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Date Created: 03/09/14
Ch 3 Morphology The Words of Language Lexicon mental dictionary Orthography the spelling of a word Grammatical category or syntactic class whether a word is a noun pronoun verb adjective adverb preposition or a conjunction Lexicographers dictionary makers Content words words that denote concepts such as objects actions attributes and ideas that we can think about nouns verbs adjectives and adverbs are content words 0 Aka open class words because we can add new words to these classes Function words specify grammatical relations and have little or no semantic relating to meaning content conjunctions prepositions articles and pronouns o Aka closed class words because new words aren39t added Slips ofthe tongue distinction from language acquisition 0 quotthe journal of the editor instead of quotthe editor of the journalquot morpheme the most elemental unit of grammatical form derived from Greek word morphe meaning quotform aka linguistic sign an arbitrary random union ofa sound and a meaning when you know a word or morpheme you know both its form soundgesture and its meaning morphology study of the internal structure of words and of the rules by which words are formed monomorphemic word a single morpheme discreteness one of the fundamental properties of human language 0 sounds units form morphemes o morphemes form words 0 words form larger units phrases and sentences Bound and Free Morphemes free morphemes constitute words by themselves 0 ex boy desire gentle man bound morphemes never words by themselves but are always parts of words 0 ex ish ness ly pre affix a bound morpheme attached to a stem or root 0 prefix occur before other morphemes o suffix follow other morphemes OOOO Infixes infixes morphemes that are inserted into other morphemes 0 ex um in Bontoc a Filipino language Circumfixes circumfixes morphemes that are attached to a base morpheme both initially and finally 0 aka discontinuous morphemes 0 ex ik and o in a Muskkogean language Roots and Stems root may or may not stand alone as a word stem formed when a root morpheme is combined with an affix base any root or stem to which an affix is attached Bound Roots bound roots do not occur in isolation and acquire meaning only in combination with other morphemes 0 ex receive conceive perceive share the root quotceivequot but this morpheme has no independent meaning 0 ex er est Rules ofWord Formation morphological rules rules for combining morphemes to form stems and words 0 Adjective ify 9 Verb quotto make Adjective o Verb cation 9 Noun quotthe process of making Adjective Derivational Morphology Derivational morphemes when added to a base a new word with a new meaning is derived 0 Ex ify and cation Derived word the form that results from the addition of a derivational morpheme Blocked a derivation that is prevented by a prior application of morphological rules 0 Ex when Commun ist entered the language words such as Commun ite or Commun ian were not neededformed In ectional Morphology In ectional morphemes bound morphemes that have a strictly grammatical function and mark properties such as tense number person and so forth 0 Represent relationships between different parts of a sentence 0 Ex thirdperson singular verbal suffix s 0 Ex the suffix ed 0 Unlike derivational morphemes these are productive meaning they apply freely to nearly every appropriate base Productive refers to morphological rules that can be used freely and apply to all forms to create new words 0 Ex the addition to an adjective of ish meaning quothaving somewhat ofthe qualityquot such as newish tallish Suppletive forms a term used to refer to in ected morphemes in which the regular rules do not apply 0 Ex quotwent as the past tense of quotgoquot Case the grammatical relation ofa noun in a sentence Case morphology the process in which case is marked by in ectional morphemes Reduplication in ecting a word through the repetition ofpart or all ofthe word Hierarchical structure Morphological rules 1 Noun atic 9 Adjective 2 Un Adjective 9 Adjective 3 Adjective a1 9 Adjective 4 Adjective 1y 9 Adverb Rule Productivity Suppletive forms a term used to refer to in ected morphemes in which the regular rules do not apply 0 Ex quotwent as the past tense of quotgoquot Accidental gaps aka lexical gaps phonological or morphological form that constitutes possible but nonoccurring lexical items wellformed but nonexisting words 0 Ex quotblickquot quotunsadquot Possible words aka nonsense word a string of sounds that obeys the phonotactic constraints ofthe language but has no meaning 0 Ex quotgimblequot Other Morphological Processes Backformations creation ofa new word by removing an affix from an old word or by removing what is mistakenly considered an affix 0 Ex quotdonatequot from quotdonationquot quoteditquot from quoteditorquot 0 Verb burgle was formed under mistaken assumption that burglar was burgle er Compounds formed by uniting two or more root words in a single word Head ofthe compound the rightmost word in a compound bears the basic meaning 0 Ex quothomeworkquot means a work done at home Ch 4 Syntax The Sentence Patterns of Language Syntax the part of grammar that represents a speaker39s knowledge of sentences and their structures Rules of syntax combine words into phrases and phrases into sentences Grammatical relation any of several structural positions that a noun phrase may assume in a sentence 0 Subject the grammatical relation of a noun phrase to a Sentence when it appears immediately below that S in a phrase structure tree 0 Direct object the relation of a noun phrase when it appears below the verb phrase and next to the verb in deep structure Structural ambiguity the phenomenon in which the same sequence ofwords has two or more meanings that is accounted for by different phrase structure analyses Sentence Structure Tree diagram a graphical representation of the linear and hierarchical structure of a phrase or sentence Constituents and Constituency Tests Constituents a syntactic unit in a phrase structure tree 0 Ex quotthe girl is a noun phrase constituent in quotthe boy loves the girl Constituent structure Syntactic Categories Syntactic category aka parts of speech Noun phrase NP the syntactic category ofexpressions containing some form ofa noun or ponoun as its head and which functions as the subject or as various objects in a sentence Verb phrase VP the syntactic category of expressions that contains a verb as its head along with its complements such as noun phrases and prepositional phrases Prepositional phrase PP the syntactic category consisting ofa prepositional head and a noun phrase complement 0 Ex quotwith a keyquot quotinto the battle Determiner the syntactic category also functional category of words and expressions which when combined with a noun form a noun phrase 0 Includes the articles quotthequot and quota 0 Includes demonstratives quotthis and quotthat 0 Includes quantifiers quoteachquot and quoteveryquot Demonstrative words such as quotthis that those and these that function syntactically as articles but are semantically meaning deictic because context is needed to determine the referent of the noun phrase in which they occur Auxiliary verb verbal elements helping verbs that cooccur with the main verb in a verb phrase with regard to properties as tense 0 Ex quothavequot quotbe will Modals an auxiliary verb other than be have and do 0 Ex can could will would must Functional categories one of the categories of function words including determiner Aux complementizer and preposition o Are not lexical or phrasal categories Phrase structure tree aka constituent structure tree a tree diagram with syntactic categories at each node that reveals both the linear and hierarchical structure of phrases and sentences also represents the identification of the syntactic categories of words I ll PS rules 1 S 9 NP VP 2 NP 9 DetN 3 VP 9 VNP 4 VP 9 V VP 9 V PP recursive rule PP 9 P NP VP 9 V CP CP 9 C S 9 NP 9 NP PP Embedded sentence a sentence that occurs within a sentence in a phrase structure tree 0 Ex You know that sheepdogs cannot read Complementizer C a syntactic category also functional category of words including quotthat if whether that introduce an embedded sentence turns a sentence into a complement 0 Ex quothis belief that sheepdogs can swim 0 Ex quotI wonder if sheepdogs can swim Recursive rule a phrase structure rule that repeats its own category on its right side 0 Ex VP 9 VP PP hence permitting phrase structures of potentially unlimited length corresponding to that aspect of speakers linguistic competence I Linguistic competence the knowledge of a language represented by the mental grammar that accounts for speakers linguistic ability and creativity unconscious knowledge 9 P Squot Heads and Complements Head the word whose lexical category defines the type ofphrase the noun in a noun phrase the verb in a verb phrase etc Complement sister categories ofthe head complete the meaning ofthe phrase Selection Intransitive verb a verb that must not have a direct object complement 0 Ex quotsleepquot quotrise Cselection Csubcategorization the classifying ofverbs and other lexical items in terms ofthe syntactic category of the complements that they accept the info about the complement types selected by particular verbs and other lexical items C stands for categorial 0 Ex the verb quotfind Cselects or is subcategorized for a noun phrase complement Sselection the classifying ofverbs and other lexical items in terms ofthe semantic category ofthe head and complements that they accept S stands for semantic 0 Ex the verb quotassassinate Sselects for a human subject and a prestigious human NP complement 0 Ex the verb quotquaffquot requires its subject to be animate and its object liquid T tense a term sometimes used in place ofAux the syntactic category that is the head ofTP tense phrase or sentence S TP tense phrase a term sometimes used in place of sentence S a phrasal category whose head is Aux Xbar schema a template blueprint that specifies how the phrases of a language are organized Xbar theory a universal schema specifying that the internal organization of all phrasal categories ie NP PP VP TPS AdjP AdvP can be broken down into three levels eg NP N and N Specifier the category ofthe left sister ofX in xbar theory eg a determiner in an NP or an adverb in a VP it is a modifier ofthe head and is often optional 0 Ex quotthe mother ofames Whistler specifier ofthe NP the 0 Ex quotNellie s ball specifier s 0 Ex quotjust over the hill specifier just 0 Ex Betty made Iane wary ofsnakes Specifier ofthe APane 0 Ex I heard Pavarotti sing an aria Specifier of the VP Pavarotti The specifier and complements positions may also be empty as in the NP quotdogs with bones no specifier However the head is obligatory Node a point in a tree where branches join Sisters categories under the same node the complement is the sister ofthe head the specifier is the sister to the head complement complex Selection transitive verb requires a complement intransitive verb must not have a direct object complement Phrase Structure PS rules 1 S 9 NP VP 2 NP 9 Det N 3 N 9 N 4 VP 9 V 5 V 9V NP 6 V 9V PP 7 V 9V AP 8 N 9 N PP 9 PP 9 P 10 P 9 P NP 11AP 9A 12 A 9 A 13 A 9 A PP 14 N 9 A N 15 A 9 Int A repeating Intensifier Int within an AP creates structures of limitless size 16 V 9 V PP 17 N 9 N PP 18 V 9 AdvP V 19 V 9 V AdvP 20 V 9 V VP 21 CP 9 C 22 C 9 C TP Xbar Theory 1 Complement Rule X 9 X YP 2 Adjunct Rule X 9 X ZP OR X 9 ZP X 3 Specifier Rule XP 9 WP X Adjunct a phrasal category that is sister to an X and daughter of a higher X PPs inside NPs are always complements if they are headed by of PPs headed by with are typically adjuncts When complements and adjuncts both occur the complement must come first 0 quotOnereplacement test only nouns with adjuncts can be substituted for by one but nouns with true complements do not allow onereplacement I ex quota patient with a broken arm and one with a broken leg quota patient ofthe doctor and one ofthe chiropractor is NOT WELLFORMED For sentences or TPs the specifier is the subject ofthe sentence and the complement ofthe TP is a verb phrase or predicate The head T contains the tense pst and modal verbs like can or would Sentence Relatedness Coordinate structure a syntactic structure in which two or more constituents of the same syntactic category are joined by a conjunction such as quotand and quotor eg quotbread and butter quotthe big dog or the small cat Adjunction a movement operation that copies an existing node and creates a new level to which the moved category is appended Yesno questions are generated in two steps 1 PSrules implement the Xbar schema to generate a basic structure 2 Move applies to the basic structure to produce the derived structure Move a formal device that relocates the material in T before the subject NP Deep structures dstructures any phrase structure tree generated by the phrase structure rules of a transformational grammar the basic structures of sentences that conform to the Xbar schema Surface structures sstructures the structure that results from applying transformational rules to a dstructure the derived structures Structure dependent a principle that states that the application of transformational rules is determined by phrase structure properties as opposed to structureless sequences of words or specific sentences Sentences are organized according to two basic principles 1 Xbar schema derived constituent structure on the one hand 2 Syntactic dependencies derived from the lexical properties of individual words Cselection and S selection Wh questions 0 Ex quotWhat will Max chasequot The verb chase is transitive yet there is no direct object following it There is a gap where the direct object should be The grammaticality of a sentence with a gap depends on there being a wh phrase at the beginning ofthe sentence The wh phrase acts like the verbal object Max will chase what The wh expression is in the complement position quotLongdistancequot dependencies created by wh movement are a fundamental part of human language The TP is the complement to the complementizer phrase CP The head ofthe CP contains the abstract element Q for questions or Q for declaratives Spellout rules rules that convert abstract in ectional morphemes such as tense agreement and possessive into affixes UG Principles and Parameters Universal Grammar specifies that syntactic rules are structuredependent All languages have structures that conform to the Xbar schema All languages have phrases that consist of heads specifiers and complements that relate to each other Parameter points of variation among languages in which each defines for itself the relative order of constituents Topicalization a transformation that moves a syntactic element to the front of a sentence Ch 5 Semantics The Meaning of Language Meaning the conceptual or semantic aspect of a sign or utterance that permits us to comprehend the message being conveyed expressions in language have both 1 form pronunciation or gesture and 2 meaning Truth conditions the circumstances that must be known to determine whether a sentence is true and therefore part of the meaning or sense of declarative sentences Entails one sentence entails another if the truth of the first necessarily implies the truth of the second Semantics the study of the linguistic meaning of morphemes words phrases and sentences Lexical semantics concerned with the meanings ofwords Phrasal or sentential semantics concerned with the meaning of syntactic units larger than the word Pragmatics the study of how context affects meaning What Speakers Know About Sentence Meaning Truth conditional semantics a theory of meaning that takes the semantic knowledge of knowing when sentences are true and false as basic Compositional semantics a theory of meaning that calculates the truth value or meaning of larger units by the application of semantic rules to the truth value or meaning of smaller units Truth value true or false used to describe the truth of declarative sentences in context the reference of a declarative sentence in truth conditional semantics Tautology a sentence that is true in all situations aka analytic Analytic describes a sentence that is true by virtue of its meaning alone Contradictions describes a sentence that is false by virtue of its meaning alone Entailment and Related Notions Entailment the relationship between two sentences where the truth of one necessitates the truth of the other Ambiguity Principle of compositionality a principle of semantic interpretation that states that the meaning of a word phrase or sentence depends both on the meaning of its components morphemes words phrases and how they are combined structurally Compositional Semantics Proper name a word that refers to a person place or other entity with a unique reference known to the speaker and listener Referent the entity designated by an expression aka extension 0 The referent of Raleigh is the capital of CA is the truth value false Semantic Rule 1 states that a sentence composed of a subject NP and a predicate VP is true if the subject NP refers to an individual who is among the members of the set that constitute the meaning of the VP 0 Entirely general doesn39t refer to any particular sentence individuals or verbs Semantic Rule 11 establishes the meaning of the VP as a certain set of individuals When Compositionality Goes Awry Anomaly a violation of semantic rules resulting in expressions that seem nonsensical 0 Ex The verb crumpled the milk Metaphors nonliteral suggestive meaning in which an expression that designates one thing is used implicitly to mean something else 0 Ex The night has a thousand eyes meaning One may be unknowingly observed at night Idioms an expression whose meaning does not conform to the principle of compositionality that is may be unrelated to the meaning of its parts Anomalous semantically ill formed Uninterpretable describes an utterance whose meaning cannot be determined because of nonsense words Lexical Semantics Word Meanings Theories of Word Meaning 0 Reference aka extension tat part of the meaning of a noun phrase that associates it with some entity that part of the meaning of a declarative sentence that associates it with a truth value either true or false 0 Sense aka intension the inherent part of an expression s meaning that together with context determines its referent I Coreferential describes noun phrases that refer to the same entity Pragmatics Pragmatics concerned with our understanding of language in context Two kinds of contexts are relevant 1 linguistic context the discourse that precedes the phrase or sentence to be interpreted 2 situational context virtually everything nonlinguistic in the environment of the speaker Discourse analysis concerned with the broad speech units comprising multiple sentences More on Situational Context Situational context knowledge of who is speaking who is listening what objects are being discussed and general facts about the world we live in used to aid in the interpretation of meaning Maxims of Conversation certain conversational conventions 0 Maxim of quantity states that a speaker39s contribution to the discourse should be as informative as is required neither more nor less 0 Maxim of relevance a conversational convention that a speaker39s contribution to a discourse should always have a bearing on and a connection with the matter under discussion 0 Maxim of manner a conversational convention that a speaker39s discourse should be brief and orderly and should avoid ambiguity and obscurity 0 Maxim of quality a conversational convention that a speaker should not lie or make unsupported claims Cooperative principle a broad principle within whose scope fall the various maxims of conversation states that in order to communicate effectively speakers should agree to be informative and relevant Presupposition implicit assumptions about the world required to make an utterance meaningful or relevant Implicatures deductions that are not made strictly on the basis of the content expressed in the discourse rather they are made in accordance with the conversational maxims taking into account both the linguistic meaning of the utterance as well as the particular circumstances in which the utterance is made
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