the occasional drinker. 7. Critics of Reform 1. Many Americans saw the reform impulse as an attack on their own freedom. 1. Catholics rallied against the temperance movement. 8. Reformers and Freedom 1. The vision of freedom expressed by the reform movements was liberating and controlling at the same time. 2. Many religious groups in the East formed reform groups promoting religious virtue. 9. The Invention of the Asylum 1. Americans embarked on a program of institution building. 1. Jails 2. Poorhouses 3. Asylums 4. Orphanages 2. These institutions were inspired by the conviction that those who passed through their doors could eventually be released to become productive, selfdisciplined citizens. 10. The Common School 1. A taxsupported state public school system was widely adopted. 2. Horace Mann was the era's leading educational reformer. 3. Mann hoped that universal public education could restore equality to a fractured society. 1. Avenue for social advancement 4. Common schools provided career opportunities for women but widened the divide between North and South. • The Crusade against Slavery 1. Colonization 1. The American Colonization Society (ACS), founded in 1816, promoted the gradual abolition of slavery and the settlement of black Americans in Africa. 1. The ACS founded Liberia as its colony in West Africa. 2. Many prominent political leaders supported the ACS. 3. Like Indian removal, colonization rested on the premise that America is fundamentally a white society. 4. Most AfricanAmericans adamantly opposed the idea of colonization. 1. In 1817, free blacks assembled in Philadelphia for the first national black convention and condemned colonization. 2. They insisted that blacks were Americans, entitled to the same rights enjoyed by whites. 2. Militant Abolitionism 1. A new generation of reformers demanded immediate abolition. 2. David Walker's An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World was a passionate indictment of slavery and racial prejudice. 3. The appearance in 1831 of The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison's weekly journal published in Boston, gave the new breed of abolitionism a permanent voice. 4. Some of Garrison's ideas appeared too radical, but his call for immediate abolition was echoed by many. 1. Garrison rejected colonization. 3. Spreading the Abolitionist Message 1. Abolitionists recognized the democratic potential in the production of printed material. 2. Theodore Weld helped to create the abolitionists' mass constituency by using the methods of religious revivals. 3. Weld and a group of trained speakers spread the message of slavery as a sin. 4. Slavery and Moral Suasion 1. Nearly all abolitionists, despite their militant language, rejected violence as a means of ending slavery. 2. Many abolitionists were pacifists, and they attempted to convince the slaveholder through "moral suasion" of his sinful ways. 5. A New Vision of America 1. The antislavery movement sought to reinvigorate the idea of freedom as a truly universal entitlement. 2. They insisted that blacks were fellow countrymen, not foreigners or a permanently inferior caste. 3. Abolitionists disagreed over the usefulness of the Constitution. 4. Abolitionists consciously identified their movement with the revolutionary heritage. 1. The Liberty Bell • Black and White Abolitionism 1. Black Abolitionists 1. From its inception, blacks played a leading role in the antislavery movement. 1. Frederick Douglass 2. Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin gave the abolitionist message a powerful human appeal as it was modeled on the autobiography of fugitive slave Josiah Henson. 3. By the 1840s, black abolitionists sought an independent role within the movement, regularly holding their own conventions 4. At every opportunity, black abolitionists rejected the nation's pretensions as a land of liberty. 5. Black abolitionists articulated the ideal of colorblind citizenship. 6. Frederick Douglass famously questioned the meaning of the Fourth of July. 2. Gentlemen of Property and Standing 1. Abolitionism aroused violent hostility from northerners who feared that the movement threatened to disrupt the Union, interfere with profits wrested from slave labor, and overturn white supremacy. 2. Editor Elijah Lovejoy was killed by a mob while defending his press. 3. Mob attacks and attempts to limit abolitionists' freedom of speech convinced many northerners that slavery was incompatible with the democratic liberties of white Americans. • The Origins of Feminism 1. The Rise of the Public Woman 1. Women were instrumental in the abolition movement. 2. The public sphere was open to women in ways government and party politics were not. 2. Women and Free Speech 1. Women lectured in public about abolition. 1. Grimké sisters 2. The Grimké sisters argued against the idea that taking part in assemblies, demonstrations, and lectures was unfeminine. 3. Letters on the Equality of the Sexes (1838) 1. Equal pay for equal work 3. Women's Rights 1. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organized the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848. 1. Raised the issue of woman suffrage 2. The Declaration of Sentiments condemned the entire structure of inequality. 4. Feminism and Freedom 1. Lacking broad backing at home, early feminists found allies abroad. 2. Women deserved the range of individual choices and the possibility of self realization that constituted the essence of freedom. 3. Margaret Fuller sought to apply to women the transcendentalist idea that freedom meant a quest for personal development. 5. Women and Work 1. The participants at Seneca Falls rejected the identification of the home as the women's "sphere." 1. The "bloomer" costume 6. The Slavery of Sex 1. The concept of the "slavery of sex" empowered the women's movement to develop an allencompassing critique of male authority and their own subordination. 2. Marriage and slavery became powerful rhetorical tools for feminists. 7. "Social Freedom" 1. The demand that women should enjoy the rights to regulate their own sexual activity and procreation and to be protected by the state against violence at the hands of their husbands challenged the notion that claims for justice, freedom, and individual rights should stop at the household's door. 2. The issue of women's private freedom revealed underlying differences within the movement for women's rights. 8. The Abolitionist Schism 1. When organized abolitionism split into two wings in 1840, the immediate cause was a dispute over the proper role of women in antislavery work. 1. American AntiSlavery Society (favored women in leadership positions) 2. American and Foreign AntiSlavery Society (opposed women in leadership positions) 2. The Liberty Party was established in hopes of making abolitionism a political movement. CHAPTER 13 • Fruits of Manifest Destiny 1. Continental Expansion 1. In the 1840s, slavery moved to the center stage of American politics because of territorial expansion. 2. The Mexican Frontier: New Mexico and California 1. Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821. 1. The northern frontier of Mexico was California, New Mexico, and Texas. 2. California's nonIndian population in 1821 was vastly outnumbered by Indians. 3. The Texas Revolt 1. The first part of Mexico to be settled by significant numbers of Americans was Texas. 1. Moses Austin 2. Alarmed that its grip on the area was weakening, the Mexican government in 1830 annulled existing land contracts and barred future emigration from the United States. 1. Stephen Austin led the call from American settlers demanding greater autonomy within Mexico. 3. General Antonio López de Santa Anna sent an army in 1835 to impose central authority. 4. Rebels formed a provisional government that soon called for Texan independence. 1. The Alamo 2. Sam Houston 5. Texas desired annexation by the United States, but neither Jackson nor Van Buren took action because of political concerns regarding adding another slave state. 4. The Election of 1844 1. The issue of Texas annexation was linked to slavery and affected the nominations of presidential candidates. 1. Clay and Van Buren agreed to keep Texas out of the presidential campaign. 2. James Polk, a Tennessee slaveholder and friend of Jackson, received the Democratic nomination instead of Van Buren. 1. Supported Texas annexation 2. Supported "reoccupation" of all of Oregon 5. The Road to War 1. Polk had four clearly defined goals: 1. Reduce the tariff 2. Reestablish the Independent Treasury system 3. Settle the Oregon dispute 4. Bring California into the Union 2. Polk initiated war with Mexico to get California. 6. The War and Its Critics 1. Although the majority of Americans supported the war, a vocal minority feared the only aim of the war was to acquire new land for the expansion of slavery. 1. Henry David Thoreau wrote "On Civil Disobedience." 2. Abraham Lincoln questioned Polk's right to declare war. 7. Combat in Mexico 1. Combat took place on three fronts. 1. California and the "bear flag republic" 2. General Stephen Kearney and Santa Fe 3. Winfield Scott and central Mexico 2. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848 8. Race and Manifest Destiny 1. A region that for centuries had been united was suddenly split in two, dividing families and severing trade routes. 1. "Male citizens" were guaranteed American rights. 2. Indians were described as "savage tribes." 2. Territorial expansion gave a new stridency to ideas about racial superiority. 3. Mexico had abolished slavery and declared persons of Spanish, Indian, and African origin equal before the law. 4. The Texas constitution adopted after independence not only included protections for slavery but denied civil rights to Indians and persons of African origin. 9. GoldRush California 1. California's goldrush population was incredibly diverse. 2. The explosive population growth and fierce competition for gold worsened conflicts among California's many racial and ethnic groups. 3. The boundaries of freedom in California were tightly drawn. 1. Indians, Asians, and blacks were all prohibited basic rights. 2. Thousands of Indian children, declared orphans, were bought and sold as slaves. 10. Opening Japan 1. The U.S. navy's commodore Matthew Perry sailed warships into Tokyo Harbor and demanded that Japan negotiate a trade treaty with the United States (1853 1854). 2. Japan opened two ports to U.S. merchant ships in 1854. 3. The United States was interested in Japan primarily as a refueling stop on the way to China. • A Dose of Arsenic 1. The Wilmot Proviso 1. In 1846, Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed a resolution prohibiting slavery from all territory acquired from Mexico. 2. In 1848, opponents of slavery's expansion organized the Free Soil Party. 1. The party nominated Martin Van Buren for president. 2. The Free Soil Appeal 1. The free soil position had a popular appeal in the North because it would limit southern power in the federal government. 2. The Free Soil platform of 1848 called for barring slavery from western territories and for the federal government providing homesteads to settlers without cost. 3. Many southerners considered singling out slavery as the one form of property barred from the West to be an affront to them and their way of life. 4. The admission of new free states would overturn the delicate political balance between the sections and make the South a permanent minority. 3. Crisis and Compromise 1. 1848 was a year of revolution in Europe, only to be suppressed by counterrevolution. 2. With the slavery issue appearing more and more ominous, established party leaders moved to resolve differences between the sections. 3. The Compromise of 1850 included: 1. Admission of California as a free state 2. Abolition of the slave trade (not slavery itself) in the District of Columbia 3. Stronger Fugitive Slave law 4. In the Mexican Cession territories, local white inhabitants would determine the status of slavery. 4. The Great Debate 1. Powerful leaders spoke for and against the Compromise: 1. Daniel Webster (for the Compromise) 2. John C. Calhoun (against the Compromise) 3. William Seward (against the Compromise) 2. President Taylor, Compromise opponent, died in office, and the new president, Millard Fillmore, secured the adoption of the Compromise. 5. The Fugitive Slave Issue 1. The Fugitive Slave Act allowed special federal commissioners to determine the fate of alleged fugitives without benefit of a jury trial or even testimony by the accused individual. 2. In a series of dramatic confrontations, fugitives, aided by abolitionist allies, violently resisted capture. 3. The fugitive slave law also led several thousand northern blacks to flee to safety in Canada. 6. Douglas and Popular Sovereignty 1. Franklin Pierce won the 1852 presidential election. 2. Stephen Douglas introduced a bill to establish territorial governments for Nebraska and Kansas so that a transcontinental railroad could be constructed. 1. Slavery would be settled by popular sovereignty (territorial voters, not Congress, would decide). 7. The KansasNebraska Act 1. Under the Missouri Compromise, slavery had been prohibited in the Kansas Nebraska area. 2. The Appeal of the Independent Democrats was issued by antislavery congressmen opposed to the KansasNebraska bill because it would potentially open the area to slavery. 3. The KansasNebraska Act became law. 1. Democrats were no longer unified as many northern Democrats opposed the bill. 2. The Whig Party collapsed. 3. The South became solidly Democratic. 4. The Republican Party emerged to prevent the further expansion of slavery. • The Rise of the Republican Party 1. The Northern Economy 1. The rise of the Republican Party reflected underlying economic and social changes. 1. Railroad network 2. By 1860, the North had become a complex, integrated economy. 3. Two great areas of industrial production had arisen: 1. Northeastern seaboard 2. Great Lakes region 2. The Rise and Fall of the KnowNothings 1. In 1854 the American, or KnowNothing, Party emerged as a political party appealing to antiCatholic and, in the North, antislavery sentiments. 3. The Free Labor Ideology 1. Republicans managed to convince most northerners (antislavery Democrats, Whigs, Free Soilers, and KnowNothings) that the "slave power" posed a more immediate threat to their liberties. 1. This appeal rested on the idea of free labor. 2. Free labor could not compete with slave labor, and so slavery's expansion had to be halted to ensure freedom for the white laborer. 3. Republicans as a whole were not abolitionists. 4. "Bleeding Kansas" and the Election of 1856 1. Bleeding Kansas seemed to discredit Douglas's policy of leaving the decision of slavery up to the local populationthus, aiding the Republicans. 1. Civil war within Kansas 2. Charles Sumner 2. The election of 1856 demonstrated that parties had reoriented themselves along sectional lines. • The Emergence of Lincoln 1. The Dred Scott Decision 1. After having lived in free territories, the slave Dred Scott sued for his freedom. 2. The Supreme Court justices addressed three questions: 1. Could a black person be a citizen and therefore sue in federal court? 2. Did residence in a free state make Scott free? 3. Did Congress possess the power to prohibit slavery in a territory? 3. Speaking for the majority, Chief Justice Roger A. Taney declared that only white persons could be citizens of the United States. 4. Taney ruled that Congress possessed no power under the Constitution to bar slavery from a territory, so Scott was still a slave. 1. The decision in effect declared unconstitutional the Republican platform of restricting slavery's expansion. 5. President Buchana wanted to admit Kansas as a slave state under the Lecompton Constitution; Stephen Douglas attempted to block the attempt. 2. Lincoln and Slavery 1. In seeking reelection, Douglas faced an unexpectedly strong challenge from Abraham Lincoln. 2. Lincoln's speeches combined the moral fervor of the abolitionists with the respect for order and the Constitution of more conservative northerners. 3. The LincolnDouglas Campaign 1. Lincoln campaigned against Douglas for Illinois's senate seat. 2. The LincolnDouglas debates remain classics of American political oratory. 1. To Lincoln, freedom meant opposition to slavery. 2. Douglas argued that the essence of freedom lay in local selfgovernment and individual selfdetermination. 3. Douglas asserted at the Freeport debate that popular sovereignty was compatible with the Dred Scott decision. 3. Lincoln shared many of the racial prejudices of his day. 4. Douglas was reelected by a narrow margin. 4. John Brown at Harpers Ferry 1. An armed assault by the abolitionist John Brown on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, further heightened sectional tensions. 2. Placed on trial for treason to the state of Virginia, Brown's execution turned him into a martyr to much of the North. 5. The Rise of Southern Nationalism 1. More and more southerners were speaking openly of southward expansion. 1. Ostend Manifesto 2. William Walker and filibustering 2. By the late 1850s, southern leaders were bending every effort to strengthen the bonds of slavery. 6. The Election of 1860 1. The Democratic Party was split with its nomination of Douglas in 1860 and the southern Democrats' nomination of John Breckinridge. 2. Republicans nominated Lincoln over William Seward. 1. Lincoln appealed to many voters. 3. The Republican party platform: 1. Denied the validity of the Dred Scott decision 2. Opposed slavery's expansion 3. Added economic initiatives 4. In effect, two presidential campaigns took place in 1860. 5. The most striking thing about the election returns was their sectional character. 6. Without a single vote in ten southern states, Lincoln was elected the nation's sixteenth president. • The Impending Crisis 1. The Secession Movement 1. Rather than accept permanent minority status in a nation governed by their opponents, Deep South political leaders boldly struck for their region's independence. 2. In the months that followed Lincoln's election, seven states, stretching from South Carolina to Texas, seceded from the Union. 2. The Secession Crisis 1. President Buchanan denied that a state could secede, but also insisted that the federal government had no right to use force against it. 2. The Crittenden plan for sectional compromise was rejected by Lincoln because it allowed for the expansion of slavery. 3. The Confederate States of America was formed before Lincoln's inauguration by the seven states that had seceded. 1. Jefferson Davis as President 3. And the War Came 1. Lincoln also issued a veiled warning: "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war." 2. After the Confederates began the Civil War by firing on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, Lincoln called for 75,000 troops to suppress the insurrection. 3. Four Upper South states (Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) seceded and joined the Confederacy rather than aid Lincoln in suppressing the rebellion.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'