Psychology 10 Part 1
Psychology 10 Part 1
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Modules 13 Introduction to the History and Science of Psychology Module 1 The Story of Psychology Psychology seeks to answer questions about how and why we think feel and act as we do Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology laboratory at University of Leipzig Germany Edward Titchener used introspection looking inward selfre ective to search for mind39s structural elements New science ofpsychology became organized into two branches or schools ofthought 1 structuralism 2 functionalism William James and Mary Calkins teacher Iames mentored Calkins who became a pioneering memory researcher and first woman to be president of American Psychological Association William James assumed that thinking like smelling developed because it was adaptive it contributed to our ancestors survival As a functionalist William James encouraged explorations of downtoearth emotions memories willpower habits and streams of consciousness Margaret Washburn synthesized animal behavior research in The Animal Mind Behaviorism the view that psychology 1 should be an objective science that 2 studies behavior without reference to mental processes Most psychologists today agree with 1 but not with 2 Sigmund Freud controversial ideas of this theorist have in uenced humanity39s selfunderstanding Freudian psychology emphasized ways our unconscious thought processes and emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior As the behaviorists had done two groups rejected definition ofpsychology that existed in 1960s 1 humanistic psychologists and 2 cognitive psychologists Humanistic psychology historically significant perspective that emphasized growth potential of healthy people Cognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition including perception thinking memory and language Psychology the science ofbehavior and mental processes Behavior anything an organism does any action we observe and record Mental processes the internal subjective experiences we infer from behavior sensations perceptions dreams thoughts beliefs and feelings Contemporary Psychology Psy Naturenurture issue the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development ofpsychological traits and behaviors Today39s science sees traits and behaviors arising from interaction of nature and nurture Natural selection the principle that inherited traits contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Charles Darwin argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies wrote On the Origin of Species Nurture works on what nature endows chology s Three Levels of Analysis Levels of analysis the differing complementary views from biological to psychological to socialcultural for analyzing any given phenomenon Biopsychosocial approach an integrated approach that incorporates biological psychological and social cultural levels of analysis Psychology s current perspectives o Neuroscience how the body and brain enable emotions memories and sensory experiences Evolutionary how natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes Behavior genetics how our genes and our environment in uence our individual differences Psychodynamic how behavior springs from unconscious drives and con icts Behavioral how we learn observable responses Cognitive how we encode process store and retrieve info 00000 Psy o Socialcultural how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures chology s Subfields Basic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Applied research scientific study that aims to solve practical problems Counseling psychology a branch ofpsychology that assists people with problems in living and in achieving greater wellbeing Clinical psychology studies assesses and treats people with psychological disorders Psychiatry branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders physicians provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy Positive psychology scientific study of human functioning with goals of promoting strengths and virtues that help people to thrive Community psychology branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups Module 2 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Three phenomena hindsight bias judgmental overconfidence and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events illustrate why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense We often overestimate our intuition Hindsight bias aka Iknewitallalong phenomenon errors in our recollections and explanations show why we need psychological research just asking people how and why they felt or acted as they did sometimes can be misleading because common sense easily describes what has happened rather than what will happen Humans are overconfident Some happenings seem so extraordinary that we struggle to conceive an ordinary chancerelated explanation The Scientific Attitude Curious Skeptical and Humble Curiosity a passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled Skepticism begin by doubting What doyou mean How doyou know Humility an awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives Critical thinking thinking that doesn39t blindly accept arguments and conclusions rather it examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions Frequently Asked Questions An experiment s purpose is not to recreate the exact behaviors of daily life but to test theoretical principles It is the resulting principles not the specificfindings that help explain everyday behaviors Culture the enduring behaviors ideas attitudes values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary by gender or across cultures the underlying processes are much the same American Psychological Association39s ethics code urges researchers to 1 obtain potential participants informed consent 2 protect them from harm and discomfort 3 keep info about individual participants confidential 4 fully debrief people explain the research afterward informed consent an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate debriefing the postexperimental explanation of a study including its purpose and any deceptions to its participants Module 3 Research Strategies scientific method a selfcorrecting process for evaluating ideas with observation and analysis theory an explanation using an integrated set ofprinciples that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events hypothesis a testable prediction often implied by a theory operational definition a statement of the procedures used to define research variables replication repeating the essence of a research study usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances in the end our theory is useful if it 1 organizes a range of selfreports and observations and 2 implies predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or to derive practical applications we can test our hypotheses using descriptive methods correlational methods and experimental methods Description psychologists observe and describe people through 1 case studies 2 naturalistic observation and 3 surveys and interviews case study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles naturalistic observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation survey a technique for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group population all the cases in a group being studied from which samples are drawn random sample fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Correlation correlation a measure of extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other correlation coefficient a statistical index of the relationship between two things from 1 to 1 scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the values of two variables Association does not prove causation Correlation indicates the possibility of a causeeffect relationship but does not prove such Experimentation experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors independent variables to observe the effect on some process 0 enable researchers to isolate effects of factors by 1 manipulating the factors of interest and 2 holding constant controlling other factors Experimental group is exposed to the treatment Control group not exposed to treatment Random assignment assigning participants to the two groups by chance Doubleblind procedure both participants and research staff are ignorant about whether the participants have received the treatment or a placebo Placebo effect results caused by expectations alone any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance which the recipient assumes is an active agent Confounding variable factor other than independent variable that might produce effect in an experiment Standard deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score Significant Differences In deciding when it s safe to generalize from a sample keep 3 principles in mind 1 Representative samples are better than biased samples 2 Lessvariable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable 3 More cases are better than fewer Statistical significance statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance when sample averages are reliable and when the difference between them is relatively large the difference has statistical significance This means that the observed difference is not due to chance variation between the samples Statistical significance indicates the likelihood that a result will happen by chance It doesn39t say anything about the importance ofthe result Modules 46 The Biology of Mind Module 4 Neural and Hormonal Systems Everything psychological is simultaneously biological Phrenology studying bumps on the skull Localization of function the idea that various brain regions have particular functions Biological perspective concerned with the links between biology and behavior Neuron a nerve cell the basic building block of the nervous system each consists of a cell body and its branching fibers called dendrites Dendrites a neuron s bushy branching extensions fibers that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body Axon the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands Myelin sheath a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next myelin is laid down up to age 25 if the myelin sheath degenerates multiple sclerosis results communication to muscles slows Action potential a neural impulse a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon Resting potential the positive outsidenegative inside state the uid outside an axon s membrane has mostly positively charged ions a resting axon s uid interior has mostly negatively charged ions Selectively permeable the axon s surface is selective about what it allows through its gates Neuron stimulation causes a brief change in electrical charge If strong enough this produces depolarization and an action potential This depolarization produces another action potential farther along the axon Gates in this area open and charged sodium atoms rush in A pump in the cell membrane transports the sodium ions back out ofthe cell As the action potential continues down the action toward axon terminals the first section has now completely recharged Refractory period a resting pause during which the neuron pumps the positively charged sodium ions back outside Neurons receive signals from other neurons Signals can be 1 excitatory like pushing its accelerator or 2 inhibitory like pushing its brake If excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity or threshold the signals trigger an action potential Threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse Synapse the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of receiving neuron The tiny gap at this junction is synaptic gap or synaptic cleft Neurotransmitters chemical messengers the cross the synaptic gaps between neurons When released by sending neuron they travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on receiving neuron Reuptake a neurotransmitter s reabsorption by the sending neuron Acetylcholine Ach is a common neurotransmitter that plays a role in learning and memory Endorphins morphine within natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure The Nervous System Nervous system body39s electrochemical communication network consisting of all the nerve cells of peripheral and central nervous systems Central nervous system CSN the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system PNS sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to rest of body Nerves bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the CNS with muscles glands and sense organs Sensory neurons carry incoming info from sensory receptors to brain and spinal cord Motor neurons carry outgoing info from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands Interneurons within the brain and spinal cord communicate internally and intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs The Peripheral Nervous System Somatic nervous system division of peripheral nervous system that controls body39s skeletal muscles aka skeletal nervous system Autonomic nervous system ANS part of peripheral nervous system that controls glands and muscles of internal organs like the heart its sympathetic division arouses its parasympathetic division calms Sympathetic nervous system the division of autonomic nervous system that arouses the body mobilizing its energy in stressful situations Parasympathetic nervous system the division of autonomic nervous system that calms the body conserving its energy The Central Nervous System Re ex a simple automatic response to a sensory stimulus The Endocrine System Endocrine system the body39s slow chemical communication system a set of glands that secrete hormones into bloodstream Hormones chemical messengers that are manufactured by endocrine glands travel through bloodstream and affect other tissues Adrenal glands a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine that help arouse the body in times of stress Pituitary gland master gland the endocrine system39s most in uential gland Under in uence of hypothalamus it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands The feedback system brain pituitary other glands hormones body and brain reveals intimate connection of nervous and endocrine systems Module 5 Tools of Discovery and Older Brain Structures Lesion tissue destruction Electroencephalogram EEG an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain39s surface These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp PET positron emission tomography scan a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task MRI magnetic resonance imaging a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue MRI scans show brain anatomy Older Brain Structures VlRI functional MRI a technique for revealing blood ow and brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans MRI scans show brain function brainstem the oldest part and central core of the brain it39s responsible for automatic survival functions medulla the base of the brainstem controls heartbeat and breathing Just above the medulla sits the pans which coordinates movements Thalamus brain39s sensory switchboard located on top of brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in cortex and transmits replies to cerebellum and medulla Reticular formation a nerve network that travels through brainstem and plays role in controlling arousal Cerebellum the little brain at rear of brainstem functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance Limbic system neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres associated with emotions and drives contains the amygdala hypothalamus and hippocampus Module 6 The Cerebral Cortex and Our Divided Brain The Cerebral Cortex Cerebrum hemispheres that contribute 85 of brain39s weight Cerebral cortex intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering cerebral hemispheres the body39s ultimate control and information processing center Glial cells glia cells in nervous system that support nourish and protect neurons they play role in thinking and learning Each hemisphere s cortex is subdivided into four lobes separated by prominent ssures or folds Frontal lobes portion of cerebral cortex lying just behind forehead involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments Parietal lobes portion of cerebral cortex lying at top of head and toward rear receives sensory input for touch and body position Occipital lobes portion of cerebral cortex lying at back of head includes areas that receive info from the visual fields Temporal lobes portion of cerebral cortex lying roughly above ears includes auditory areas each receiving info from the opposite ear Motor cortex an area at the rear of frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements Sensory cortex area at front of parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations Association areas areas of cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning remembering thinking and speaking Plasticity the brain39s ability to change especially during childhood by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience Constraintinduced therapy aims to rewire brains and improve dexterity of a brain damaged child or adult stroke victim Our Divided Brain Neurogenesis the formation of new neurons Corpus callosum the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them Split brain a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain39s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them Right Left Differences in the Intact Brain When person performs perceptual task brain waves blood ow glucose consumption activity in right hemisphere increases when person speaks or calculates activity in left hemisphere increases Right hemisphere 1 excels in making inferences 2 helps us modulate our speech to make meaning clear 3 helps orchestrate our sense of self Modules 7 1718 Sensation and Perception Module 7 Brain States and Consciousness At its beginning psychology was the description and explanation of states of consciousness By the 1960s it was defining itself as the science of behavior Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environment Cognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition including perception thinking memory and language Dual processing the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks Blindsight a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it Visual perception track enables us to think about the world to recognize things and to plan future actions Visual action track guides our momenttomoment movements Selective Attention Selective attention the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Cocktail party effect ability to attend to only one voice among many Inattentional blindness failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere Change blindness failing to notice changes in the environment Module 17 Basic Principles of Sensation and Perception Sensation the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment Perception the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events Bottomup processing analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to brain39s integration of sensory info Topdown processing info processing guided by higherlevel mental processes as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations Transduction All our senses 1 receive sensory stimulation using receptor cells 2 transform that stimulation into neural impulses and 3 deliver the neural info to our brain Transduction conversion of one form of energy into another In sensation the transforming of stimulus energies such as sights sounds and smells into neural impulses our brain can interpret Psychophysics the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli such as their intensity and our psychological experience of them Absolute threshold the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 of the time Signal detection theory predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus signal amid background stimulation noise Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person39s experience expectations motivation and alertness Subliminal below one s absolute threshold for conscious awareness Priming the activation often unconsciously of certain associations thus predisposing one s perception memory or response Difference threshold the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 of the time We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable di erence jnd Weber39s law the principle that to be perceived as different two stimuli must differ by a given percentage proportion not a given amount Sensory Adaptation Sensory adaptation diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation Perceptual set a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another Module 18 Vision and Perceptual Organization and Interpretation Wavelength the distance from peak of one light or sound wave to peak of the next Hue the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light color names blue green etc Intensity the amount of energy in a light or sound wave which we perceive as brightness or loudness as determined by the wave s amplitude Pupil the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters Iris a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupi and controls the size of the pupil opening Lens the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina Retina the lightsensitive inner surface of the eye containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual info Accommodation the process by which the eye39s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina Rods retinal receptors that detect black white and gray necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cones don39t respond Cones retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in welllit conditions they detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations Optic nerve the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain Blind spot the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye creating a blind spot because no receptor cells are located there Fovea the central focal point in the retina around which the eye39s cones cluster Feature detectors nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus such as shape angle or movement Parallel processing the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously the brain39s natural mode of info processing for many functions including vision YoungHelmholtz trichromatic threecolor theory theory that the retina contains three different color receptors one most sensitive to red one to green one to blue which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color Visual Organization Opponentprocess theory theory that opposing retinal processes redgreen yellowblue whiteblack enable color vision Gestalt an organized whole Figureground the organization of the visual field into objects figures that stand out from their surroundings ground Grouping the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups Depth perception the ability to see objects in 3D although the images that strike the retina are 2D allows us to judge distance Visual cliff a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals Binocular cues depth cues such as retinal disparity that depend on the use of two eyes Retinal disparity a binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from the retins in the two eyes the brain computes distance the greater the disparity difference between the two images the closer the object Monocular cues depth cues such as interposition and linear perspective available to either eye alone Phi phenomenon an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession Perceptual constancy perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change Color constancy perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths re ected by the object Visual Interpretation Perceptual adaptation in vision the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field Extrasensory perception ESP the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input includes telepathy clairvoyance and precognition Parapsychology the study of paranormal phenomena including ESP and psychokinesis Modules 8 4 3537 Sleep Emotions Motivation Module 8 Sleep and Dreams Circadian rhythm the biological clock regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24hour cycle ex of temperature wakefulness REM sleep rapid eye movement sleep a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur aka paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active Alpha waves the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed awake state Sleep periodic natural easily reversible loss of consciousness as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma general anesthesia or hibernation Hallucinations false sensory experiences such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus Delta waves the large slow brain waves associated with deep sleep Sleep Theories Psychologists believe sleep may have evolved for 5 reasons 1 Sleep protects 2 Sleep helps us recuperate 3 Sleep helps restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day39s experiences 4 Sleep feeds creative thinking 5 Sleep supports growth Insomnia recurring problems in falling or staying asleep Narcolepsy a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks the sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep Sleep apnea a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations halts of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings Night terrors a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified unlike nightmares night terrors occur during NREM 3 sleep within two or three hours of falling asleep and are seldom remembered Dream a sequence of images emotions and thoughts passing through a sleeping person39s mind they are notable for their hallucinatory imagery discontinuities and incongruities Dream theorists have proposed explanations of why we dream 0 To satisfy our own wishes Freud39s wishfulfillment I Sigmund Freud wrote The Interpretation of Dreams in which he proposed that dreams provide a psychic safety valve that discharges otherwise unacceptable feelings I Manifest content according to Freud the remembered story line of a dream as distinct from its latenthidden content I Latent content according to Freud the underlying meaning of a dream as distinct from its manifest content 0 To file away memories Informationprocessing I The informationprocessing perspective proposes that dreams may help sift sort and fix the day39s experiences in our memory 0 To develop and preserve neural pathways Physiological function I Dreams may serve a physiological function providing the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation 0 To make sense of neural static Neural activation 0 To re ect cognitive development Cognitive development I REM rebound the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep I Biological and psychological explanations of behavior are partners not competitors Re read Module 4 The Nervous System Nerves bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the CNS with muscles glands and sense organs Sensory neurons carry incoming info from sensory receptors to brain and spinal cord Motor neurons carry outgoing info from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands Interneurons within the brain and spinal cord communicate internally and intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs The Peripheral Nervous System 0 Somatic nervous system division of peripheral nervous system that controls body39s skeletal muscles aka skeletal nervous system 0 Autonomic nervous system ANS part of peripheral nervous system that controls glands and muscles of internal organs like the heart its sympathetic division arouses its parasympathetic division calms Sympathetic nervous system the division of autonomic nervous system that arouses the body mobilizing its energy in stressful situations 0 Parasympathetic nervous system the division of autonomic nervous system that calms the body conserving its energy The Central Nervous System 0 Re ex a simple automatic response to a sensory stimulus The Endocrine System 0 Endocrine system the body39s slow chemical communication system a set of glands that secrete hormones into bloodstream Hormones chemical messengers that are manufactured by endocrine glands travel through bloodstream and affect other tissues 0 Adrenal glands a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine that help arouse the body in times of stress 0 Pituitary gland master gland the endocrine system39s most in uential gland Under in uence of hypothalamus it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands The feedback system brain pituitary other glands hormones body and brain reveals intimate connection of nervous and endocrine systems Module 35 Introduction to Emotion Emotion a response ofthe whole organism involving 1 physiologicalbodily arousal 2 expressive behaviors and 3 conscious experience 0 ames Lange theory theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion arousing stimuli Cannon Bard theory theory that an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers 1 physiological responses and 2 the subjective experience of emotion Two factor theory the Schachter Singer theory that to experience emotion one must 1 be physically aroused and 2 cognitively label the arousal Arousal fuels emotion cognition channels it 0 Emotion Theories o ames Lange our awareness of our specific bodily response to emotion arousing stimuli o Cannon Bard bodily response simultaneous subjective experience 0 Schachter Singer two factors general arousal a conscious cognitive label 0 Zajonc LeDoux instant before cognitive appraisal o Lazarus appraisal is it dangerous or not sometimes without our awarenenss defines emotion Embodied Emotion Polygraph a machine commonly used in attempts to detect lies that measures several of the physiological responses ex perspiration breathing changes accompanying emotion Module 36 Expressed Emotion 0 Anger strikes most people as a masculine emotion 0 Woman are more likely than men to describe themselves as empathic 0 Females are more likely to express empathy to cry and to report distress Module 37 Experienced Emotion Catharsis emotional release catharsis hypothesis maintains that releasing aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges Feel good do good phenomenon people39s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood Subjective well being self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life Used with measures of objective well being to evaluate people39s quality of life 0 We overestimate the duration of our emotions and underestimate our resiliency and capacity to adapt Diminishing returns phenomenon or diminishing marginal utility states that experiencing luxury diminishes our savoring of life39s simpler pleasures Adaptation level phenomenon our tendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience Relative deprivation the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself Modules 1113 Nature Nurture and Human Diversity Module 11 Behavior Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology 0 Behavior genetics the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental in uences on behavior 0 Environment every nongenetic in uence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us 0 Chromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes 0 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid a complex molecule containing the genetic info that makes up chromosomes Genes the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein 0 Genome the complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all genetic material in that organism39s chromosomes 0 Identical twins twins who develop from a single monozygotic fertilized egg that splits in two 0 Fraternal twins develop from separate dizygotic fertilized eggs they share a fetal environment 0 Adoption creates two groups 1 genetic relatives and 2 environmental relatives adoptive parents and siblings Temperament a person39s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity 0 Molecular genetics the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes 0 Heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes may vary depending on range of populations and environments studied 0 Interaction the interplay that occurs when effect of one factor depends on another factor 0 Epigenetics the study of in uences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change Module 12 Culture Gender and Other Environmental In uences Culture the enduring behaviors ideas attitudes values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next 0 Norm an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior prescribe proper behavior 0 Individualism giving priority to one s own goals over group goals and defining one s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications Collectivism giving priority to the goals of one s group and defining one s identity accordingly 0 Family self is a feeling that what shames the child shames the family and same with honor Module 13 Developmental Issues Prenatal Development and the Newborn 0 Developmental psychology studies physical cognitive and social change throughout the life span focuses on three issues 1 nature and nurture 2 continuity and stages 3 stability and change Prenatal Development and the Newborn Zygote the fertilized egg it enters a 2week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo Embryo the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month Fetus the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth 0 Teratogens agents such as chemicals or viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm 0 Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman39s heavy drinking 0 Habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation Modules 1415 Development Module 14 Infancy and Childhood Maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively unin uenced by experience Cognitive Development Cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating 0 Schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information 0 Assimilation interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas 0 Accommodation adapting our current understandings schemas to incorporate new information Piaget39s Theory and Current Thinking Sensorimotor Stage 0 Sensorimotor stage in Piaget39s theory the stage from birth to about 2 years of age during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities Object permanence the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Egocentrism Egocentrism in Piaget39s theory the preoperational child39s difficulty taking another s point of view Preoperational Stage 0 Preoperational stage in Piaget39s theory the stage from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic 0 Conservation the principle which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning that properties such as mass volume and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects Theory of Mind 0 Theory of mind people39s ideas about their own and others mental states about their feelings perceptions and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict Concrete Operational Stage 0 Concrete operational stage in Piaget39s theory the stage of cognitive development from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events Autism a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication social interaction and understanding of others states of mind Formal Operational Stage 0 Formal operational stage in Piaget39s theory the stage of cognitive development beginning about age 12 during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts Stranger anxiety the fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning by about 8 months of age 0 Attachment an emotional tie with another person shown in young children by their seeking closeness to caregiver and distress on separation Social Development 0 Critical period an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development 0 Imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life 0 Basic trust according to Erik Erikson a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers Self concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to question Who am I 0 Parenting styles 1 Authoritarian impose rules and expect obedience 2 Permissive submit to children39s desires 3 Authoritative both demanding and responsive set rules and explain reasons for those rules encourage discussion Module 15 Adolescence Adolescence the transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence Puberty period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing 0 Primary sex characteristics the body structures ovaries testes and external genitalia that make sexual reproduction possible 0 Secondary sex characteristics non reproductive sexual characteristics such as female breasts and hips male voice quality and body hair 0 Menarche the first menstrual period Social Development 0 Identity our sense of self according to Erikson the adolescent s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles 0 Social identity the we aspect of our self concept the part of our answer to Who am I that comes from our group memberships Intimacy in Erikson s theory the ability to form close loving relationships a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood 0 Emerging adulthood for some people in modern cultures a period from late teens to mid twenties bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood Modules 3839 Stress and Health Module 38 Stress and Health Behavioral medicine interdisciplinary field of study of how stress and healthy unhealthy behaviors in uence health and illness Health psychology a subfield of psychology that provides psychology s contribution to behavioral medicine Stress the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events called Stressors that we appraise as threatening or challenging Stressors fall into 3 types 1 Catastrophes large scale events like wars and famines 2 Significant life changes 3 Daily hassles rush hour traffic long lines many things to do Walter Cannon stated that the stress response is part of a unified mind body system Physiologists have identified an additional stress response system on orders from cerebral cortex the outer part of the adrenal glands secretes glucocorticoid stress hormones like cortisol Epinephrine is the one handing out the guns responding then and there glucocorticoids are the ones preparing for next event General adaptation syndrome GAS Scientist Hans Selye s concept of the body39s adaptive response to stress in three phases alarm resistance exhaustion three phases 1 Phase 1 you have an alarm reaction in which sympathetic nervous system is activated 2 Phase 2 resistance your temperature blood pressure and respiration remain high fully engaged 3 Phase 3 exhaustion is felt your body39s reserves begin to run out Selye stated that although human body copes well with temporary stress prolonged stress can damage it Brain39s production of new neurons slows shortening of telomeres pieces of DNA at ends of chromosomes in women stressed as caregivers for children with disorders Tend and befriend under stress people esp women often provide support to others tend and bond with and seek support from others befriend When stressed men become aggressive and socially withdrawn Women often respond by nurturing and banding together This may be due to oxytocin a stress moderating hormone associated with pair bonding in animals and released by cuddling massage and breast feeding 0 Women39s faces become more active in areas vital for face processing and empathy Stress and Illness Psychophysiological illness literally mind body illness any stress related physical illness such as hypertension and some headaches used to be referred to as psychosomatic implying merely unreal symptoms Psychoneuroimmunology the study of how psychological neural and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health 4 types of cells are active in immune system two lymphocytes macrophage NK cells Lymphocytes the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body39s immune system 1 B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections 2 T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells viruses and foreign substances Macrophage big eater which identifies pursues and ingests harmful invaders and worn out cells Natural killer cells NK cells pursue diseased cells infected by viruses or cancer When immune system malfunctions it can either 1 respond too strongly attacking body39s own tissues or 2 underreact allowing a dormant herpes virus to erupt or cancer cells to multiply Coronary heart disease the clogging ofthe vessels that nourish the heart muscle the leading cause of death in many developed countries Experiment in which scientists tested the idea that stress increases vulnerability to heart disease 0 Type A Friedman and Rosenman s term for competitive hard driving impatient verbally aggressive and anger prone people 0 Type B Friedman and Rosenman s term for easygoing relaxed people 0 More than half of those who suffered heart attacks nine years later were Type A Stress hormones enhance one immune response the production of proteins that contribute to in ammation Thus stressed people are more prone to in ammation responses recruiting more infection fighting cells but the harms of stress outweigh the benefits Module 39 Promoting Health Coping alleviating stress using emotional cognitive or behavioral methods Problem focused coping attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor Emotion focused coping attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one s stress reaction Perceived control 0 Uncontrollable threats trigger the strongest stress responses Explanatory style optimism and health Social support 0 Calms us and reduces blood pressure and stress hormones o Fosters stronger immune functioning 0 Give us chance for open heart therapy Reducing Stress Aerobic exercise sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness may also alleviate depression and anxiety Exercise fosters neurogenesis In mice it causes brain to produce a molecule that acts as a natural antidepressant by stimulating the production of new stress resistant neurons Biofeedback a system of recording amplifying and feeding back info about subtle physiological responses many controlled by autonomic nervous system In an experiment participants who underwent mindfulness mediation showed more left hemisphere activity afterwards and had improved immune functioning In experiment of faith factor religiously active people tended to live longer 0 Religion promotes selfcontrol 0 Social support in faith communities Complementary and alternative medicine CAM as yet unproven health care treatments intended to supplement complement or serve as alternatives to conventional medicine and which typically are not widely taught in medical schools used in hospitals or reimbursed by insurance companies
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