Psychology 10 Part 2
Psychology 10 Part 2
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Modules 2022 Learning Module 20 Basic Learning Concepts and Classical Conditioning Learning process of acquiring new and relatively enduring info or behaviors Classical conditioning we learn to expect and prepare for significant events such as food or pain 0 Stimulus any event or situation that evokes a response Operant conditioning we learn to repeat acts that bring rewards and avoid acts that bring unwanted results Associative learning learning that certain events occur together The events may be two stimuli as in classical conditioning or a response and its consequence as in operant conditioning Cognitive learning the acquisition of mental info whether by observing events by watching others or through language we learn new behaviors by observing events and by watching others and through language we learn things we have neither experienced nor observed 0 Observational learning one form of cognitive learning lets us learn from others experiences Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Behaviorism the view that psychology 1 should be objective science that 2 studies behavior w o reference to mental processes Most research psychologists today agree with 1 but not with 2 Respondent behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Neutral stimulus NS in classical conditioning a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned response UR in classical conditioning an unlearned naturally occurring response such as salivation to an unconditioned stimulus US such as food in the mouth Unconditioned stimulus US in classical conditioning a stimulus that unconditionally naturally and automatically triggers a response UR Conditioned response CR in classical conditioning a learned response to a previously neutral but now conditioned stimulus CS Conditioned stimulus CS in classical conditioning an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus US comes to trigger a conditioned response CR Conditioned learned unconditioned unlearned Ivan Pavlov s five conditioning processes 1 Acquisition in classical conditioning the initial stage when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response In operant conditioning the strengthening of a reinforced response 0 Classical conditioning is biologically adaptive because it helps humans and other animals prepare for good or bad events 0 Higher order conditioning aka second order conditioning a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus creating a second weaker conditioned stimulus Ex an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone 2 Extinction the diminishing of a conditioned response occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus US does not follow a conditioned stimulus CS occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced spontaneous recovery the reappearance after a pause of an extinguished conditioned response 4 generalization the tendency once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses 5 discrimination in classical conditioning the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus Pavlov s legacy What did he teach us 0 Many other responses to many other stimuli can be classically conditioned in many other organisms o Pavlov showed us how a process such as learning can be studied objectively 5 Module 21 Operant Conditioning Learning the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring info or behaviors Associative learning learning that certain events occur together Events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequence Stimulus any event situation that evokes a response Operant conditioning a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher 0 Law of effect Thorndike s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely Operant chamber aka Skinner box in operant conditioning research a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer attached devices record the animal39s rate of bar pressing or key pecking Reinforcement in operant conditioning any event that strengthens the behavior it follows 0 Shaping an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations ofthe desired behavior Types of Reinforcers 0 Positive reinforcement increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers any stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens the response 0 Negative reinforcement NOT punishment increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response 0 Primary reinforcer an innately reinforcing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need 0 Conditioned reinforcer aka secondary reinforcer a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer Reinforcement Schedules Reinforcement schedule a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced 0 Continuous reinforcement reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs 0 Partial intermittent reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement Fixed ratio schedule in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses 0 Variable ratio schedule in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses 0 Fixed interval schedule in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed Variable interval schedule in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals Punishment an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows 0 Four drawbacks of physical punishment 1 Punished behavior is suppressed not forgotten This temporary state may negatively reinforce parents punishing behavior 2 Punishment teaches discrimination among situations 3 Punishment can teach fear 4 Physical punishment may increase aggression by modeling aggression as a way to cope with problems 0 Punishment tells you what not to do reinforcement tells you what to do 0 BF Skinner insisted that external in uences not internal thoughts feelings shape behavior 0 Psychologists suggest 1 State your goal in measurable terms and announce it 2 Monitor how often you engage in your desired behavior 3 Reinforce the desired behavior 4 Reduce the rewards gradually Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning 0 Respondent behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Operant behavior behavior that operates on environment producing consequences Module 22 Effects of Biology and Cognition and Learning by Observation 0 Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive Cognitive Processes and Operant Conditioning 0 cognitive map a mental representation of layout of one s environment Ex after exploring a maze rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it 0 latent learning learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it 0 intrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake extrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment Learning by Observation observational learning learning by observing others 0 modeling the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior 0 By watching a model we experience vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment and we learn to anticipate a behavior s consequences in situations like those we are observing 0 Mirror neurons frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so The brain39s mirroring of another s action may enable imitation and empathy Applications of Observational Learning Prosocial Effects 0 Prosocial behavior positive constructive helpful behavior opposite of antisocial behavior Modules 2326 Memory Module 23 Studying and Building Memories 0 Memory the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of info 0 Recall a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earlier as on a fill in the blank test 0 Recognition a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned as on a multiple choice test 0 Relearning a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again Memory Models 0 Encoding the processing of info into the memory system for example by extracting meaning Storage the retention of encoded info over time Retrieval the process of getting info out of memory storage 0 To explain our memory forming process Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin proposed a three stage model 1 We first record to be remembered info as a eeting sensory memory Sensory memory the immediate very brief recording of sensory info in the memory system 2 From there we process info into short term memory where we encode it through rehearsal Short term memory activated memory that holds a few items brie y such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing before info is stored or forgotten 3 Finally info moves into long term memory for later retrieval 0 Long term memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system Includes knowledge skills and experiences 0 Working memory a newer understanding of short term memory that focuses on conscious active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial info and of info retrieved from long term memory 0 Explicit memory aka declarative memory memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare Effortful processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort 0 Automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental info such as space time and frequency and of well learned info such as word meanings Implicit memory aka nondeclarative memory retention independent of conscious recollection Building Memories 0 Without conscious effort you also automatically process into about space time frequency 0 Iconic memory a momentary sensory memory ofvisual stimuli a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second 0 Echoic memory a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli if attention is elsewhere sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds Effortful Processing Strategies 0 Chunking organizing items into familiar manageable units often occurs automatically 0 Mnemonics memory aids especially those techniques tat use vivid imagery and organizational devices Distributed Practice Spacing effect the tendency for distributed study or practice o yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice 0 Testing effect aka retrieval practice effect or test enhanced learning enhanced memory after retrieving rather than simply reading info Levels of Processing 0 Shallow processing encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words Deep processing encoding semantically based on the meaning ofthe words tends to yield the best retention Module 24 Storage Retaining Info in Brain 0 Our brains do not store info in discrete precise locations Rather many parts of brain interact to form memories Explicit Memory System The Frontal Lobes and Hippocampus Explicit memory aka declarative memory with conscious recall memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare processed in hippocampus and frontal lobes 0 Facts and general knowledge 0 Personally experienced events family holidays Hippocampus a neural center located in limbic system helps process explicit memories for storage Implicit Memory System The Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia Implicit memory aka nondeclarative memory without conscious recall retention independent of conscious recollection processed in cerebellum and basal ganglia 0 Space time frequency where you ate dinner yesterday 0 Motor and cognitive skills riding bike 0 Classical conditioning reaction to dentist39s office 0 Cerebellum plays key role in forming and storing implicit memories created by classical conditioning Basal ganglia deep brain structures involved in motor movement facilitate formation of our procedural memories for skills receive input from cortex but do not return favor of sending info back to cortex for conscious awareness of procedural learning ex learning to ride a bike 0 Infantile amnesia an experience in which as adults our conscious memory of our first three years is blank two factors contribute to this 1 we index much of our explicit memory using words that nonspeaking children have not learned 2 hippocampus is one of last brain structures to mature The Amygdala Emotions and Memory 0 Flashbulb memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event 0 Long term potentiation LTP an increase in a cell39s firing potential after brief rapid stimulation Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory Module 25 Retrieval Priming 0 Priming the activation often unconsciously of particular associations in memory Context Dependent Memory 0 In experiments Carolyn Rovee Collier found that in 3month olds after infants learned that kicking a crib mobile would make it move the infants kicked more when tested again in same crib with same bumper than when in a different context State Dependent Memory State dependent memory what we learn in one state may be more easily recalled when we are again in that state ex what people learn when drunk they don39t recall well in any state But they recall better when again drunk 0 Mood congruent memory the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one s current good or bad mood Serial Position Effect 0 Serial position effect our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list 0 Recency effect brie y recalling the last items especially quickly and well 0 Primacy effect after a delay when they have shifted attention away from last items recall is best for the first items Module 26 Forgetting Memory Construction and Improving Memory 0 Anterograde amnesia an inability to form new memories 0 Retrograde amnesia an inability to retrieve info from one s past 0 The course of forgetting is initially rapid then levels off with time Retrieval Failure 0 Proactive forward acting interference the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info 0 Retroactive backward acting interference the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old info 0 Repression in psychoanalytic theory the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts feelings and memories Memory Construction Errors Reconsolidation we construct our memories as we encode them and every time we replay a memory we replace the original with a slightly modified version Info acquired after an event alters memory of the event Misinformation and Imagination Effects 0 Misinformation effect incorporating misleading info into one s memory of an event Source Amnesia Source amnesia aka source misattribution attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced heard about read about or imagined it is at the heart of many false memories 0 D ja vu that eerie sense that I ve experienced this before cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience SQ3R study technique to improve memory Survey Question Read Retrieve Review Modules 2728 Thinking and Language Module 27 Thinking Cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating 0 Concept a mental grouping of similar objects events ideas or people 0 Prototype a mental image or best example of a category Matching new items to a prototype provides quick easy method for sorting items into categories ex comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird such as a robin Problem Solving Strategies and Obstacles 0 Algorithm a methodical logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error prone use of heuristics Heuristic a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms 0 Insight a sudden realization of a problem39s solution contrasts with strategy based solutions 0 Confirmation bias a tendency to search for info that supports our preconceptions and to ignore contradictory evidence 0 Fixation an inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective 0 Mental set example of fixation a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way often a way that has been successful in the past Forming Good and Bad Decisions and judgments Intuition an effortless immediate automatic feeling or thought as contrasted with explicit conscious reasoning 0 Availability heuristic estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory if instances come readily to mind perhaps because of their vividness we presume such events are common 0 Overconfidence tendency to be more confident than correct 0 Belief perseverance clinging to one s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited 0 Framing the way an issue is posed how an issue is framed can affect decisionsjudgments Perils and Powers of Intuition Intuition is huge today39s cognitive science offers many examples of unconscious in uences on our judgments Intuition is usually adaptive our instant reactions enable us to react quickly 0 Intuition is recognition born of experience it is implicit knowledge we learned it but can39t fully explain it The Fear Factor 0 Four in uences that feed fear and cause us to ignore higher risks 1 We fear what our ancestral history has prepared us to fear 2 We fear what we cannot control 3 We fear what is immediate 4 Thanks to availability heuristic we fear what is most readily available in memory Module 28 Language and Thought 0 Language our spoke written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning Language Structure 1 Phoneme the smallest distinctive sound unit in a language 2 Morpheme the smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or part of a word 3 Grammar a system of rules that enable us to communicate with and understand others semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences Language Development Receptive Language ability to understand what is said to and about oneself Productive Language ability to produce words Babbling stage beginning at about 4 months the stage of speech development in which infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to household language 0 One word stage from about age 1 to 2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words Two word stage beginning about age 2 during which a child speaks mostly in two word statements 0 Telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram go car using mostly nouns and verbs The Brain and Language 0 Aphasia impairment of language usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca s area impairing speaking or Wernicke s area impairing understanding Broca s area controls language expression area of frontal lobe in left hemisphere that directs muscle movements involved in speech 0 Wernicke s area controls language reception a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression usually in left temporal lobe Thinking and Language 0 Linguistic determinism Whorf s hypothesis that language determines the way we think Modules 2931 Intelligence Module 29 Introduction to Intelligence 0 Intelligence mental quality consisting of ability to learn from experience solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations 0 Intelligence test method for assessing an individual s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others using numerical scores 0 General intelligence g a general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test Factor analysis a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items factors on a test used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person39s total score 0 Spearman believed a common skill set the g factor underlies all intelligent behavior Opponent of Spearman was L L Thurstone who did not rank people on a single scale of general aptitude however those who excelled in one of seven clusters generally scored well on the others during his experiment so there was still evidence of a g factor 0 Thurstone s primary mental abilities our intelligence may be broken down into seven factors word uency verbal comprehension spatial ability perceptual speed numerical ability inductive reasoning and memory 0 Satoshi Kanazawa argues that general intelligence evolved as a form of intelligence that helps people solve novel problems More common problems require a different sort of intelligence asserts that general intelligence scores do correlate with ability to solve various novel problems but do not much correlate with individuals skills in evolutionarily familiar situations marrying parenting navigating without maps Theories of Multiple Intelligences Gardner39s Eight Intelligences Gardner views intelligence as multiple abilities that come in different packages 0 Savant syndrome a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill such as in computation or drawing 0 Gardner argues we do not have an intelligence but rather multiple intelligences 10year rule a common ingredient of expert performance in chess dancing sports etc is about 10 years of intense daily practice Sternberg s Three Intelligences Sternberg agrees that there is more to success than traditional intelligence he prposes a triarchic theory of three intelligences 1 Analytical academic problem solving intelligence assessed by intelligence tests which present well defined problems having a single right answer predict school grades well and vocational success more modestly 2 Creative intelligence demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas 3 Practical intelligence required for daily tasks with multiple solutions managerial success for example depends less on academic problem solving skills than on an ability to manage oneself one s tasks and other people Intelligence and Creativity 0 Pierre de Fermat39s challenge the Fermat39s last theorem baf ed minds even after a huge monetary prize was offered to whoever first created a proof to match his solutions to various number theory problems 0 Creativity ability to produce novel and valuable ideas 0 Intelligence tests require convergent thinking while creativity tests require divergent thinking Sternberg identified five components of creativity 1 Expertise a well developed base of knowledge furnishes the ideas images and phrases we use as mental buildilng blocks 2 Imaginative thinking skills provide ability to see things in novel ways to recognize patterns and to make connections 3 A venturesome personality seeks new experiences tolerates ambiguity and risk and perseveres in overcoming obstacles 4 Intrinsic motivation being driven more by interest satisfaction and challenge than by external pressures 5 A creative environment sparks supports and refines creative ideas emotional intelligence needed to network effectively with peers I To boost creative process 0 Develop your expertise 0 Allow time for incubation 0 Set aside time for mind to roam freely 0 Experience other cultures and ways of thinking Emotional Intelligence I Social intelligence the know how involved in successfully comprehending social situations I Emotional intelligence the ability to perceive understand manage and use emotions people with this are socially and self aware they avoid being overwhelming depressed anxious or angry I Intelligence is having ample gray matter neural cell bodies plus ample white matter axons that make for efficient communication between brain centers I Quick wittedness involves the speed of perception and speed of neural processing I Correlation between intelligence score and speed of taking in perceptual info is about 03 to 05 I A typical experiment ashes an incomplete stimulus then a masking image Then the researcher asks participants whether long side appeared on right or left Those who require least inspection time to register a simple stimulus tend to score higher on intelligence tests 0 Masking image another image that overrides the lingering afterimage of the incomplete stimulus Module 30 Assessing Intelligence I Francis Galton wondered if it might be possible to measure natural ability and encourage those of high ability to mate with one another But measures did not correlate He still gave us statistical techniques and phrase nature and nurture His belief in inheritance of genius shows that scientists are affected by own assumptions and attitudes Alfred Binet Predicting School Achievement I Mental age a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance Thus a child who does as well as the average 8yearold is said to have a mental age of 8 I Binet feared that intelligence test scores may be misinterpreted as literal measures of a person39s worth and potential I To measure mental age Binet and Simon theorized that mental aptitude is a general capacity that shows up in various ways Lewis Terman The Innate IQ I Stanford Binet the widely used American revision by Terman at Stanford of Binet s original intelligence test I Intelligence quotient IQ defined originally as the ratio of mental age ma to chronological age ca multiplied by 100 on contemporary intelligence tests the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 o IQ mental agechronological age x 100 0 Average child has IQ of 100 I Most current intelligence tests including Stanford Binet no longer use the formula They now represent test taker s performance relative to the average performance of others the same age Modern Tests of Mental Abilities I Achievement test a test designed to assess re ect what a person has learned I Aptitude test a test designed to predict a person39s future performance aptitude is the capacity to learn I Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS the most widely used intelligence test contains verbal and performance nonverbal subtests o Consists of 15 subtests including I Similarities reasoning the commonality of two objects or concepts I Vocabulary naming pictured objects or defining words I Block design visual abstract processing I Letter number sequencing on hearing a series of numbers and letters repeat the numbers in ascending order and then the letters in alphabetical order Principles of Test Construction Standardization Standardization defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group 0 Normal curve the symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes Most scores fall near average and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes Flynn effect the long sustained increase in both uid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world from 1930 to present day Reliability 0 Reliability the extent to which a test yields consistent results as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test or on retesting 0 If two scores generally agree or correlate the test is reliable The higher the correlation between testretest or the splithalf scores the higher the test s reliability Validity Validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to 0 Content validity the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest 0 Predictive validity aka criterion related validity the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior 0 Predictive power of aptitude tests is fairly strong in early school years but later it weakens Academic aptitude test scores are reasonably good predictors of achievement for children ages 612 where the correlation between intelligence score and school performance is about 06 0 The narrower the range of weights the lower the predictive power of body weight becomes The Dynamics of Intelligence Phase I Cross Sectional Evidence for Intellectual Decline Cross sectional studies researchers at one point in time test and compare people ofvarious ages Phase II Longitudinal Evidence for Intellectual Stability Cohort a group ofpeople from a given time period Phase III It All Depends Crystallized intelligence our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills tends to increase with age 0 Fluid intelligence our ability to reason speedily and abstractly tends to decrease during late adulthood 0 By age 4 children39s performance on intelligence tests begins to predict their adolescent and adult scores The consistency of scores over time increases with age of child 0 Ian Deary reports four possible explanations of why more intelligent people might live longer 1 intelligence facilitates more education better jobs and healthier environment 2 intelligence encourages healthy living less smoking better diet more exercise 3 Prenatal events or early childhood illnesses might have in uenced both intelligence and health 4 A well wired body as evidenced by fast reaction speeds perhaps fosters both intelligence and longevity Extremes of Intelligence The Low Extreme 0 Intellectual disability a condition of limited mental ability indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life varies from mild to profound formerly called mental retardation 0 Criteria that is a comparable limitation in adaptive behavior as expressed in 0 Conceptual skills such as language literacy and concepts of money time and number 0 Social skills such as interpersonal skills social responsibility and ability to follow basic rules and laws and avoid being victimized 0 Practical skills such as daily personal care occupational skill and travel and health care 0 Down syndrome a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 The High Extreme Module 31 Genetic and Environmental In uences on Intelligence Twin and Adoption Studies 0 People who share same genes also share mental abilities The intelligence test scores of identical twins reared together are virtually as similar as those of same person taking same test twice Scores of fraternal twins who share only half their genes are much less similar 0 Brain scans reveal that identical twins brain are built and function similarly Their brains are virtually the same in areas associated with verbal and spatial intelligence 0 Intelligence appears to be polygenetic involving many genes with each gene accounting for much less than 1 of intelligence variations 0 Heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes The heritability of a trait may vary depending on the range of populations and environments studied 0 Other evidence points to effects of environment Where environments vary widely as they do among children of less educated parents environmental differences are more predictive of intelligence scores 0 Adoption enhances intelligence scores of neglected children 0 To disentangle genes and environment researchers have compared intelligence test scores of adoption children with those of a their adoptive siblings b their biological parents and c their adoptive parents 0 Mental similarities between adopted children and their adoptive families wane with age until correlation approaches zero 0 Deary claims that heritability of general intelligence g increases from 30 in childhood to over 50 in adulthood Environmental In uences McVicker Hunt began program of tutored human enrichment trained caregivers to play language fostering games with 11 infants By 22 months of age the infants could name more than 50 objects and body parts 0 Among the poor environmental conditions can depress cognitive development Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores Gender Similarities and Differences 0 Girls are better spellers more verbally uent better at locating objects better at detecting emotions and more sensitive Boys outperform girls in tests of spatial ability and complex math problems Their mental ability scores vary more than girls 0 Pinker argues that biological as well as social in uences appear to affect gender differences in life priorities in risk taking and in math reasoning and spatial abilities Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences Racial groups differ in their average intelligence test scores 0 High scoring people are more likely to attain high levels of education and income 0 Genetics research reveals that under the skin the races are very alike Race is not a neatly defined biological category The Question of Bias 0 Earl Hunt and Jerry Carlson divided the debate over race differences in intelligence into three camps 1 There are genetically disposed race differences in intelligence 2 There are socially in uenced race differences in intelligence 3 There are race differences in test scores but the tests are inappropriate or biased Two Meanings of Bias A test is biased if it detects not only innate differences in intelligence but also performance differences caused by cultural experiences 0 In this popular sense intelligence tests are biased They measure your developed abilities which re ect your education and experiences 0 Second meaning of bias the scientific meaning hinges on a test s validity on whether it predicts future behavior only for some groups of test takers 0 Ex If the SAT accurately predicted college achievement of women but not that of men then the test would be biased o In this statistical meaning aptitude tests are not biased Stereotype threat a self confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype Aptitude tests are biased in one sense sensitivity to performance differences caused by cultural experience But they are not biased in scientific sense of failing to make valid statistical predictions for different groups 0 Competence Diligence 9 Accomplishment Modules 4042 Personality Module 40 Psychodynamic Theories 0 Personality an individual s characteristic pattern of thinking feeling and acting Psychodynamic theories view personality with a focus on the unconscious and importance of childhood experiences Freud39s Psychoanalytic Perspective Exploring the Unconscious 0 Free association in psychoanalysis a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing Psychoanalysis Freud39s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and con icts the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions Unconscious according to Freud a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts wishes feelings and memories Accroding to contemporary psychologists info processing of which we are unaware Freud believed we repress or forcibly block from our consciousness a mass of unacceptable passions and thoughts because they would be too unsettling to acknowledge Freud believed that without our awareness these troublesome feelings and ideas powerfully in uence us 0 The remembered content of dreams manifest content he believed to be a censored expression of the dreamer s unconscious wishes latent content Personality Structure 0 Freud viewed human personality as arising from a con ict between impulse and restraint He proposed three interacting systems 1 Id reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that according to Freud strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives The id operates on the pleasure principle demanding immediate gratification 2 Ego the largely conscious executive part of personality that according to Freud mediates among the demands of the id superego and reality The ego operates on the reality principle satisfying the id39s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain 3 Superego the part of personality that according to Freud represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment the conscience and for future aspirations Personality Development Freud39s Psychosexual stages the childhood stages of development oral anal phallic latency genital during which according to Freud the id39s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones 0 oral 018 months pleasure centers on mouth 0 anal 1836 months pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination coping with demands for control 0 phallic 36 years pleasure zone is the genitals coping with incestuous sexual feelings o latency 6 puberty a phase of dormant sexual feelings o genital puberty on maturation of sexual interests 0 During series of psychosexual stages the id39s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure sensitive areas of body called erogenous zones 0 During the phallic stage boys seek genital stimulation and develop both unconscious sexual desires for mother and jealousy for father Boys also experience guilt and fear of punishment from father 0 Oedipus complex according to Freud a boy39s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father 0 Girls experience a parallel Electra complex 0 Identification the process by which according to Freud children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos 0 Gender identity is our sense of being male or female which comes from identification with the same sex parent 0 Fixation according to Freud a lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which con icts were unresolved Freud39s Defense Mechanisms 0 Defense mechanisms in psychoanalytic theory the ego s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality 1 Regression retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated 2 Reaction formation switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites 3 Projection disguising one s own threatening impulses by attributing them to others 4 Rationalization offering self justifying explanations in place of the real more threatening unconscious reasons for one s actions 5 Displacement shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person 6 Denial refusing the believe or even perceive painful realities 0 All defense mechanisms function indirectly and unconsciously 0 According to Freud repression underlies all the other defense mechanisms 0 Repression in psychoanalytic theory the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts feelings and memories The Neo Freudian and Psychodynamic Theorists Collective unconscious Carl ung s concept of a shared inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history a common reservoir of images called archetypes derived from our species universal experiences Assessing Unconscious Processes Projective test a personality test such as the Rorschach that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one s inner dynamics Rorschach inkblot test the most widely used projective test a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach seeks to identify people39s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots Evaluating Freud39s Psychoanalytic Perspective and Modern Views of the Unconscious 0 Terror management theory a theory of death related anxiety explores people39s emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death Module 41 Humanistic Theories Humanistic theories view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth Self actualization according to Maslow one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic needs are met and self esteem is achieved the motivation to fulfill one s potential 0 Unconditional positive regard according to Rogers an attitude of total acceptance toward another person 0 Self concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to question Who am I Module 42 Trait Theories Social Cognitive Theories and the Self Trait Theories Trait a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act as assessed by self report inventories and peer reports Factor Analysis 0 One technique is factor analysis a statistical procedure used to identify clusters factors of test items that tap basic components of a trait Eysenck believed that we can reduce many of our normal individual variations to two or three dimensions including extraversionintroversion and emotional stabilityinstability Biology and Personality Extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low 0 PET scans show that a frontal lobe area involved in behavior inhibition is less active in extraverts than in introverts 0 Differences in shyness and inhibition is due to autonomic nervous system reactivity which explains our responses to stress of greater anxiety and inhibition Assessing Traits 0 Personality inventory a questionnaire often with true false or agree disagree items on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors used to assess selected personality traits 0 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests Originally developed to identify emotional disorders still considered its most appropriate use this test is now used for many other screening purposes 0 Empirically derived test a test such as the MMPI developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups The Big Five Factors 0 Five dimensions are 1 conscientiousness 2 agreeableness 3 neuroticism 4 openness 5 extraversion 0 These five traits are quite stable with some tendencies during early and middle adulthood Conscientiousness increases the most during people39s twenties as people mature and learn to manage their jobs Agreeableness increases the most during people39s thirties and continues to increase through their sixties Heritability varies with the diversity of people studied but it generally runs 50 or more for each dimension and genetic in uences are similar in different nations Frontal lobe area is sensitive to reward and is larger in extraverts The five traits predict other behavioral attributes Shy introverts are more likely to prefer communicating by e mail rather than face to face Highly conscientious people earn better grades and are likely to be morning types extraverted people tend to be evening types Evaluating Trait Theories The Person Situation Controversy 0 Our behavior is in uenced by the interaction of our inner disposition with our environment When we explore the person situation controversy we look for genuine personality traits that persist over time and across situations Social Cognitive Theories Social cognitive perspective views behavior as in uenced by the interaction between people39s traits including their thinking and their social context Reciprocal In uences Reciprocal determinism the interacting in uences of behavior internal cognition and environment 0 Three ways in which individuals and environments interact 1 Different people choose different environments 2 Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events 3 Our personalities help create situations to which we react Personal Control 0 Personal control the extent to which we perceive control over our environment Internal Versus External Locus of Control 0 External locus of control the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate 0 Internal locus of control the perception that you control your own fate Depleting and Strengthening Self Control Self control Learned Helplessness Versus Personal Control 0 Learned helplessness Optimism Versus Pessimism 0 Positive psychology the scientific study of optimal human functioning aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive Exploring the Self 0 Self in contemporary psychology assumed to be the center of personality the organizer of thoughts feelings and actions Spotlight effect overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance performance and blunders as if we presume a spotlight shines on us Self esteem one s feelings of high or low self worth Self serving bias a readiness to perceive oneself favorably Narcissism excessive self love and self absorption 0 Types of self esteem 1 Defensive self esteem fragile focuses on sustaining itself which makes failures feel threatening 2 Secure self esteem less fragile it is less contingent on external evaluations to feel accepted for who we are relieves pressures to succeed and enables us to focus beyond ourselves Comparing the Major Personality Theories Psychoanalytic Theory by Freud emotional disorders spring from unconscious dynamics like unresolved sexual and childhood con icts and fixation at various developmental stages Defense mechanisms fend off anxiety 0 Use free association projective tests dream analysis 0 Psychodynamic Theory by Adler Horney Jung the unconscious and conscious minds interact Childhood experiences and defense mechanisms are important 0 Use projective tests therapy sessions 0 Humanistic Theory by Rogers Maslow rather than examining the struggles of sick people it39s better to focus on the ways healthy people strive for self realization 0 Use questionnaires therapy sessions 0 Trait Theory by Allport Eysenck McCrae Costa we have certain stable and enduring characteristics in uenced by genetic predispositions 0 Use personality inventories Social Cognitive Theory by Bandura our traits and the social context interact to produce our behaviors 0 Consider our past behavior in similar situations Modules 4346 Social Psychology Module 43 Social Thinking 0 Personality psychologists focus on the person and why di ferent people act differently in a given situation Social psychologists focus on the situation and why the same person will act differently in di erentsituations 0 Social psychology the scientific study of how we think about in uence and relate to one another The Fundamental Attribution Error 0 Attribution theory theory that we explain someone s behavior by crediting either the situation a situational attribution or the person39s disposition traits a dispositional attribution Fundamental attribution error the tendency for observers when analyzing another s behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition traits o In an experiment people attributed a woman39s behavior to her personal disposition even when told that her behavior was situational and acting that way for purposes of the experiment 0 Individualistic Westerners more often attribute behavior to people39s personal traits 0 People in East Asian cultures are more sensitive to power of the situation 0 In a test Americans focused more on individual fish while Japanese focused more on the whole scene Attitudes and Actions I Attitude feelings often in uenced by our beliefs that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects people and events I Our attitudes affect our actions And our actions affect our attitudes Attitudes Affect Actions I Persuasion efforts generally take two forms 1 Peripheral route persuasion occurs when people are in uenced by incidental cues such as a speaker39s attractiveness 2 Central route persuasion occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts I Attitudes are especially likely to affect behavior when external in uences are minimal and when the attitude is stable specific to the behavior and easily recalled I Persuasion changed attitudes which changed behavior Actions Affect Attitudes I Attitudes follow behavior I Foot in the door phenomenon the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request I Role a set of expectations norms about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave I Cognitive dissonance theory Leon Festinger s theory that we act to reduce the discomfort dissonance we feel when two of our thoughts cognitions are inconsistent For ex when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes I Attitudes follow behavior principle implies that we can39t directly control all our feelings but we can in uence them by altering our behavior Module 44 Social In uence Conformity Complying with Social Pressures I Conformity adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard 0 More likely when we are made to feel incompetentinsecure are in a group with at least 3 people are in a group in which everyone else agrees admire the group39s status and attractiveness haven39t made a prior commitment to any response know that others in the group will observe our behavior and are from a culture that encourages respect for social standards I Solomon Asch s conformity experiment I Normative social in uence in uence resulting from a person39s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval 0 Social norms understood rules for accepted and expected behavior I Informational social in uence in uence resulting from one s willingness to accept others opinions about reality Obedience Following Orders I Stanley Milgram s obedience experiment Most people complied and obeyed every one of the experimenter s commands 0 Obedience was highest when I People giving orders was close at hand and was perceived to be a legitimate authority figure I The authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution I The victim was depersonalized or at a distance even in another room I There were no role models for defiance Group Behavior Social Facilitation I Social facilitation stronger responses on simple or well learned tasks in the presence of others I What you do well you are likely to do even better in front of an audience especially a friendly audience Social Loafing I Social loafing the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable I Causes ofsocial loafing 1 People acting as part of a group feel less accountable and therefore worry less about what others think 2 Group members may view their individual contributions as dispensable 3 When group members share equally in the benefits regardless of how much they contribute some may slack off Unless highly motivated and strongly identified with the group people may freeride on others efforts Deindividuation Deindividuation the loss of self awareness and self restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity often occurs when group participation makes people both aroused and anonymous Group Polarization 0 Group polarization the enhancement of a group39s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group 0 Ideological separation deliberation polarization between groups Groupthink Groupthink the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives Module 45 Antisocial Relations 0 Prejudice an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs negative feelings and a predisposition to discriminatory action 1 beliefs called stereotypes Z emotions 3 predispositions to action Stereotype a generalized sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized belief about a group of people 0 Discrimination unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members Social Roots of Prejudice ust world phenomenon the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get 0 Ingroup us people with whom we share a common identity Outgroup them those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup Ingroup bias the tendency to favor our own group Emotional Roots of Prejudice Scapegoat theory the theory that pprejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame Cognitive Roots of Prejudice Other race effect aka cross race effect OR the own race bias the tendency to recall faces of one s own race more accurately than faces of other races Aggression Aggression any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy 0 High testosterone level and low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are correlated with irritability impulsiveness etc Psychological and Social Cultural Factors in Aggression Frustration aggression principle the principle that frustration the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal creates anger which can generate aggression 0 Social script culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations Module 46 Prosocial Relations Attraction Mere exposure effect the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them 0 Determinants of attraction proximity geographic nearness physical attractiveness and similarity we like those who like us 0 Reward theory of attraction we will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us and we will continue relationships that offer more rewards than costs Romantic Love 0 Passionate love an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another usually present at the beginning of a love relationship key ingredient is arousal o Two factor theory of emotion assumes that 1 emotions have two ingredients physical arousal and cognitive appraisal and 2 arousal from any source can enhance one emotion or another depending on how we interpret and label the arousal Companionate love the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined The ood of passion facilitating hormones testosterone dopamine adrenaline subsides and another hormone oxytocin supports feelings of trust calmness and bonding with the mate 0 Keys to a gratifying enduring relationship 1 Equity a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it 2 Self disclosure revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others 3 Positive support I Self disclosing intimacy mutually supportive equity enduring companionate love Altruism I Altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of others I Bystander effect the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present 0 We will help only if the situation enables us first to notice the incident then to interpret it as an emergency and finally to assume responsibility for helping o In an experiment Those who thought they alone were responsible for helping thought only they could hear victim usually went to his aid When more people shared responsibility for helping when there was a di usion of resp0nsibility any single listener was less likely to help I Social exchange theory aka costbenefit analysis or utilitarianism theory that our social behavior is an exchange process the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs I Reciprocity norm an expectation that people will help not hurt those who have helped them I Social responsibility norm an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them Peacemaking I Con ict a perceived incompatibility of actions goals or ideas I Social trap a situation in which the con icting parties by each rationally pursuing their self interest become caught in mutually destructive behavior I Through regulations better communication and promoting awareness of our responsibilities toward community nation and the whole of humanity people can be convinced to cooperate for their mutual betterment I Mirror image perceptions mutual views often held by con icting people as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive I Perceptions become selfful lling prophecies I Superordinate goals shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation I GRIT Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction a strategy designed to decrease international tensions 0 One side first announces its recognition of mutual interests and its intent to reduce tensions 0 Then it initiates one or more small conciliatory acts 0 This opens the door for reciprocity by the other party Modules 4751 Disorders Module 47 Intro to Disorders I Psychological disorder deviant distressful and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts feelings or behaviors I Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms extreme inattention hyperactivity and impulsivity Understanding Psychological Disorders I Medical model the concept that diseases in this case psychological disorders have physical causes that can be diagnosed treated and in most cases cured often through treatment in a hospital I Biopsychosocial model is an approach that recognizes that mind and body are inseparable Negative emotions contribute to physical illness and physical abnormalities contribute to negative emotions Classifying Psychological Disorders I DSM IV TR the American Psychiatric Association39s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition with an updated text revision a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders it defines a diagnostic process and 16 clinical syndromes It describes disorders including psychotic disorders Rates of Psychological Disorders I Immigrant paradox a phenomenon in which compared with people who have recently immigrated from Mexico Mexican Americans born in the US are at greater risk of mental disorder Module 48 Anxiety Disorders I Anxiety disorders psychological disorders characterized by distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety 0 Generalized anxiety disorder an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal I Marked by pathological worry I 23 of people with this condition are women I jittery agitated sleep deprived may lead to high blood pressure I concentration is difficult as attention switches from worry to worry I furrowed brows twitching eyelids trembling perspiration fidgeting I the person may not be able to identify and thus deal with or avoid its cause I the anxiety is free oating I as time passes emotions tnd to mellow and by age 50 this disorder becomes rare 0 Panic disorder an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain choking or other frightening sensations I Strikes suddenly wreaks havoc and disappears I 1 in 75 people have this I anxiety escalates into a panic attack a minutes long episode of intense fear that something horrible is about to happen I heart palpitations shortness of breath choking sensations trembling or dizziness o Phobia an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object activity or situation I Specific phobias focus on animals blood close spaces etc I Social phobia shyness taken to an extreme I If the fear is intense enough it may become agoraphobia fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes 0 Obsessive compulsive disorder OCD an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts obsessions andor actions compulsions I Obsessions repetitive thoughts like concern with dirt germs or toxins symmetry order I Compulsions repetitive behaviors excessive hand washing repeating rituals checking locks I More common in teens and young adults than older people 0 Post traumatic stress disorder PTSD an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories nightmares social withdrawal jumpy anxiety and or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience I Once was called shellshock or battle fatigue I Recurring haunting memories and nightmares a numbed social withdrawal jumpy anxiety insomnia I PTSD patients reveal an aberrant and persistent right temporal lobe activation I Some PTSD symptoms may be genetically predisposed I 1 in 10 women and 1 in 20 men develop PTSD Post traumatic growth positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises Understanding Anxiety Disorders Two learning processes can contribute to anxiety 0 Stimulus generalization occurs for ex when a person attacked by a dog later develops a fear of all dogs 0 Reinforcement helps maintain our phobias and compulsions after they arise avoiding or escaping the feared situation reduces anxiety thus reinforcing the phobic behavior Genes in uence disorders by regulating neurotransmitters Some studies point to an anxiety gene that affects brain levels of serotonin a neurotransmitter that in uences sleep and mood Other studies implicate genes that regulate the neurotransmitter glutamate With too much glutamate the brain39s alarm centers become overactive Module 49 Mood Disorders Mood disorders psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes comes in two main forms 1 major depressive disorder with its prolonged hopelessness and lethargy 2 bipolar disorder formerly called manic depressive disorder in which a person alternates between depression and mania Major depressive disorder a mood disorder in which a person experiences in the absence of drugs or another medical condition two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods or diminished interest or pleasure in most activities along with at least four other symptoms Mania a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive wildly optimistic state Bipolar disorder a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy lack of energyenthusisasm of depression and the overexcited state of mania formerly called manic depressive disorder Understanding Mood Disorders These are the facts that any theory of depression must explain 0 Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression 0 Depression is widespread 0 Women39s risk of major depression is nearly double men39s 0 Most major depressive episodes self terminate o Stressful events related to work marriage and close relationships often precede depression 0 With each new generation depression is striking earlier now often in late teens and affecting more people with the highest rates in developed countries among young adults 0 Mood disorders run in families If one identical twin has bipolar disorder the changes are 7 in 10 that the other twin will at some point be diagnosed Among fraternal twins the odds are just under 2 in 10 0 Linkage analysis researchers turn to this to tease out the genes that put people at risk for depression this points us to a chromosome neighborhood Reveals that depression is a complex condition Many genes work together producing a mosaic of small effects that interact with other factors to put some people at greater risk 0 Studies have found diminished brain activity during slowed down depressive states and more activity during periods of mania 0 People with severe depression reveal frontal lobes 7 smaller than normal Other studies show that hippocampus the memory processing center linked with brain39s emotional circuitry is vulnerable to stress related damage 0 Norepinephrine which increases arousal and boosts mood is scarce during depression and overabundant during mania 0 Another study found that the ingredients for depression are significant life stress plus a variation on a serotonin controlling gene 0 Drugs that relieve depression tend to increase norepinephrine or serotonin supplies b blocking either their reuptake or their chemical breakdown Boosting serotonin through exercise may promote recovery by stimulating hippocampus neuron growth 0 Martin Seligman contends that depression is common among young Westerners because the rise of individualism and decline of commitment to religion and family have forced young people to take personal responsibility for failure 0 Self defeating beliefs negative attributions and self blame coincide with a depressed mood and are indicators of depression 0 State dependent memory a phenomenon in which a depressed mood triggers negative thoughts 0 The cycle of depression thinking stressful experiences9negative explanatory style9depressed mood9cognitive and behavioral changes Module 50 Schizophrenia Schizophrenia means split mind a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and behaviors Psychosis a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions a chief example of a psychosis is schizophrenia Disorganized Thinking Delusions false beliefs often of persecution or grandeur that may accompany psychotic disorders 0 Disorganized thoughts may result from a breakdown in selective attention Those with schizophrenia cannot give undivided attention to one set of sensory stimuli while filtering out others 0 A person with schizophrenia may have hallucinations sensory experiences without sensory stimulation Onset and Development of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia strikes as young people are maturing into adulthood Men tend to be struck earlier more severely and slightly more often 0 Schizophrenia is a cluster of disorders Patients with positive symptoms may experience hallucinations talk in disorganized and deluded ways and exhibit inappropriate laughter tears or rate Those with negative symptoms have toneless voices expressionless faces or mute and rigid bodies 0 Positive symptoms are the presence of inappropriate behaviors and negative symptoms are the absence of appropriate behaviors 0 When schizophrenia is a slow developing process called chronic or process schizophrenia recovery is doubtful 0 When previously well adjusted people develop schizophrenia rapidly called acute or reactive schizophrenia following particular life stresses recovery is much more likely Subtypes of schizophrenia o Paranoid symptoms include preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations often with themes of persecution or grandiosity o Disorganized symptoms include disorganized speech or behavior or at or inappropriate emotion o Catatonic symptoms include immobility or excessive purposeless movement extreme negativism and or parrot like repeating of another s speech or movements 0 Undifferentiated symptoms include many and varied symptoms 0 Residual symptoms include withdrawal after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared Understanding Schizophrenia 0 Researchers found an excess of receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine a sixfold excess for the D4 dopamine receptor 0 A hyper responsive dopamine system may intensify brain signals in schizophrenia creating positive symptoms such as hallucinations and paranoia 0 Many people with chronic schizophrenia have abnormal activity in multiple brain areas Some have abnormally low brain activity in the frontal lobes which are critical for reasoning planning and problem solving 0 People diagnosed with schizophrenia also display a noticeable decline in the brain waves that re ect synchronized neural firing in the frontal lobes One study took PET scans of brain activity while people were hallucinating When they heard a voice or saw something their brain became vigorously active in several core regions including the thalamus a structure deep in the brain that filters incoming sensory signals and transmits them to the cortex 0 Another PET scan with people with paranoia found increased activity in the amygdala a fear processing center 0 Many studies found enlarged uid filled areas and a shrinkage and thinning of cerebral tissue in people with schizophrenia 0 One smaller than normal area is the cortex Another is the corpus callosum connection between the two hemispheres Another is the thalamus which may explain why people with schizophrenia have difficulty filtering sensory input and focusing attention 0 If an identical twin has schizophrenia the co twin s chances of being af icted are 6 in 10 if they shared a placenta 0 If they had separate placentas as do fraternal twins the chances are only 1 in 10 Module 51 Dissociative Personality and Eating Disorders Dissociative Disorders 0 Dissociative disorders disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated dissociated from previous memories thoughts and feelings Dissociative Identity Disorder 0 Dissociative identity disorder DID a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities formerly called multiple personality disorder Personality Disorders 0 Personality disorders psychological disorders characterized by in exible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning 0 Anxiety is a feature of one cluster of these disorders such as a fearful sensitivity to rejection that predisposes the withdrawn avoidant personality disorder 0 A second cluster expresses eccentric or odd behaviors such as the emotionless disengagement of the schizoid personality disorder 0 A third cluster exhibits dramatic or impulsive behaviors such as the attention getting histrionic personality disorder and the self focused and self in ating narcissistic personality disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder 0 Antisocial personality disorder a personality disorder in which a person called a sociopathic or a psychopath usually a man exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing even toward friends and family members May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist Eating Disorders 0 Anorexia nervosa an eating disorder in which a person usually an adolescent female maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly 15 or more underweight usually begins as a weight loss diet 0 Bulimia nervosa an eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating usually of high calorie foods with purging by vomiting or laxative use or fasting Binge eating disorder significant binge eating episodes followed by distress disgust or guilt but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa 0 Eating disorder do not provide a sign of childhood sexual abuse Modules 5254 Therapy Module 52 Psychological Therapies 0 Psychotherapy treatment involving psychological techniques consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth 0 Biomedical therapy prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person39s physiology 0 Eclectic approach approach to psychotherapy that depending on the client39s problems uses techniques from various forms of therapy Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Therapy 0 Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud s therapeutic technique Freud believed patient s free associations resistances dreams and transferences and therapist s interpretations of them released previously repressed feelings allowing patient to gain self insight Resistance the blocking from consciousness of anxiety laden material 0 Interpretation the analyst s noting supposed dream meanings resistances and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight Transference the patient s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships 0 Psychodynamic therapy therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences and that seeks to enhance self insight Humanistic Therapies 0 Insight therapies a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person s awareness of underlying motives and defenses Client centered therapy aka person centered therapy a humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which therapist uses techniques like active listening within an empathic environment to facilitate clients growth 0 Active listening empathic listening in which the listener echoes restates and clarifies A feature of Roger s therapy 0 Paraphrase Invite clarification Re ect feelings Unconditional positive regard a caring attitude which Rogers believed would help clients develop self awareness and self acceptance Behavior Therapies Behavior therapy therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors Classical Conditioning Techniques 0 Counterconditioning a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning 0 Exposure therapies behavioral techniques such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy that treats anxieties by exposing people to things they fear avoid 0 Systematic desensitization a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli often used to treat phobias 0 Virtual reality exposure therapy an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their fears such as ying spiders etc 0 Aversive conditioning a type of counterconditioning that associaties an unpleasant state such as nausea with an unwanted behavior such as drinking alcohol Operant Conditioning 0 Token economy an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats Cognitive Therapies 0 Cognitive therapy therapy that teaches people new more adaptive ways of thinking based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions 0 Rational emotive behavior therapy REBT a confrontational cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis that vigorously challenges people s illogical self defeating attitudes and assumptions 0 Cognitive behavioral therapy a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy changing self defeating thinking with behavior therapy changing behavior Group and Family Therapies 0 Group therapy therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals permitting benefits from interaction 0 Family therapy therapy that treats the family as a system Views an individual s unwanted behaviors as in uenced by other family members Module 53 Evaluating Psychotherapies Is Psychotherapy Effective 0 For several reasons client testimonials do not persuade those who doubt that psychotherapy is effective 0 People often enter therapy in crisis When the crisis passes people may attribute improvement to therapy 0 Clients may need to believe the therapy was worth the effort Self justification is a powerful human motive 0 Clients generally speak kindly of their therapists 0 Clients and therapists perceptions of therapy s effectives are likely to be in ated by two phenomena o Placebo effect power of belief in a treatment 0 Regression toward the mean the tendency for extreme unusual scores to fall back regress toward their average 0 Meta analysis a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies The Relative Effectiveness of Psychotherapies Evidence based practice clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences Commonalities Among Psychotherapies 0 Therapeutic alliance a bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and client who work together to overcome the client39s problem 0 Resilience the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma Module 54 Biomedical Therapies 0 Biomedical therapy prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person39s physiology Drug Therapies 0 Psychopharmacology the study ofthe effects of drugs on mind and behavior 0 Antipsychotic drugs drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder 0 Have powerful side effects produce sluggishness tremors and twitches 0 Long term use can produce tardive dyskinesia with involuntary movements of facial muscles tongue and limbs 0 May increase risk of obesity and diabetes 0 Antianxiety drugs drugs used to control anxiety and agitation 0 Ex Xanax Ativan 0 Like alcohol they depress CNS activity 0 Reduce symptoms without resolving underlying problems 0 Can cause physiological dependence 0 Antidepressant drugs drugs used to treat depression and some anxiety disorders Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters 0 Increase availability of norepinephrine or serotonin neurotransmitters that elevate arousal and mood and appear scarce during depression Prozac and Zoloft are selectiveserotoninreuptakeinhibitors SSRIs they slow synaptic vacuuming up of serotonin Block the reabsorption or breakdown of both norepinephrine and serotonin Side effects dry mouth weight gain hypertension or dizzy spells Take four weeks for full psychological effect This is because increased serotonin promotes neurogenesis birth of new brain cells perhaps reversing stress induced loss of neurons 0 Mood stabilizingmedications o For those suffering emotional highslows ofbipolar disorder OOOO o Lithium is a simple salt that can be a mood stabilizer Reduces their risk of suicide to about 16 of those not taking it Brain Stimulation Electroconvulsive therapy ECT a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient 0 Patient receives a general anesthetic and a muscle relaxant before a psychiatrist delivers 3060 seconds of electrical current Within 30 min the patient awakens and remembers nothing 0 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation rTMS the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain used to stimulate or suppress brain activity Psychosurgery Psychosurgery surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior 0 Lobotomy developed by Egas Moniz a psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion controlling centers of the inner brain
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