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ANSC 10200, Dr. Patterson, Material up to Exam 1

by: Kacee Lambert

ANSC 10200, Dr. Patterson, Material up to Exam 1 ANSC 10200 - 020

Marketplace > Purdue University > Agricultural & Resource Econ > ANSC 10200 - 020 > ANSC 10200 Dr Patterson Material up to Exam 1
Kacee Lambert
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These are some notes over Dr. Patterson's powerpoints and lectures leading up to the Lecture on Lab animals. Included are notes from the first help session for Exam 1.
Introduction To Animal Agriculture
John A Patterson
Animal Sciences
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Kacee Lambert on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ANSC 10200 - 020 at Purdue University taught by John A Patterson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Introduction To Animal Agriculture in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 02/02/16
Lecture 1- ANSC 10200 1/12/16 INTRO TO ANIMAL INDUSTRIES *Lab on Friday: going over terms, will be on Blackboard, no quiz in this lab but a quiz in second lab *Should we eat meat? -kids in developing proteins who don’t get enough protein don’t develop physically and mentally as well *Sustainability? -opposing aspect of organic v. not *Who decides : Sustainability or should we eat meat? Individuals or governments? *History of MEaet Consumption and Civilixation -a lot of diets, such as the paleo just screw up metabolism -Climate change has been gradual, but the issues now are with how humans have impacted an dthe impacy it will have on humans -Netherlands: They are worried about global warming, 25% below sea level -Neolithic age: no canine teeth but apposable thumbs -meat is impoartant for development of infant and young animals -intestinal microbiota is important for fighting diseases in young animals -hygeine hypothesis: we have become to hygienic, too sterile, helps develop robust immune system and develop the way its supposed to -early colonization by biota influences brain development and function *Development of agriculture -developed in fertile crescent -populations with a nomadic lifestyle do still exist - animals who are just let free usually don’t survive very well -economic recession 2008/09, people couldn’t afford their horses and couldn’t afford to uthanize them, so they just let them free, but they actually starved and died -the intensification of agriculture resulted in increased waste, disease(Ebola),enivironmental impact, conflict -have to have different societal regulations with differnent size of populations - Lecture 2- ANSC 10200 1/14/16 *To Meat OR Not To Meat -we get energy from the sun, but in other things the nutrients aren’t as concentrated, -we eat animals for the proteins minerals and vitamins, not for the energy -historically animals helped nomadic tribes to carry resources -animals require more resources to produce -ex:CA in drought, should they support exporting crops used by agriculture there to places like Indiana, which used water resources there? -Who decides?govts, corporations, people? *Intensive v. Extensive -intensive: high input high yield -extensive: low input ?high yield? -subsistence farming: use everything you grow -monocultures: Problem is youre not very flexible, tend to be more susceptible to diseases/disruption -diversity:less direct cash returns but more resilience, less efficient in producing one product *Efficiency & Sustainability -Sustainability: raise more but decrease environmental impact -Global warming: heating and cooling of earth is happening rapidly, not just happening -Individual v. Communal rights &responsibilities 1.individual rights US, we have aright to drive a car and have a cell phone, but we have a responsibility to not use them at the same time 2.Communalnetherlands *Grand Challenges -efficiency of animal production 1.ruminants produce a lot of methane, beneficial to the bacteria, but not environment; -feeding th world/food quality 1.pop is increasing, need more land to feed the people 2.quality issues: chipotle -animal health &well being 1. preventing illness, healthy on farm -animals and the environment 1.environment affects health, well-being, productivity, and animals effect environement *World Human Population -7.3 billion people on earth, projected 9 billion -Companies are increasing in size, but not designed to hold steady or work with a decreasing population, and older people are retiring and young people aren’t plentiful enough to replace them -lifespan is increasing -pop is projected to increase most in developing countries such as Africa -as you increase wealth, family size decreases -as you increase support of women(working for selves) , you tend to decrease pops -wealth is related to meat consumption, and higher weath can eat more meat so they will have more pop growth *Animal Products in Human Diets in Developed and developing Countries *Food Prices -developing countries: changes in grain prices can be more devastating than in developed countries -the 1%= the top percentage of people, have all the wealth -wars can deplete crops as well *Global Animal Food Production -people have different prefences for the types of food -people ignore cultural aspect -may aknowledge how to change, but don’t have thcapital to do it -some foods aren’t accepted in the country, ex: GMO’s, a country had a lot of people starving but refused to take GMO corn -In US, people who are from a lower income aren’t used to healthier food, so don’t want to change lifestyle to eat it *World Meat Production -Pigs are the most widely consumed in the world, next is poultry, then cattle *Milk Production -most is cow’s milk, next is buffalo milk, then goats, then sheep, then camels * Lecture 3- ANSC 10200 1/19/16 *milk production and rice production are fairly important throughout the world *In US we produce a lot of corn, soybeans, milk, and wheat -most of the corn is to feed animals *US & China produce most corn *US, Brazil, Argentina produce most soybeans *You can see some corn in Netherlands and soybeans because they are modifying corn so that they grow in shorter season *US and India are top cow milk producers, India produces buffalo milk *US China and brazil major producers of poultry *US dominates turkey industry *US, brazil and china dominate cattle production *controversy over sustaining environment when it comes to clearing forests for pasture for cattle and farming *China is primary country that produces sheep/goat/horse, US is third in horse meat production *Agriculture Trends in the Us -zoos used to have animals in small concrete cages at first, now they don’t for animal welfare -Meat processing has become more sanitary *industrial rev. 1760-1840 *land in farms peaked around 1940’s *# farms peaked around 1930’s *Avg. Farm size began to increase around 1930’s *green revolution: 1940-1970, farms consolidated, *farmland is cheap but less productive in western area *today less than 1.5% is living on a working farm *lots of very small farms, but the share of production is fairly small *large scale farms are more scarce but produce 35% of production *a lot of small farms that are driven by non farm income, larger farms will profit *total # farms: down 4.3% *Total acres of farms: down 7 million acres, *number beginning farms: down 20%, concerning *avg. age: 58.3, which is up by 1.2 years *Farmers under 24: DECREASE *exports are a smaller % of total market, *Subsidized crops: things that can be shipped and stored easily and traded on internationally *farm subsidies: $20 billion/yr ; *wild fluxesin prices until 1930’s when there was too much grain and very low prices that people couldn’t afford *corn is highly subsidized, followed by cotton, then soybeans *sugar has a lot of subsidies, but also has a lot of regulation *Subsidies & Global food production -sub. Exports can provide cheap food to consumers in developed and developing countries -harmful to local farmers not receiving subsidies *our ag. Products are trying to work on trade deficit *US: beef is major livestock, then dairy, poultry, hogs, and then everything else *Farm Trends: what do they mean? -food prod. Will cont. to be in fewer hands, but they have more influence so more regulation -need to become more efficient in prod.(ex: overstocking in grocery stores, lots of waste here) -increased prod. May come through advances in biotech, genetics, nutrition/management changes; not land expansion(trying to make more tolerant crops) in order to increase productivity -is there a threat to this type of integration? *IN is 8 in ag. Productivity *Total meat production increase, beef has decreased, poultry has increased *most prod. Is with large ops. Lecture 4-ANSC 10200 1/21/16 *Why are farmers so efficient -all together at one time *Education in US -1892:12 yr education recommended -1910:72% children attended school -1946: Nat. School Lunch -1999: ISTEP *The Land Grant System -1862: Morrill Act- land grant colleges est. -1887: Hatch Act-est. of research for universities -1914: Smith Lever Act: Cooperative extension service -90 total Land Grant univ. (reason why there is more than 1 per state is because of segregation) *P.U. Animal Sciences -29 full time equivalents *Animal industries -livestock, companion, equine, zoo/exotic, lab *Animal Industry Related Fields -feed manufacturing -livestock & Poultry Breeders -Building &Equipment supply -teachers, profs, vets -meat, milk, egg processing *Factors of all animal enterprises -quality/quantity labor -capital -acreage -stability Animal Domestication: * know genus and species -Bos tarus: cattle -Bos indicus: cattle Ovis Aries: sheep -capra hircus -Sus scrofa -Equidae caballus -galliformes galli: poultry *Ag Systems -started with nomadic herding, -subsistence farming:crop, livestock, paddy rice, peasant grain, tuber -Developed: ranching; comm. Grain, livestock crop, dairy, planations Animal Ops. Terms -AFO-animal feeding operations: -CAFO- concentrated animal feeding units: facility w/ > 1000 animal units(based on feces) on confined site for > 45 days ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS: *Digestion: extracting nutrients, 4 steps: 1. digestion 2. absorption 3. circulation of absorbed nutrients 4. cellular metabolism th 5. possible 5 step, excretion of waste *sections of gastrointestinal -foregut(pregastric): rumen, reticulum, omasum,crop, gizzard -gastric(abomasum(ruminants), stomach, proventriculus): -small intestine(duodendum, jejunum, ileum, gall bladder, pancreas) -hindgut(postgastric): cecum, colon(varies with species) -rectum *Gastric Stomach -Gastrin: stimulates release of HCL, if there is protein in there -3 phases: 1. cephalic(sight/smell) 2. gastric (presence of food in stomach) 3. intestinal phase (presence of food in upper intestine) *Small intestine -active tissue:lining regenerated every three days -3 subdivisions: 1.duodnum(has buffers, increases pH, fairly short, a lot of digestion_ 2. Gugenum ( 3. ileum(has a lot of immune cells, increases in microbial #s, not as much nutrient absorptions) -ileocecal sphincter: transition between small and large intestine *Digestion -bile acids: emulsify fat -Pancreatic secretions -intestinal; secretions *Functions of cecum & Large intestine: -fermentation of non-digested food -reabsorbs water and packs material into feces (pellets formed by contractions in colon and anal sphincter) -absorb vitamins -store fecal matter prior to defecation * Clasification of herbivores based on gastro intestinal tract: -pregastric: ruminants/non -hindgut: cecal/colonic Lecture 5- ANSC 10200 1/26/16 DIGESTION *Animals who need more fiber have some way to slow the passage rate/fermentation of food; can subsist on grasses alone * cows use their tongue to grab grasses *Animal Nutrition (terms) -nonruminant (monogastric): swine, poultry, humans, young ruminants? No functional rumen; fish - ruminants: -formulate a diet, and fix a ration -ration: fixed allowance of feed for a day *Digestion in ruminants -process of: regurguation, reensalivation, remastication(chewing cud), reswallowing of ingested rumen materials -rumen: largest segment of 4 compartments; provides ideal environment for microorganisms, they provide convert cellulose to fatty acids (short chain) 80% of energy comes from the fatty acids; convert protein/non to amino acids; synthesize vitamin k and all B complex vitamins -if we feed cattle high protein diet, the microbes will decrease the quality of the protein -reticulum: site of fermentation of ingested materials; the”honeycomb”; filters ingested materials; heavy particles can stay in reticulum -fistulas/cannulas: to get frequent samples from rumen -reticulo-omasal orfice: basically a sphincter, restricts fiber passage to omasum, makes sure its broken down -omasum: further absorbs water & ferments feed -abomasum: acts like a true stomach of a nonriuminant -layers: grain/ hay from yesterday on bottom, then todays hay on top of that, then gas on very top *Nutrition- Nonruminant - liver: synthesizes bile salt, excretes waste products -gall bladder-stores bile -small intestine is longer in a non ruminant *Poultry -proventriculous: like the gastric part of stomach, includes -gizzard: eat sand or rocks to help break up food -have two ceca -short large intestine *Horses/Ponies -hindgut -lots of enzymatic absorption in duodendum region *Nutrition- Ruminant: - rumen on the left side, -swollen on left: full rumen, swollen on right: pregnant swollen on both: bloat -Notable Problems: bloat (inability to eructate(belch) gases, 1. can get it by being introduced to really lush forage, fresh legumes -feedlot bloat: -acidosis: when they switch from low quality forage to high quality (high levels of starch) , some microbes will grow that usually don’t and will kill other necessary ones, can cause a drop in blood pH -ketosis: in high producing lactating cows when they mobilize fatty acids and have low blood sugar -grinding grain to almost flour can cause ulcers in swine Help Session Exam 1 ANSC 10200 1/31/16 40-50 questions *1940’s size of farms started increasing, number of farms decreased *subsistence farming: -produce everything yourself -trying to make a living on a small farm, most people cant do tthat -350,000 dollrs in sales *Grand challenges 1.Efficiancy of animal production -concerned about impact of animal agriculture on environment, soyou have to decrease how much waste there is 2. Feeding the world - farmers v. non farmers don’t agree on the importance of increasing feed production and decreasing food wastage to be able to feed the world; most people who really need food cant afford it 3. Animal welfare -we need to address because if we are going to use these animals for livestock etc. then we need to increase well-being 4. Animals and the environment -more efficient to use sunlight to produce grains to feed humans, you lose efficiancy at each step, using more resources and more waste emmisions when you increase agriculture *Small Intestine 3 Sections 1. Duodenum: short, very acidic stuff enters so you have to buffer it to neutralize it so as not to harm lining the acidic part degrades proteins; a lot of digestion and absorption; microbial numbers are low; 10^3 10^4 cells per mL 2. Jujunum: 3. Ileum:a lot of immune cells, microbial numbers are higher, 10^9-10^10 bacterial cells per mL; single sphincter to go to cecum *Cecum: primarily fermentation *digestion v. fermentation: pretty interchangable -d: mammalian enzymes, when they are broken down they are used F-specific for microbial breakdown of polymers, used and something else, lol *Lab Animals -Osiba pigs: wild feral pigs, they are really aggressive when they first got here, had to tranquilize; but as they have gone through a couple generations they have calmed down, will develop artherosclerosis and diabetes like humans when fed a high -naked mole rats don’t get cancer -horseshoe crab: blue blood, can draw blood without harming it -zebrafish: used for developmental biology, almost translucent when they are younger to look at the digestive tract etc. -put illuminecant tags on bacteria that will turn light to see in animals where the ‘bugs’ are *Kalipe sheep: don’t have purebred ones , their hindquarters are huge, they don’t have much fat, so the meat isn’t as tasty *genetics: aggressive hens lay more, bred it to where nicer hens lay more *Stomach: Ruminnant 1. reticulum: honeycomb, not as absorbative as rumen, heavy materials collect, helps to for bolus to ruminate (in order to rechew to make it easier to digest) 2. omasum: many plies(folds) increases absorbtion, a lot of water absorbtion there, 3. Rumen : carbohydrates and proteins are digested 4.abomasum *lipids are digested in small intestine of ruminants *Small Intestine in Non-ruminants: digests lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates *Rules and regulations in Lab animal Industry: -any changes must be approved - are a number of rules , and guidebooks for lab animals and farm animals -any research with lab animals funded by national institute of health, you have to report to them -USDA : report to for farm animals *small biotech companies do prelim research, then pharm. Will buy or license and do some in house research and then have contractors do research, then contact company and do clinical trials *elanco: eli lilly of animal health *eve if it’s a foregut fermenter, there are differences in nutritional needs -fore gut=pregastric -acidosis: rumen microbes primarily involved in digestion food that goes to rumen, when you change from low to high quality, they produce a lot of acid which drops ph in the rumen, and in the blood, baking soda helps -bloat v. Feedlot bloat: bloat: occurs from lush diet; feedlot: occurs from high starch feeds *how people started being gatherers, then hunters, there are different theories as to why humans brains got so large an muscles got less: some may be opposable thumbs, eating meat could be why people develop language and writings


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