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SOC 311, Week 2 and 3 Notes

by: Elizabeth Brake

SOC 311, Week 2 and 3 Notes SOC 311

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Elizabeth Brake
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About this Document

These notes cover the course material for the exam that Dr. Dagaz has covered in weeks two and three.
Sociology of Education
Dr. Mari Dagaz
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Elizabeth Brake on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to SOC 311 at a university taught by Dr. Mari Dagaz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.

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Date Created: 02/02/16
Sociology of Education Notes 01/20/2016 ▯ Week 2 Notes: ▯ Bourdieu and Passeron  Your status is all the positions you occupy. (example: a bank teller vs. a bank manager) one is obviously higher than the other and has more authority.  Their status is viewed differently than ours (in France)  Schools are able to impose arbitrary meanings. They give these arbitrary cultural meanings legitimacy.  Everyone enters school with our own cultural backgrounds and in order for schools to reproduce the existing cultural expressions and values the school needs to produce a habitus that conforms.  Schools are meant to reproduce these arbitrary meanings..  Habitus: (often neglected in U.S) Encompasses beliefs, dispositions, scripts, and knowledge that present a particularly description of the world and dictates behaviors. -Everyone has a habitus -It depends what we do with it (the way we behave, our ideas, our knowledge) -It takes many years to encompass all these beliefs and dispositions -Inscriptions: the way we think about things and what we believe. -Habitus can be good or bad… Some children have grown up to believe school comes first while some people have been brought up with a habitus of street knowledge or sports over school -Middle class habitus is supported and expected in schools. But they do not teach students who do not possess it. -Working class students have different values. -It represents limitless options a person may draw on, but would never think of given their position and therefore does not actually exist. -Some people have high expectations and low aspirations -Every single one of us can chose anything we want and go for it. -Habitus is in every single class and it is different for all.. Bernstein & Health  Linguistic Cultural Capital: In schools they expect a particular linguistic style. -Speech patterns -Ways of learning -Text Books -The communities that people live in  What type of speech patterns are valued in school? -Level and tone of the way you talk -Vocabulary -If you have a country drawl.. You are considered to be less intelligent.. It is frowned upon -Most of children’s books have white families, two parents, gender roles… some kids especially in inner cities don’t necessarily experience these things. It becomes hard for them to learn because they cant connect these things to their life because they don’t experience them. They are at a culturally disadvantage. -These children are already set behind and segregated… -Schools are set up to teach middle class.. (middle class habutis) They are directed to teach at a middle class habitus.. -Can we do something to change the basic ways of learning? Institutionalized behaviors -Informal academic standards -formal knowledge -Personal attitudes -Think about the way teachers treat people by the way they act or present themselves. (The way they dress) Teachers react to those kind of things. These are cultural markers.. Exclusion and Power  Sponsored mobility:  “Maybe you should’ve done the reading”  They find the kids that they think are going to do the best and they exclude the rest. *****Exclusion and Power**** FOUR THINGS 1. Self-Elimination: individuals will adjust their aspirations and goals to their perceived chance of success. You see other kids doing better kids with better behavior, better language… Some students will say well im bad at math and science so I cant go into the medical field. 2. Over selection: Individuals are expected to match up or compete at an equal level with those who have higher or more opportunities than them. They are held at the same standard even when they are less opportunities so they have to work much harder just to stay at the same place. 3. Relegation: If you have less resources then you have less desirable positions. Early decisions follow you for the rest of your academic career. Forced choice, less time.. 4. Direct Exclusion: Keeping particular groups out that have a lack of prestige and lack of status. -Why do we find in AP classes we find higher class students?  Symbolic Violence: The power to impose these cultural meanings and the power to control the way we evaluate these students and it leads to direct exclusion. It maintains these divisions that we have in education. We are probably at our lowest point in our education… Coleman (Social Capital)  Human Capital: Investment in yourself and in your future. Having Knowledge, inmate or acquired characteristics. (School quality, training, work attitudes, IQ) -School Quality affects kids immensely… it effects kids acquiring human capital.. -We make an investment in human capital and it leads to higher economic capital.. Human capital relates to your job.. -Human capital emerges from social capital  Social Capital: Not something owned by an individual.. its not something you can buy or give away because it is developed as a resource. -A secure sense of self identity -Confidence in expressing your opinion -Emotional intelligence (having to do with interactions with other people and understanding other people) -It helps them to be successful in their school work.. -Social capital is about your relationships. -It doesn’t matter how much knowledge your parent has it is worthless if they don’t share it with their child. Intergenerational Closure: Mom: communicates well with child A, also connects with child B Dad: communicates well with child B, also connects with child A Child A: Connect with both parents, connected with their sibling.. Child B: Connect with both parents, connected with their sibiling -Mom and dad have a very strong relationship, they communicate well..  These are strong connections between everyone -Benefit of this high social capital: Teach children a lot better, they can discuss with their children and their needs, influences education, build relationships, trust, communication, affect children’s behaviors, Functional Deficiency:  Mom and dad are very connected with each other, talk all the time  Children are very connected with each other, talk all the time, close in relationship.. -The problem here is mom and dad don’t have a connection with their kids.. -There isnt a lot of guidance of supervision -Parents and children are disconnected -We are living in our own worlds.. Middle class parents that have high human capital aren’t passing it down to their kids because they don’t have good social capital. -Causes children to lack in the ability to figure out problems with themselves or between friends. Structural Deficiency:  Mom and dad: one of the parents are missing.  Child and child: mom has strong ties with her kids and kids have strong ties together. Father is not in the picture. -Mother has to work and she cant stay home with the kids. -Lack of extended family -When mother is gone working it causes loss between ties between the mother and child.  Parents A: Not very strong relationship with their child  Parents B:  Child A: These kids are very close  Child B: These kids are very close Networks  Networks with closure: -Parents A -Parent B -Child A -Child B  There is strong relationships with all of them.. -Coleman calls these functional communities.. -These exist in small towns -Catholic schools -When moms stayed home -High degree of closure is important because information can be shared, Norms can be shared..  Network without closure: -Nobody knows each other or talks to each other. -Parents aren’t able to talk about expectations or situations or sanctions. -Appropriate sanctions aren’t transmitted  Catholic Schools: Coleman praises catholic schools. -Being stigmatized because you are poor…  ▯ ▯ Part 1 Functionalist Theory ▯ Structural Functionalism: Assumption that society is stable and oriented. Therefore, changes are not ideal. (economy, government, military, religion, education)  Education has particular functions that ties us all together and keeps us going.  What are functions of education? Sorting people into different occupations, reproducing social mobility,  Manifest functions: These are obvious consequences. These are what schools are set in place to do. This is what schools are intended to do. This what we expect schools to do and recognizable. -Knowledge -Skills -Information -sorting people into occupations -Socialization (norms of the United States, Norms of competition, individuality, patriotism)  Latent functions: These are unintended and unrecognized. Often hidden -Social reproduction -Teach stereotypes about race ethnicity and gender -Child care -Establishment of Peer relationships (we learn how to interact with people of similar age) -Keep kids out of the labor force. To keep unemployment lower Functions: Socialization  To learn the values norms, skills to function in society  Norms and values that kids learn in order to function: Working with due dates, following authority, respect, discipline, punctuality, teaches you competition (someone has to win and someone has to fail), ▯ Social integration  Functionalists say that people have to subscribe to a common set of beliefs and values.  It started in the early 19 century mainly for new immigrants. Social Placement  Teachers determine abilities of students as early as 1 grade.  Taught at the level that these administrators that is thought to suit them best.  Once students determined the level that suits them best they believe they are preparing them for what they are suited for best later in their life.  Soring mechanism is sorting these students into particular career fields at an early age. Social and Cultural Imitation  Educate many subjects to help society to continue to advance..  Liberal arts would fit into this category ▯ ▯ Basic preposition ▯ 1. specialized skills requirements lead to increased educational requirements. Ex: Our society requires more specialized skilled requirements therefore, you have to have a higher level education to meet those needs. ▯ They argue two things: ▯ 1a- Low skill jobs decreased, high skill jobs decreased ▯ 1b- The same jobs have been upgraded in skills requirements ▯ 2. Occupational shifts only play a small part. ▯ 2a- Formal education is necessary to develop skills for higher skilled jobs. ▯ 2b- In some cases the educated are less productive than those with lower levels of education. ▯ -Are necessary skills learned in schools or elsewhere? ▯ ▯ Part 2 Conflict Theory ▯ Conflict theorists:  The ways education perpetuates inequality  Social Placement: -Tracking- Placed in faster or slower -High school honors, ap, IB, CP -Remedial, core, vocational  Who gets placed in these tracks? -Lower tracks= lower class, racial and ethnic minorities (Black and Hispanic) Standardized Tests:  Culturally biased  Reflect SES rather than ability  Perpetuates inequality Hidden Curriculum:  A set of values and beliefs that support the status quo.  Includes the existing social hierarchy.  Status cultures are acquired  Means of cultural selection  Elite schools are linked to Elite occupations ▯


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