Music History 7
Music History 7
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Popular in Music History
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MH 7 Final Study Guide Terms Concepts Neo noir like the film noir Hollywood crime dramas that emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations it wasn39t until neo noirs that composers used jazzy smoky music evoking sense of pastnessnostalgia updated noir sound for modern audience film noirs were supposed to set back to older time more of an autoperception ofwhat we thought old films sounded like Retrospective illusion a theory of how anticipating posthumous reception can affect a writer addresses a problem produced by successful writing many film noirs were referred to as melodramas before the term film noir was widely adopted in 1970s Chinatown 1974 Dir Roman Polanski music by Jerry Goldsmith Goldsmith wrote this film39s score in 10 days atonal piano music percussion a smoky narrative trumpet solo within theme song for romance scenes Blade Runner 1982 Dir Ridley Scott music by Vangelis sci fi neo noir music by an electronic music composer but he makes use of live music saxophone solo for romance scenes Melodrama also called women39s pictures tap into fears that women are dealing with such as how to balance career and family romance Noir vs Melodrama o SIMILARITIES both have their departures from the Classical Hollywood Model striking visual and musical style not supposed to draw attention to style but these do excess of style acting style music don39t buy into idea of invisibility both can be reliant on visual or musical symbols used to convey what dialogue will not reveal both genres grew up side by side both grapple with crises of unrest during the period expectations of gender role what kinds of careers or relationships people should have you can locate subversive elements in both racial issues addressed in Imitation of Life due to excessive style they undermine our sense of realism o DIFFERENCES noirs often have ashbackmemories and a narrator noirs follow male character they have strong sense of resolution melodramas are the women39s picture and deal with the problems they faced how to balance career with family independence romance end ambiguously Women s filmpicture melodrama focus on social issues housing boom middle class etc archetypes used sometimes called bubblegum trash 9sexism involved portrayed women as unimportant dismissed as being about unimportant things women criticized for being unrealistic social orders are established and contained female characters fall into types extraordinary up against obstacles fiery independent ordinary bound by rules of society because options are too limited by societal rules ordinary who becomes extraordinary bound by societal rules but will mold their own fate Jeanine Basinger film critic was a woman at center of story affirms women s duties and temporary rejection of that role 0 film doesn39t necessarily break down social order status quo of women39s duty to fit into social order is unfortunately affirmed but there are little victories along the way Postwar women39s issues what is women39s role in society as men returned from war do they work stay home etc postwar melodramas included Douglas Sirk films All That Heaven Allows 1955 and Imitation of Life 1959 Artificiality the exaggeration of color and style in melodramas Excess the idea of exaggerations in melodramas Mise en scene putting on stage refers to everything you see in front of the camera refers to how the scene is staged tells you things about the character through lighting costumes setting Cary at the piano in All That Heaven Allows she is trying to deal with expectations of her marrying a good man she falls in love with her gardener Ron theme she is increasingly isolated her family disapprove of her romantic wishes try to force her to break it off Douglas Sirk director of All That Heaven Allows Imitation of Life he uses symbols as emotional stimulus addresses racism women39s oppression gender roles and how women led their lives in a world created by men Frank Skinner composer of music for All That Heaven Allows Imitation of Life All That Heaven Allows 1955 dir Douglas Sirk music by Frank Skinner o Cary Jane Wyman and Ron Rock Hudson 0 Widow Cary with youngest child about to get married good social standing middle class suburban life falls in love with her gardener who is younger than her expectation is to marry an older man from her country club con ict children find out and they emotionally blackmail her until she breaks it off theme of isolation and loneliness 0 Television scene Jane is gifted with a TV on Christmas by her children which keeps her company TV is a symbol of her loneliness on a snowy day Ron and Cary are together juxtaposition of warm and cold she39s wearing warm colors TV salesman appears cold Ron wears warm vibrant red on cold snowy day warm and cold lighting scheme during their argument cold environment when they39re at odds with each other 0 Barn scene Jane visits her boyfriend in the barn he transformed into a home and she realizes that she cannot be with him because of status and social expectations o Violin piano dialogue Cary is represented by piano middle class since considered an accomplishment if a girl learned to play piano freedom enjoyment while Ron is represented by violin warm idealistic high solo violin and piano musical dialogue piano is an emblem of her upbringing also represents freedom enj oyment for her violin is warmer idealistic in the teapot sequence there is a violin piano duet vibrato warm vs cold 0 Piano and middle class household Jane faces the piano the camera captures her re ection boxed in by the music stand this symbolizes imprisonment in lonely suburbia o Franz Liszt Consolations No 3quot romantic piano piece in D at 1849 symbolizes longing for more in life weaved through the composition throughout the entire movie I Far From Heaven 2002 dir Todd Haynes music by Elmer Bernstein 0 Julianne Moore Cathy Dennis Quaid Frank and Dennis Haysbert Raymond o Homage to Sirk s All That Heaven Allows 1955 and Imitation of Life 1959 o Intertextuality film is referencing things within the movie ex race 0 Extratextuality referencing things attached or related to the film ex star of All That Heaven Allows was gay pointed to the production of film Cary from All That Heaven Allows falls in love with her gardener a black man Todd Haynes incorporated that Cathy39s husband is gay I way of addressing homosexuality race 0 Todd Haynes director of Far From Heaven while staying within cinematic language of his period he updates the sexual and racial politics showing scenarios like an interracial love affair and gay relationships 0 Elmer Bernstein composer of music for Far From Heaven marked beginning of more modern scores not super orchestrated like earlier Douglas Sirk films 0 Piano there is a sparsescattered piano melody that is peaceful and not super dramaticemotionalfull ofviolins and deeply moving orchestral soundtrack as a 1950 film would be 0 Updated orchestral writing modern writing use of orchestra versus the traditional romantic scoring that came to be expected with the Classical Hollywood Model Todd Haynes s sparse use of piano versus his 1950s score that fills up most of Far From Heaven is an example of updated orchestral writing I Mainstreaming of modernism in film music horror and sci fi used in horror and sci fi films to create alienation 20th century modernism intense experimentation pushed boundaries of tonality trajectory isn39t going home not supposed to sound like it39s going anywhere Expressionism tends to sound brutal 12 tone music ranging the notes in a pattern serialism a technique in which a fixed series of notes especially the 12 notes of the chromatic scale are used to generate the harmonic basis of a piece composer Arnold Schoenberg tried to introduce experiential techniques I Horror vs melodrama SIMILARITIES both have elements of catharsis and shame excess ofbody uids melodrama tears horror blood DIFFERENCE melodrama sorrow horror fear pain I Soundtrack albums music became understood as a commodity composers realized they could market song and make money music can be marketed separately from film filmmakers started to find spots where they could put snippets of pop songs and sell that along with a soundtrack question ofwhether to order the songs as they had appeared in the film soundtrack albums tend to remove shorter cues sometimes only a little bit of a song was in the film and the soundtrack would have full version could have two soundtracks marketed separately orchestral soundtrack and soundtrack with pop tunes first one was Disney39s jungle Book 1942 Henry Mancini s Breakfast at Tijfany s I Cross promotion music made the movies more appealing while movies made the songs more popular they worked together to make the studios money as people heard iconic songs in movies became attached and bought them I Henry Mancini composer of Moon River in Breakfast at Tijfany s developed a model for film scoring that would yield a soundtrack with the potential to sell wrote Pink Panther theme helped to create the soundtrack album as a separate narrative and commercial experience I Breakfast at Tijfany s 1961 had a soundtrack album meant to sell outside the film 0 Moon River by Henry Mancini example of musical product placement when the audience sees the scene of her singing this they go out and buy it led viewers to want to own music I Goldeneye 1995 part ofames Bond series 0 Title song Goldeneye sung by Tina Turner hints at motifs from the score while naked girls posesmoke and knives cover the screen 0 Shirley Bassey sang the title track for the spoofames Bond film The Liquidator I Robin Hood Prince of Thieves 1991 0 Michael Kamen composer of score Everything I Do I Do It For You able to incorporate pop with score 0 Marian s theme many similar elements to Princess Leia s theme very romantic 0 quotEverything I Do I Do It For You sung by Bryan Adams Kamen originally wanted a female singer Maid Marian but ended up being sung from Robin39s point of view so male voice was required example of using popular songs for commercial reasons became Marian s tune I appears at end credits of film rather than being part of the underscore itself I the song39s style has little to do with rest of the film39s soundtrack 0 Music video promotion the promotion clip for this single video was shot in a forest film based shots include close ups of the main characters numerous action sequences to show how exciting the film is to watch and the reunion of the separated lovers at the end the promo clip is a form of the film but doesn39t give too much away making people want to see the film song is included at end to make them want to buy the soundtrack I Artists would use music videos to promote film and soundtrack to increase sales Diane Warren a songwriter who was originally a musician but ended up not pursuing a performer s career owns her own publishing company 0 Wrote I Don39t Wanna Miss a Thing for Armageddon 1998 performed by rock band Aerosmith o Wrote How Do I Live for Con Air 1997 performed by LeAnn Rimes heard on radio and Tricia Yearwood ended up in film 0 She is able to strike a balance between way of expressing self and making song sound like artist 0 When she writes for films producers may already have someone in mind to sing it she tailors the song to sound like the artist Pop compilation score a group of songs compiled for a movie using popular music of the time in the score for a film they are not necessarily tailor made for the film but the director thinks them a good fit for a scene or character scores that are pop music all the way through and if placed strategically they can tell a story gives a sense of 0 Place and era Prior associations Lyrics can be part of the narrative and set the time Genre and associations Star text associations 0 Familiarity 8 Mile 2002 dir Curtis Hansen 0 Sweet Home Alabama song by Southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd freestyled by Eminem and Future Mekhi Pfeifer defining themselves finding identity against the music 0 Eminem s familiarity of song shown through ability to freestyle the song he plays a main character trying to reclaim his sonic space by freestyling it but also forming complexities of identity he39s reacting against the associations of the song and making implications about whites rednecks working class whites from the country 0 Identity race and class identity the two characters in film establish identity against the music race white man rapping over black awareness of identity enables him to win in the competition authenticity to himself Compilation score background music used in films that is put together from pre existing material as opposed to an original score composed specifically for the film provides familiarity audience has pre associations with it lyrics can add to narration grounds us in the time period of film pop tune may have a strong sense of nationality the song39s performer could have associations too bring more meaning to film sometimes come under attack for wanting to solely make a profit 0 The Graduate 1967 The Sound of Silence wedding crash scene Simon Garfunkel music sense of detachedness distance evocative lyrics establishment of expectations I Benjamin Braddock is looked at as a much more familiar character because he is backed by a compilation score lyrics are part of narrative and tell you about character place 0 Saturday Night Fever 1977 Stayin Alive written and produced by the Bee Gees94 songs released before promotion of film music became more popular than film itself The Graduate 1967 0 Simon and Garfunkel music The Sound of Silence takes you down emotionally as you sober up contemplative reminds us of detachedness the characters are next to each other but not with each other 0 Sounds of Silence sounds hollow distant detached evocative lyrics 0 Wedding escape crash scene resistance pushing down elders using cross to lock the doors Blue Velvet 1986 dir David Lynch I Slickness done smoothly effortlessly of music relates to slickness of visuals I Colors are overproduced lot of staginess artificial mannered quality to it but all for achieving a certain effect I Very carefully stylized calculated I Some controversy surrounding film because people thought main actress was treated too badly I Hose represents man having a stroke 0 Blue Velvet Opening sung by Bobby Vinton theme the pleasant nice things you see may have difficulties underneath them colors are saturated and actions are calculated makes you question if things are as innocent as they seem recognized by older audience sung again in nightclub 0 Blue Velvet Blue Lady mysterious woman singing at a nightclub you think she39s a femme fatale she starts to sing and she39s bad her voice represents her fragile broken interior hints at her identity family held captive relationship with criminal O O O O Film composers concert composers The Mission 1986 o Ennio Morricone composer who wrote soundtrack for The Mission composer for many ofthe Spaghetti Westerns a broad sub genre of Western films 0 Cue Gabriel s Oboe popular among classical crossover singers o Becomes Nella Fantasia sung by Sarah Brightman lyrics written in Italian arrangement picked up by many others after its debut in her album 0 Also covered by Il Divo a multinational pop vocal group 0 Classical crossover mixed classical genre combines traits of one genre with another the crossover gnere has to deal with audiences of both sides 0 Yo Yo Ma a renown cellist Hans Zimmer founder of Media Ventures Remote Control Productions contemporary composer who wrote film score for Inception 2010 Gladiator 2000 Pirates of the Caribbean Batman series Sherlock Holmes series video game franchises Call of Duty SOCOM Assassin s Creed Metal Gear Solid Medal of Honor rockestral scoring associated with many authorship and ownership problems Rock crossover Hans Zimmer combined rock style with the orchestra mimicking what a rock band might do in an orchestra Media Ventures aka Remote Control Productions founded 1989 a film score company run by Hans Zimmer home to a large group of composers mentored by Zimmer the studio that he produced his scores out of many beginning composers try to start their work by entering this took in young composers to give them experience and have a workforce to get things done quickly Remote Control the company mentioned above like a mini music department it39s an organizational method in that a remote control is like a one stop shop lots ofyoung people would begin their careers here problem so many young composers who seek apprenticeship at Remote Control expectation of having to sound like Zimmer The media ventures sound legato melody in brass or strings drum beat strings or horns playing rock rhythms Hans Zimmer The Rock 1996 Mark Mancina Twister 1996 Hans Zimmer Gladiator 2000 Harry Gregson Williams Metal Gear Solid 2 2001 long melody that39s been layered over by a drum beat combined horn with electronic drumbeat Gladiator 2000 o Gustav Holst The Planets 1916 o Plagiarism agents of Gustav Holst claimed that Hans Zimmer s Gladiator s The Battle 2000 was plagiarized from Holst s The Planets track Mars Bringer ofWar 1916 o Authorship problem is that many composers cues are frequently used in temp tracks I Hans Zimmer and James Newton Howard Batman Begins 2005 OOOOOOO Television there wasn39t a lot of time to get the score done for TV composers did not get large orchestras to play for them so many scores needed per series cues for TV shows tended to be shorter since scenes are short and ads take up time composers didn39t collaborate with directors much multiple directors who can39t all be on set always composer must create an iconic opening title that will set the mood for rest of the series Video games not much crossover for composers Final Fantasy series 1987 today Leitmotifs cinematic leitmotifs used unique themes music for specific places characters Nobuo Uematsu composer ofsoundtracks for Final Fantasy series joined Square Japanese video game company in 1986 left Square in fall 2004 to create SMILE PLEASE LTD Loop a repeating section of sound material the central component of any game allows the game to run smoothly regardless of a user39s input since various sections of visual medium is infinitely continuous unlike films that have an end video games don39t so there needs to be a musicalatmospheric loop Final FantasyX tenth in its series soundtrack consists of Hymn of the Fayth a recurring piece sung using Japanese syllabary Hymn of the Fayth literally Song of Prayer composed by Nobuo Uematsu and Masahi Hamauzu fuses futuristic with ancient complex religious basis to the narrative of this game single melody when you wander into a place of worship a list of syllables that sound like nonsense lapanese lyrics broken up Japanese that sounds like Latin choir hymns hymn was originally a song against the church but it became a song of worship Allegri s Miserere performed by Tallis Scholars example of how music can be composed to take up space used as inspiration Hymn of the Fayth used an iteration of this The Color of the Pomegranates 1968 dir Sergei Parajanov music by Tigran Mansurian Soviet film 0 Opening Scene song The World is a Window Mansurian s score ensemble of duduks playing in counterpoint not stable wobbles a little gives depth and a sense of the past 0 Poet39s Beloved a miniature in which Sayat Nova still does not realize that he loves the princess playing with rhythm and repetition of the imagery white noise sound is on purpose historical not completely diegetic complicated relationship between poet and Princess Ann density of film score 0 World is a Window the miniature in which Sayat Nova sees the sorrow of people and remains with the people one ofthe few scenes in which synchronized sound occurs three musicians playing 0 How the Poet Dies poet dies and is taken away by angels and leaves the instrument behind which represents his leaving inspiration behind poet has become the voice of the people Sergei Parajanov wrote and directed The Color of Pomegranates had international fame and con ict with Soviet government Russian Period 1945 VGIK All Union State Institute of Cinematography Moscow first arrest in 1947 first marriage in 1950 Ukrainian Period Dovzhensko Film Studio in Kiev Ukraine second marriage in 1956 Sayat Nova The Color of Pomegranates is a biography of him an Armenian poet and musician it aims to reveal his life visually and poetically rather than literally the film depicts his coming of age discovery of the female form falling in love entering a monastery and dying all framed through director39s imagination and Nova s poems Socialist realism Soviet Union 193 2 1980s a truthful historically concrete representation of reality in its revolutionary development 0 Origins 1 19th century Russian Realism 2 Romanticism heroes struggling and overcoming all odds o Purposes propaganda classless society accessibility 0 Issues with experimental Avant guard tendencies 1 Naturalism denies ideological awareness 2 Ob ektivism denies party mindedness 3 Formalism denies artistic quality and being of and for the people non representational art not accessible by the masses associated with high class bourgeoisie Themes Sayat Nova poet autobiography lovepassionshomosexuality suffering and tragic faith Transcaucasia culture and heritage ancestrythe past history Imagery symbolism pomegranates dagger androgynous partly male and partly female in appearance color red gold white and black fish and bread grapes carved text in stone white rose with no leaves Kamancha musical instrument Religious themes suffering and tragic faith fish and bread stand for Christian theme fish gasping for air suffering grapes man39s foot crushing it on stone carved text in stone Wild at Heart 1990 dir David Lynch American crime thriller film based on novel by Barry Gifford Wild at Heart The Story of Sailor and Lula David Lynch credited with screenplay of Wild at Heart Elvis Presley Sailor s character is like Elvis snakeskin jacket rebel singing has a late onset verbatto behavior speech accents consonants Bobby One eyed jack s a yearnin to go a peepin in a seafood store allusion to popular rock and roll history song Shake Rattle and Roll 9Elvis Big Joe Turner Love Me Sailor sings to Lula in the club but only as a girlfriend and not a wife he channels Elvis girls screaming screams have a historical significance sampled from 1956 performance of Elvis on the Ed Sullivan show Love Me Tender symbolic of what marriage means to Sailor Sailor sings this to Lula only after he knows he wants to make her his wife at end of film Road picture people on a roadtrip with various misadventures Wizard of Oz Wild at Heart contains allusions to this good witch wicked witch heel clicking Lula s mother is both bad witches and looks in a crystal ball the power Lula s mother has to see things at a distance is sonically accompanied by an other worldly sound synthesizer sounds mysticalmagical Sailor sees the good witch who tells him to not look away from love Audio close ups sounds are louder in close ups zoom in on sizzle of cigarette Sonic sound leitmotifs Strauss s Im Abendrot Glen Miller39s In the Mood and Powermad s Slaughterhouse visual close up of Lula painting her nails matchstick close up sonic close up when jail cell closes close up of ame red wash of the screen when they39re having sex Fire symbolizes emotions unprocessed trauma Powermad the band that played Slaughterhouse Slaughterhouse recurs throughout the film song that signals Sailor s inability to control his rage theme song for Sailor and Lula s love I Strauss Im Abendrot sentimental classical music harmonic complexity of this unresolved piece relates to complexity of emotions plays at beginning of movie during matchstick scene I Star Trek iconic American science fiction TV series created in late 1960s as original series by Gene Roddenberry this franchise has produced five TV spin offs of original series and many movies since late 1970s I Star Trek The Motion Picture 1979 music by Jerry Goldsmith additional music by Alexander Courage a return to symphonic film scoring with the addition of synthesizers more romantic space opera effect unveiled new inventions the Blaster Beam the Con Brio ADS I Jerry Goldsmith wrote Ilia s theme song Star Trek Overture 1979 and Star Trek Theme 1979 Theme sounds classic message seems less combative than his previous works constitute a return to Hollywood swashbuckler and classic nostalgic time I 1966 I Ethnic representation racial tokenism presence of Asian man and black woman minority characters but a white man Captain Kirk is still in charge I Western Sci Fi the Space Western a wagon train to the stairs a subgenre of science fiction that transposes themes of American Western films to a backdrop of futuristic space frontiers manifest destiny the final frontier I Star Trek Liberal humanism atheism lack of religion rationality rather than God39s Word the prime directive not meddling with aliens unless you have to democracy diversity of opinions and ethnicities I Swashbuckling high action films difficult to score because of multiple fighting scenes ex Robin Hood I Star Trek Star Wars Star Wars heroes have a swashbuckling style Star Trek protagonists resolve problems with science and intellect broader themes of utopian livingjusticeidentity Films I Imitation of Life 1959 a melodrama updated version of 1934 film 0 Dir Douglas Sirk music by Frank Skinner Lora Lana Turner and daughter Susie Sandra Dee Annie Juanita Moore and daughter Sarah Jane Susan Kohner Race and class in America Story of Annie and Sarah Jane overshadow narrative of Lora passing Lana Turner Lora undermined Piano motif representing Annie and Sarah ane s difficulties Excess of emotion Scenes I Opening Credits 0 Frank Skinner39s piano motif comes before song Imitation of Life Imitation of Life sung by Earl Grant a pop tune with striking visuals lush full orchestra with piano brass combination of piano and brass is an audio symbol piano in low octaves ominous sounding9when Sarah and Annie are at odds when Annie does horrific caricature at party Song crooned and well produced Visual of fake gems falling diamonds Song and visuals about falseness even as the lyrics urges you to embrace who you are There39s so many diamonds that you begin to doubt if they39re real pursuit of opulence makes you question integrity 0 The song urges you to be truthful and who you are idea of imitation9Susie tells mother stop acting You39re always acting I Sarah Jane Performing o passing as performance she puts on imitation ofsexiness o awkward dance her dancing was intentionally made to look this way she39s still an amateur 0 her imitation of codes of white sexuality is awkward this draws attention to her struggles with class and identity dislikes herself and mother rather than society that doesn39t accept her 0 confrontation sounds like chase scene I Sarah Jane the Showgirl o Showgirls as idealized white female bodies 0 passing as one of many I Sarah ane s Breakup o Upbeat jazz music for brutal confrontation OOOOOOOOO OOOO OOO I Finale 0 Skinner39s music over the top 0 We hear piano octaves that appeared in beginning of film leads into funeral o Mahalia Jackson39s performance of Troubles of the World imprecise lip synch o Mahalia Jackson and the civil rights movement 0 Judith Butler and civil rights marches Psycho 1960 O O O O Dir Alfred Hitchcock music by Bernard Herrmann screenplay by Joseph Stefano Based on novel Psycho by Robert Bloch Hitchcockean elements signatures cameo visual signatures cameo Hitchcock makes a subtle cameo symbols house represents mother her domain tomb body Big change in plot Marion NormanMother Resists Classical Hollywood style visuals instead of shots that just support narrative we get lots of subjective shots sound supposed to be invisible or seamless but in Psycho it is physical attacks us structural Hays Code issues nudity in shower sex outside marriage shot oftoilet Scientific explanation at end for Norman and transvestitism I Voice use of first person singular has placement with a certain sound quality has a certain neutrality of timbre and accent criteria for I voice 1 close miking creates a feeling of intimacy with the voice presence and de nition and 2 dryness absence of reverb in the voice it must be its own space unto itself embracing and complicit The I voice 1st person voice is placed in a way that it seems close to the mic recorded very dry no reverb sound of echoes off walls doesn39t seem to be in a space we usually grasp the space in which a sound is recorded through reverb Michel Chion theorizes concept of the unseen voice uncertainty of source ofvoice heightens sense of mystery and makes viewers fearful anxious Mother39s dry I voice takes over Norman voices that Marion hears are imaginary and in her head seems like they39re coming from a telephone sounds are contained in a telephone reverb hasn39t taken over her persona Acousmatic voices sound one hears without seeing the originating cause during driving sequence 11 telephone reverb on the thoughts in her head conversations push narrative forward try to close out her narrative fastforwarding it because she39s going to die soon hinting at what terrible thing is to happen Only strings unusual choice matching black and white film Muted strings Scenes I Madness Motifscenes o Marion39s early less dissonant version Music seems to follow her emotionally but it changes after she39s killed Just strings He wanted to re ect black and white stark quality of picture no percussion or brass missing tone colors of trumpet etc he explores expressive range of string orchestra all the cues except for one shower scene are played with mutes on thus some of edginess of sound is lost Simple short jagged and dissonant Three notes motif Herrmann starts with a consonant version of theme but develops it throughout conversation between Marion and Sam Her theme is associated with her romance Intervals between notes are consonant unlike the jagged intervals of madness theme Her version of theme early on is more sane before she has decided to run off with the money 0 Madhouse conversation When Norman says You mean an institution a madhouse we hear the three note motif with concept of madness It39s his mother39s voicepersona speaking which has taken over him Herrmann uses wide range very high and low notes which increase our stress We get a resolved sounding chord when Norman says Well we all go a little crazy sometimes but it39s still ambiguous Music begins to get cold towards Marion distances itself from her sonic tapestry leading to her murder in shower scene 0 Final scene Rational explanation by Norman39s mother Bitonal chord dualism9Marion leading a double life Norman seems to be both himself and his mother Mother39s voice created by one male and two female actresses collage of gender Possession of man by a stronger persona Mother is dead but not buried Monologue brings up taxidermy that Norman does with dead birds opposite of burial 0 Bird symbolism Marion39s last name is Crane Norman does taxidermy Mother39s skeletal face is imposed on Norman39s face for a brief moment I Opening Credits 0 Frantic dissonant frantic Visual work with music 5 motifs each with frantic element he layers them on top of each other 0 Sounds stressful high pitched screechy fast tempo pushes us to something we don39t want to near staccato notes attack us abrupt short notes juxtaposed with one lengthy note minor key 1 chord rhythm used to break up sections 2 step distance between notes Herrmann uses a halfstep figure 3 triplet motive frantic because so many notes are being played in a short amount of time 4 dotted motive is used to end a sectionphrase 5 lyrical melody among choppy notes we get one calmer melody still it feels incomplete Herrmann writes in 6 bar melody which is not the standard 8 or 16 bars of melodies Saw bass Visuals tell us that Norman has a split personality Metric steadiness pulse that pushes it forward Harmonic instability Lyrical melody that goes nowhere Romantic melody 8 bar phrase but here a 6 bar phrase modernist in uence seems insecure expectations broken compare to unexpected narrative structure not about Marion but Norman 0 Percussive use of strings like Stravinsky Rite of Spring 1913 cell motifs ambiguous chords texture builds irregular rhythm feels random polarity of registers o Harmonic instability in Hitchcock Chord both major and minor like Norman and Marion people with double lives 0 Returns in driving scene I Driving scene 0 Motifs buzzing like the voices in Marion39s head 0 Driving sequence 11 telephone reverb on the thoughts in her head 0 Conversations push narrative forward fastforwarding it to close out her narrative I Shower scene 0 Only cue that does not have mutes on strings 0 Censorship and editing issues 0 Audio visual counterpoint to make audience believe they39re seeing something they39re not makes them think they saw more than they actually did 0 String parts building instruments added one section at a time o The music carries along the violence rather than the visuals doing so each cut is like a stab of knife OOOOO I 0 Brother Where Art Thou 2000 O O O OOOOOOOO Dir Joel and Ethan Coen music director T Bone Burnett Homer39s Odyssey and Iliad homage to older film illusions from old mythological tales blind man passes through the train cart Cyclops lotus eaters the Sirens Penny is reference to Odysseus wife Penelope Road film about men having a roadtrip Buddy film three men overcoming hardships together Sturges film Sullivan s Travels Depression era stylization Dorothea Lange stylized imagery sepia tone graininess Music as reason for scenes Similarity to a musical Soundtrack in mind early in process Stationary music vs mobile music I Stationary music George Clooney stumbles into town I Mobile music man at crossroad when truck blasting Homer39s song passes by Commodification of music and political power corruption Music marketing and technology emerging recording technologies ability to amplify music problem music becomes a commodity music is used to sell campaigns 0 Themes class relation between blacks and whiltes I Records were divided by genre and race hillbilly music now called country and western race music now called RampB rhythm and blues Individuality groups and foregrounded voices audio zoom in Puzzling success of soundtrack album and revival of folk and roots music Scenes I Opening titles Po Lazarus and Big Rock Candy Mountain 0 Po Lazarus work song and relationship to physical labor Alan Lomax recording audio zoom in reminder of individual Big Rock Candy Mountain hobo song rejecting norms of society move from prisoner to escapee vintage recording whiteness ofthe song own to the River to Pray scene with the Baptist example of character stumbling upon music gradual buildup of voices and then a sonic reveal audio zoom in on individuals giving up individuality to be part of a group a choice here rather than the chain gang 0 sound mix that has audio zoom in we hear what we39re passing by at that moment 0 sounds like they39re in a church reverb I Didn t Leave Nobody But the Baby 0 literary basis mythical Sirens from Homer39s Odyssey 0 characters pulled toward this stationary sonic world example of characters being pulled into a sonic scene rather than being overtaken by it lyric change you and me and the devil make three to play up witchcraft element work song song constructed around strict motion rhythmic slap of clothes as they wash clothes audio zoom in coupled with close up tells us about what the three men find attractive about each Siren close ups and voices of women tells us about them ringleader sets melody soprano alto sultry voice I 390 Death 0 Ralph Stanley bluegrass singer of 390 Death 0 Wizard of Oz 0 KKK meeting I Man of Constant Sorrow by the Soggy Bottom Boys 0 combination of mountain music hillbilly records through singing and harmony and rhythm and blues race records in the guitar 0 song finally performed in whole 0 miscegenation racial interbreeding issuetheme Soggy Bottom Boys are racially mixed power of music expels the racist Homer Stokes it39s musical fandom that runs him down right thing is achieved but not exactly by right means 0 like musical solves problems at the end 0 exploitative potential of music music very successful surprising since it39s not mainstream 0 mini folk revival H I OOOO OOOOUOOOO 0 Battlestar Galactica Season 3 Crossroads I and II 2004 O O O Dir Michael Rymer music by Bear McCreary 2007 Themes dystopic future social commentary Cylons vs humans issues of torture union rights race relations terrorism election fraud separation of church and state CylonSix theme 98 meter on Balinese Gamelan Unconventional instruments that resist stereotypes of cultural encoding All Along the Watchtower Bob Dylan 1967 Jimi Hendrix cover 1968 cyclic ballad biblical basis McCreary 2007 I Dylan39s version only 3 chords not a wide range ofmelody feeling is atmospheric I Hendrix39s version very heavily produced parallels dramatic structure of song sense of power that exists but hasn39t been unleashed unresolved tension feels more like a progression Scenes I Opening Music voices singing Sanskrit lyrics Japanese taiko drums battle sequence 0 Cross culture Chinese 0 Odd meter Cylon motif Readings Gorbman Classical Hollywood Model 0 O o Vocals with unusual text 0 Unidiomatic music since we39re not on Earth we39re on Caprika 0 Ethnic significations ethnic instrumentation ethnic signifiers that don39t match up and can be interpreted in different ways since we39re not on Earth I Radio scene 0 Music linking key characters locating source as obsession In previous series their lives never overlapped they led separate lives but in these two episodes they39re connected through music Colonel Tigh becomes obsessed with locating source of music When Tigh and Anders hear the music there39s a tune inradio switch that turns on Music tunes in louder whenever the characters are in close proximity to each other They look to something mechanical as explanation of music 0 Lyrics quoted They start reciting the text which is overlayed with electric guitar as characters come together song feels like something from childhood in a moment of crisis guitar rifts remind us of Hendrix39s version discover identity through music they39re actually Cylons I Finale 0 Song draws Cylon characters together and reveals their identities 0 Key lyric left out at Starbuck39s return too literal last verse about the two riders approaching is left out Two ships side by side and she39ll lead to the promise land we feel both threat and wonder 0 World music in uence TV have a week to do score for an episode music budget is such that you won39t get a full orchestra Mildred Pierce 1945 dir Michael Curtiz music by Max Steiner melodramatic spiritquot a desire to externalize and explicate all in ections of action from emotional values in a scene to the rhythms of physical movement Ness A Lotta Night Musicquot 0 O 0 1940s noir films challenged the sanctity and security of home and family emphasized sense of displacement by defying tonal tradition of classical Hollywood film scoring favored a modernistic urbanquot American sound destabilizing devices breakdown of diegeticnondiegetic distinctions use of unusual instrumentation resulted from 1 a transition towards a serious tone 2 a shrinking of the frame smaller ensembles instead of full orchestras 3 a change in appearance of actors use of popular musical idioms and 4 the weakening of censorship use of jazz and blue styles Classical Hollywood film score had reinforced potential for utopian ideals In noir scores few tonal elements are incorporated and disrupted by dissonance atonality unconventional instrumentation or fragmentation Chion 391 Voicequot and Voice That Seeks a Bodyquot 0 O I voice I Use of 1st person singular has placement with a certain sound quality I Isn39t simply an offscreen narrator39s voice I There are criteria of tone color auditory space and timbre to which a voice must conform I It functions as a pivot of identification only when it39s recorded in a manner that will allow it to obtain the spectator39s identification voiceoverquot I designates any acousmatic or bodiless voices in a film that tell stories provide commentary or evoke the past I these voices know all but find themselves submerged by the past in ashback Psycho consists of the I voice the voice that is called internal but is really a subject voice that belongs to mother Corporeal implicationquot involvement of spectator39s body occurs when there is no dialoguewords but only breathing groans sighs Silent cinema is not dualistic a character appears as part of whole that is a speaking body and leaves viewers to imagine hisher voice Silent cinema relies on superimposition because 1 you could signify a sound heard by showing the image of sound39s source at same time as image of character hearing it 2 they showed apparitions doubles or ghosts 3 they were used to signify a character39s thoughts Psycho explores impossible embodiment entombment interment 390 Brother Why Nowquot Roundtable o 0 Brother Where Art Thou Is a musical comedy and adaptation of The Odyssey 0 Its soundtrack by Alan Lomax is a bluegrass album and has a folk aspect combines ballads blues gospel and country music 0 Alan Lomax invented Folk Music Revival 0 LP Long Playing Record I Of Duduks and Dylan 0 Battlestar Galactica I Diegetic music is rare I Diegetic sounds however are of utmost importance produced by humans machines and doors I The aural landscape bursts with nondiegetic background music 0 Soundtrack music signifies according to pure and cultural musical codes 0 Music in BSG I Unconventional instruments glass harmonica glass marimba duduk etc I Duduk an Armenian double reed aerophone I All episodes have nondiegetic music that emphasizes percussion I Bass drums accentuate moments of intensity I Snare drums and Japanese taikos underline battle imagery I Unusual rhythms 98 rhythmic motive of main titles I Symphonic music is rare but important because it39s used for manipulation of audience39s ability to create musical significations used to startle not create mood pieces resembling Beethoven39s works ESSAY QUESTIONS 1 What is the Classical Hollywood Model What is the function of music in this Model and how does it create meaning in a film Use three examples to illustrate your discussion One of these examples may be a film that resists rej ects the Classical Hollywood Model be sure to explain howwhy it falls outside the Model and what effect that has on the film Classical Hollywood Model as Claudia Gorbman states Music nearly always remains in background narrative logic requires music to give way to dialogue and acts as the subordination to the voice Music shouldn39t distract audience from story Soundtrack music sets specific moods and accompanies opening ending titles Music elevates characters to bigger than life status Music is highly involved in narrative cueing It gives narrative cues such as indicating POV and establishing setting it gives connotative cues by interpreting events Music defines the genre It contributes to geographical and temporal setting It expresses moods which help in interpreting events and indicating moral ethnic values Musical effects synchronized with events on screen mickey mousing stinger a musical sforzando that illustrates sudden dramatic tension Music provides rhythmic continuity It fills gaps and smooths discontinuities of editing within scenes It acts as transitioners between segments Music forms unity via repetition and variation Musical themes act as a unifying force Dialogue over music music must serve the story High synchronization between music and action Music controls narrative connotation helps track categorize characters on screen Use of symphonic Romantic era music Music makes you believe what you see is natural Music allows film to seem natural seamless doesn39t draw attention to technology in which it is made 1 King Kong 1933 music by Max Steiner one ofthe first talkies to have a full score had a massive continuous score music helps audience move into the fantastical island Steiner changes the nature of the musical forces at the moment where it all makes sense 2 The Adventures of Robin Hood 1938 dir Michael Curtiz music by Erich Korngold Korngold evokes late medieval music recasting the in ections of English balladry into a Romantic tapestry skillfully blurred sense of what is diegetic vs nondiegetic I Swashbuckler film characterized by swordfighting and adventurous heroic characters I Large orchestra 19th century romantic style operatic writing I High level of synchronization to action Meeting Little ohn scene mickey mousing when Robin plunges into water Welcome to Sherwood scene mickey mousing bouncy tune when men jump out oftrees swing on the vines cue written like an opera music sets up dialogue and completes it Smooth music entrances and exits One song segues moves without interruption into the next 3 Psycho 1960 dir Alfred Hitchcock music by Bernard Herrmann resists CHM HjW visuals instead of shots that merely support narrative we get lots of subjective shots sound what we hear is supposed to be invisible or seamless but for this film it is not that way music is physical structural and attacks us opposite of rhythmic continuity abrupt short notes and unexpected rhythm all the cues except shower scene are played with mutes on so music doesn39t really help in interpreting the events 0 E madness theme I three notes is simple short jagged and dissonant wide range ofnotes is used to increase our stress madness theme has a bitonal chord and expresses dualism because it represents Marian leading a double life AND Norman seeming to be both himself and his mother 0 EFFECT music helps bring out the appropriate response from the audience it sounds stressful screechy is high pitched and at a fast tempo that makes viewers frantic and surprised by going against the CHM the music helps achieve the buildup of tension chaos and ambiguity that it39s meant to create How can popular music or the performance of a song provide a portal into a character39s interior state or comment on the action in the film Discuss three detailed examples of popular song being used either diegetically or nondiegetically in a film and how it contributes to character development and or narrative Pop compilation scores are background music used in films that are put together from pre existing material as opposed to an original score composed specifically for the film They provide familiarity audience has pre associations with it lyrics can add to narration grounds us in the time period of film pop tune may have a strong sense of nationality The song39s performer could have associations too bring more meaning to film If placed strategically they can tell a story and give a sense of o Place and era Prior associations Lyrics can be part of the narrative and set the time Genre and associations Star text associations Familiarity OOOOO 1 Imitation of Life 1959 Trouble of the World diegetic gospel singer Mahalia ackson s performance during Annie39s funeral service as a church choir soloist imprecise lip synching there39s something about her that can39t be imitated which is why her singing doesn39t match with her lips Mahalia Jackson played an important role in the civil rights movement sang at rallies to raise money for bus boycott her performance comes off as personal lyrics disrupt our sense of time moment of reckoning consideringregarding and thinking of Annie as well as the racial issues of this context painful past is revoked film ends before brass would39ve entered into more joyful tune we don39t get the New Orleans jazz funeral we anticipate lyrics Soon it will be done Trouble of the world Going home to live with God No more weapin unwilling 2 The Graduate 1967 The Sound of Silence nondiegetic performed by folk rock duo Simon and Garfunkel during the wedding crash escape scene the music backs up character of Benjamin Braddock evocative lyrics are part of narrative and tell the audience about him 0 Contributes to narrative takes you down emotionally as you sober up they both initially appear ecstatic after their dramatic escape from the chapel gradually however this exhilaration subsides into realization of what they have done with Benjamin just looking forward and Elaine occasionally looking at him 0 Sounds hollow distant detached Benjamin and Elaine are next to each other but not with each other Lyrics Hello darkness my old friendthe vision that was planted in my brain Still remains Within the sound of silencePeople talking without speaking People hearing without listening Silence like a cancer grows 3 Mysterious woman singer in Blue Velvet 1986 diegetic originally sung by Bobby Vinton resung at nightclub by this Blue Lady at first viewers think she39s a femme fatale because ofthe way she39s dressed but she starts to sing and she39s bad her voice represents her fragile broken interior hints at her identity family held captive relationship with criminal 0 At the Slow Club woman in trouble Dorothy Vallens sings Blue Velvet against a red curtain framed by hazy blue neon lights and in a tight hugging black dress 0 Performance of this song reveals her as a character Dorothy Vallens plays into the hands of noir telegraphing it39s rare in the noir canon that the innocent female character is the one on the microphone in the club or dancing in a slinky dress 0 Theme of this song the pleasant nice things you see may have difficulties underneath them makes you question if things are as innocent as they seem
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