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Date Created: 03/09/14
Week 0 Introduction What is Sociology Horace Miner Body Ritual Among the Nacirema Culture devoted to economic pursuits ritual activity Human body39s natural tendency is to debility and disease Have rituals that are torturous and dangerous but can heal them Week 1 Seeing and Thinking Sociologically David M Newman Sociology Ch 1 Individualistic explanation tendency to attribute people39s achievements and failures to their personal qualities humans tend to overlook societal aspects that could actually be causes of those achievements and failures To understand our lives we must focus on broader societal factors and patterns rather than on the traits of the people involved Sociology systematic study of human societies It39s important to understand individuals to understand society and vice versa What can in uence your choices Personal stylemarketing strategies nationalinternational economic trends government and politics events in countries all over the world Sociologists focus on what goes on betweenamong people as individual groups or societies not what lies within the individual Sociological imagination ability to see the impact of social forces on our private lives our experiences are products of society wide forces our lives are the point on which personal biography and societal history intersect Sociology teaches us that our social problems can be improved or fixed by changing the social institutions and roles available not the situations and qualities of humans Bernard McGrane The UnTVand the 10 MPH Car Ch 1 Ethnomethodological society about awakening from illusions not criticizing institutions method of investigation de socialization We are conditioned to think that we have full control over our actions We are situated in the cultural ideology of individualism Beginner39s mind open hollow exible unaware ofwhat will occur Expert39s mind unable to perceive fresh information full of knowledge judgments Interview with Barry Alfonso and Boyd Rice in Pranks Alchemy of thought what you think about anything defines how you perceive it and this in turn defines what your experience of it will be Nothing is fixed everything is uid and subject to change Most things are defined according to purely imaginary criteria Everyone is creating their own reality but most of them are creating the same one using same materials values beliefs9illusion of universal reality These people don39t invent their beliefs they were handed them from outside themselves Society39s laws seem real only because people agree on them Benard McGrane The UnTV and the 10 MPH Car Ch 2 One of core concerns of Marxist and critical sociological theory has always been putting theory into practice In contrast a core concern of ethnomethodology is putting practice into theory We subconsciously link work and identity on a deep level and acquire a work identity our job provides psychological framework for hwo we are The experience of unemployment thros people into financial crisis and identity crisis Negative identification becoming imprisoned within a work identity we look for our self worth and meaning of lives in what we do for a living source of security being a careerist Positive identification being a craftsman work expresses one s identity and becomes a part of you work gives you happiness Negative alienation you are not your job I do not identify with my work in fact I hate it detached removed from the job being a wage slave Positive alienation you are not your job having no concept of work other than doing things the attitude we have towards what we do not activity itself is what determines whether we feel alienated or fulfilled You can be aware by getting rid of your beliefs Society energy 0 We feel anxiety when doing nothing because we are defying the trend of busyness and urge of having to always be accomplishing something 0 Samsara Buddhist a condition in which we ee existential responsibility and are absorbed into certain entities ignorance in which we are blind to being itself what we look towards for security and well being 0 Anxiety unlike fear is focused upon our existence we39ve been pursuing shadows while ignoring our own existence 0 History of meaning of labor Protestant Reformation spiritual salvation was no longer guaranteed work became sacred 0 Theology of work we work because we have sinner work is God39s punishment for us 0 Our cultural value system is based on progress not presence 0 We are uncomfortable with being and fill up time with doing 0 Having hope implies we possess fear as well 0 We should try to transcend culture rather than change it directly liberation desocialization Film excerpt Baraka WEEK 2 The Social Construction of Reality Reality as an Accomplishment Hugh Mehan and Houston Wood Five Features of Reality 0 Incorrigible proposition unquestionable axioms Re exivity when you provide evidence and excuses to support the IP to reaffirm the causal premise of science Secondary elaborations ofbelief 0 Object constancy assumption belief that objects remain the same over time we explain inconstancy by saying it39s a result of the experiencing not a feature of the object itself 0 5 features of reality 1 coherence the freak taxonomy the coherence in a reality can be found upon analysis realities exhibit a coherent body of knowledge the freaks organized the medical facts about drugs into a coherent corpus of knowledge 2 interactional matching procedure treats patient behavior as an internal state not in uenced by social dimensions labels are molded in daily interaction of the attendants with each other and with patients 0 the relationship of participants to object the setting of the events and the circumstances surrounding a definition determine the meaning of labels a reality and its signs are mutually determinative 3 fragility rules not explicitly stated listed make their appearance when they are broken breach experiments 4 permeability one reality may be altered another assumed after the man39s gradual adoption of the tribe39s reality the acts became natural 5 re exivity Ethnomethodology the belief that you can discover the normal social order of a society by disrupting it David M Newman Sociology Ch 3 0 Social construction of reality process through which the members of a society discover make known reaffirm and later a collective version of facts knowledge and truth assumes that knowledge is a human creation 0 Self fulfilling prophecy assumption or prediction that in itself causes the expected event to occur thus seeming to confirm prophecy s accuracy 0 Reality re ects economic interests 0 Political campaigns try to in uence public perception on issues 0 Content analysis form of unobtrusive research that studies content of recorded messages books speeches websites 0 Empirical research operates from ideological position that questions about human behavior can be answered only through controlled systematic observations in real world Reactivity a problem associated with certain forms of research in which the very act of intruding into people39s lives may in uence the phenomenon being studied 0 A researcher s own values and interests can in uence the questions they ask during a survey or experiment 0 Ethics is why some researchers feel that no one should be forced to take part in a study and no risks involved David Rosenhan On Being Sane in Insane Places Once people are labeled as sick others perceptions ofthem become affected 0 Label is so impactful that pseudopatients behaviors become overlooked or misinterpreted 0 A person is given a false psychiatric label time passes he is expected to behave oddly again eventually patient accepts diagnosis and behaves oddly Melvin Pollner and Lynn McDonald Wikler The Social Construction of Unreality A Case Study of a Family39s Attribution of Competence 0 Framing generated a space within which Mary39s behaviors assumed meaning the family members prestructure the environment to maximize the likelihood that whatever Mary did could be seen as intentional activity 0 Postscripting generated significance after the fact family members tracked Mary39s ongoing behaviors and developed contexts that could render them intelligent and responsive Puppeteering Mary was maneuvered through tasks created illusion of indep Incorrigible prop Mary is competent Folie a deux shared delusion often catalogued among more exotic pathologies involving several individuals who share and participate in the same delusional system 0 Issues to consider 1 Extent to which practices observed were the same as the family39s routine on a normal basis 2 Extent to which family believed their version of Mary 3 Origin of the practices Robert Rosenthal and Lencore Jacobson Pygmalion in the Classroom 0 Self fulfilling prophecy an idea that one s expectations of something are correlated to his or her performance is the expectation an accurate prediction based on past performance or is the expectation causing the result 0 Teachers expectation of certain children to show greater intellectual development led this to happen David H Freedman When is a Planet Not a Planet Once we come to accept a certain reality as truth everything else we authomatically filter out 0 People can fall into confines of the realities they construct 0 We pass on our realities to younger generations we don39t always get to choose them for we are born into a society that has been shaped by specific ideas The West Memphis Three and Combating Cognitive Biases Cognitive biase the habit of our brains to let the first fact we encounter guide our evaluation of the second and third 0 We see what we expect to see WEEK 3 More Sociological Theory Classic and Modern David M Newman Sociology Ch 2 0 All societies contain 1 social statics forces for stability and 2 social dynamics forces for change 0 Perspectives on social order 1 Structural functionalist perspective posits that social institutions are structured to maintain stability and order in society shows us howwhy macrolevel structures develop defines society as a complex system of various parts social institutions are key to keeping a society stable 0 Latent functions unintended unrecognized consequences of activities that help some part of the social system 0 Manifest functions intended obvious consequences of activities designed to help some part of social system 2 Con ict perspective views the structure of society as a source of inequality that always benefits some groups at expense of other groups reveals sources of social inequality that exist in our societies views society as a source of inequality that benefits some groups at expense of others feminist perspective is a version 3 Symbolic interactionism explains society and social structure through an examination of microlevel personal day to day exchanges of people as individuals pairs or groups explains how individuals construct meaning to make sense of their social surroundings focuses on micro level interactions of people as individuals or groups symbols are created through people39s interactions 0 Achieved status social position acquired through our own efforts or accomplishments or taken on voluntarily Ascribed status social position acquired at birth or taken on involuntarily later in life 0 Culture language values beliefs rules behaviors and artifacts that characterize a society 0 In groups groups to which we belong and toward which we feel a sense of loyalty Out groups groups to which we don39t belong and toward which we feel a certain amount of antagonism 0 Primary group collection of individuals who are together for a relatively long period whose members have direct contact with and feel emotional attachment to one another 0 Role set of expectations rights obligations behaviors duties associated with a particular status 0 Role con ict frustration people feel when the demands of one role they are expected to fulfill clash with demands of another role 0 Role strain situations in which people lack necessary resources to fulfill demands of a role 0 Social institution stable set of roles statuses groups and organizations institutions of education family politics religion health care that provides a foundation for behavior in some major area of social life Society a population of people living in same geographic area who share a culture and common identity Status any named social position that people can occupy Jodi O39Brien The Production of Reality Essays and Readings on Social Interaction Humans don39t respond directly to the physical environment We impose symbolic interpretations on experiences and draw conclusions based on them Predictability of intentions is a product of social codes Symbolic interactionism Herbert Blumer s three basic premises 1 Humans act toward a thing on the basis ofthe meaning they assign to the thing 2 Meanings are socially derived which is to say that meaning is not inherent in a state of nature there is no absolute meaning meaning is negotiated through interaction with others 3 The perception and interpretation of social symbols are modified by individual s own thought processes Concepts clusters of meaning formed when symbols are combined Naming process of conceptualizing a person space or occasion and attaching meaning to it 1 Label 2 Evaluation 3 Recommended course of action Primary way by which humans exchange symbolic meaning is through language Language is a system of symbols that allows humans to communicate and share abstract meaning it allows humans to incorporate and transmit culture Generative property of language is the ability to formulate novel but mutually understood statements Mentalese consists of 1 innate computational ability 2 practical nonlanguage based experience with the environment The human capacity for the computation needed to process language is innate but the actual content is input through social contact Language is used to teach us the range of social responses that are appropriate for different circumstances Language thought experience these three are mutually determining The process of naming is an act of categorization Interpersonal negotiation you negotiate abstract meanings with others Intrapersonal negotiation you negotiate with yourself to maintain a fit between your existing conceptual frameworks and concrete experience Fred C Pampel Sociological Lives and Ideas Ch 1 Karl Marx and Social Class Capitalism private production for a market in pursuit of profit Industrial capitalism brought clothes household goods and food to people at cheap prices Miseries of industrial capitalism 1 Changes in technology displaced many people from rural areas 2 It created a system of factory work that undermined traditional family and community ties 3 New social problems migration led to cities filled with strangers poor housing crime disease pollution To understand social and historical factors he focused on material factors the actions people take and the objects they use to produce what they need to support themselves social relations depend on the kind of material production that dominates Alienation among workers 1 From their labor 2 From products oftheir labor 3 From themselves their creative potential 4 From other people Alienation workers separation from and loss of control over material production Production involves social relationships between owners and nonowners The relationships lead to social domination of one group by another which then constrains the choices of individuals an inherently sociological view Communist Manifesto 1848 threatened enemies of workers of the destruction of capitalism explained how social con ict would lead to this prophesied a new communist society to eliminate social inequality classes consist of people with same position and function in production Ideology a system of ideas attitudes and beliefs that stem from social relations that exist within a system of production Marx rejected 1 views of English economists focused on laws of supply and demand and attributed problems of workers to high fertility as much as to low wages and 2 views of French socialist writers ignored laws of social change and hoped that good intentions alone could end prive property and social misery Social con ict produces pressures for social change that eventually come to favor workers over capitalists Ch 2 Emile Durkheim and Social Order Emile Durkheim claimed that individual behavior was linked to the ties people have to their social groups He stressed the needs for social order and moral behavior advocated attention to social forces steer away from individualism The increasing complexity of society and growing differences among its members led to military and social problems Modern industrial society no more strong community ties differences in social position led to people no longer sharing a common set ofideas Immense socialeconomic changes made societal problems more noticeable The problems brought about by modernism represented a moral not an economic crisis its solution required study of ethicsphilosophy not economics or engineering A new system of values and morality could deal with problems of suicide con ict and family breakdown Morality a system of rules of right and wrong that determine social and individual conduct Social exchanges depend on the duty people have to the larger groups to which they belong not self interest Shared social values makes social cooperation possible Rational action depends on a nonrational foundation Social realism the idea that the shared values and relationships exist separately from the behavior of individual members Behavior of individuals results from forces outside themselves not biologicalpsychological impulses Social facts the external constraints on individuals Implications of social realism explains differences in morality across societies an approach to understanding individualism justified the existence of sociology as an independent field of study Experimental method compared behavior under two conditions Modern societies have a more specialized division oflabor Social differentiation results from population growth and increases in population density these then increase competition for scarce resources and competition produces differentiation With a population packed into a limited area everyone cannot do the same thing so people perform specialized tasks Types of social solidarity 0 Mechanical solidarity the dependence in simple societies pre modern has to do with punishment banishing killing and retributive justice retribution eye for an eye 0 Organic solidarity the dependence in complex modern societies has to do with restitutive justice and prisons law restitution restoring things to initial state 0 Collective conscience common beliefs and feelings among members of a society Modern societies based on organic solidarity and differentiation laws are exible punishments consider the circumstances that lie behind violations punishment attempts to restore individuals to former position in society Durkheim believed crime is normal and valuable in a healthy society it mobilizes group members to act together to punish it reaffirms ideas of right and wrong results from a shared morality Punishment of crime increases solidarity anger about crime create emotional bonds among ppl solidarity unity or agreement of feelingaction especially among individuals with a common interest individual freedom weakens the ties to social groups and shared beliefs of right and wrong suicide represents a clear example of the weakening of bonds between individuals 0 egoistic suicide results from low integration of individuals into social groups 0 anomic suicide results from lack of external social control I anomie a condition ofnormlessness in a group I during periods of change social norms that guide individual thoughts weaken desires and goals expand without limit too much integration leads to altruistic suicide in which an individual commits as part of a group action too much regulation leads to fatalistic suicide in which an individual experiences pervasive widespread oppression how can social integration be encouraged 0 Participation in economic groups unite to advocate common interests 0 Adopt values that transcend membership in specialized groups individualism but not selfishness Functionalism idea that society consists of interrelated parts that support one another in the functioning of society as a whole 0 Tends to accept justify existing social arrangements without regard to unfairness o Ignores the fact that social arrangements may favor some groups more than others Robin Leidner Over the Counter McDonald s Organizations that routinize work exert control by closing off choices Organizations choose strategies that rely on socialization and social control in varying mixtures that are determined by 0 The aims ofthe organization 0 The constraints set by the organizational environment and nature of the work 0 The interests resources of the parties involved McDonald39s routinization includes pre determination of action and transformation of character Standardization of McDonald39s products and workers Heart of its success its uniformity predictability and idea that doing things differently means doing things wrong Doing everything the same way daily ensures the same satisfaction of customers No decision making No judgment to be made No interaction among workers Technology carried out the tasks in the same way every time robotic automatic process Advertising familiarizes customers with the way it is run cues about expected behavior are provided by design of restaurants McDonald39s is example of extreme standardization conditions are predictable contingencies behavior of workers and customers are controlled as best as possible socialization techniques are used to help people become aware of its procedures WEEK 4 The Social Construction of Self David M Newman Sociology Ch 5 Identity essential aspect of who we are consisting of our sense of self gender race ethnicity and religion directly related to the people historical events and social circumstances that surround you consists of our membership in various social groups the traits we show to others and traits they ascribe to us Agents of socialization various individuals groups and organizations who in uence the socialization process Anticipatory socialization process through which people acquire the values and orientations found in statuses they will likely enter in future Re exive behavior behavior in which person initiating an action is same as person toward whom action is directed Looking glass self sense of who we are that is defined by incorporating the re ected appraisals of others Role taking ability to see oneself from perspective of others and to use that perspective in formulating one s own behavior Play stage stage in development of self during which a child develops ability to take a role but only from perspective of one person at a time Game stage a child acquires the ability to take role of a group or community and conform his her behavior to broad societal expectations Resocialization process of learning new values norms and expectations when an adult leaves an old role and enters a new one Collectivist culture culture in which personal accomplishments are less important in formation of identity than group membership Individualist culture culture in which personal accomplishments are a more important component of one s self concept than group membership Gender psychological social and cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness Sex biological maleness or femaleness Self unique set of traits behaviors and attitudes that distinguishes one person from the next the active source and passive object of behavior Socialization process through which one learns how to act according to rules and expectations of a particular culture doesn39t just occur during childhood occurs within the context of several social institutions family first and then schools religious institutions and mass media Milan Kundera Identity Friendship emptied of its traditional content is transformed into a contract of mutual consideration Your friends are those who will discreetly pretend to know nothing hear nothing so you can go right on seeing them when you get accused and thrown to lions George Herbert Mead The Self the I and the Me Since the individual is an essential element of the empirical situation in which it acts it must take an objective impersonal attitude toward himself He becomes an object to himself only by taking attitudes of others toward himself within a context in which both he and they are involved Communication provides behavior in which organism may become an object to himself The self is a social structure that arises in social experience We divide ourselves up in all sorts of different selves with reference to our acquaintances What determines the amount of self that gets expressed through communication is the social experience itself There can be different selves and it is dependent upon the set of social reactions that is involved as to which self we are going to be Breaking up of the unitary self into the component selves which correspond to different aspects of the social process in which the person is involved The structure of the complete self is a re ection of the complete social process The organization of a social group is identical with that of any one of the selves arising within the social process in which that group is engaged The me o Maintains itself in the community 0 Adjustment to the present world The I The response of the individual to the attitude of the community as this appears in his own exerience 0 Changes the organized attitude 0 Appears after we have done something 0 Charles Horton Cooley Looking Glass Self Looking glass self the social reference takes form of an imagination of how one s self appears in another person39s mind and the kind of self feeling one has is determined by the attitude toward this attributed to that other mind Imagined judgment the thing that moves us to pride or shame is not the mere re ection of ourselves but a sentiment the imagined effect of re ection upon another s mind Affectation behavior or speech that is artificial and designed to impress There is no separation between what others think and the visible expression of that thought David M Newman Sociology Ch 6 Aligning action action taken to restore an identity that has been damaged Back stage area of social interaction away from the view of an audience Cooling out persuading someone who has lost face to accept a less desirable but still reasonable alternative identity Disclaimer assertion designed to forestall complaints to a behavior that is about to occur Dramaturgy study of social interaction as theater Front stage area of social interaction where people perform and maintain impressions Stigma deeply discrediting characteristic viewed as an obstacle to morally trustworthy behavior Erving Goffman The Arts of Impression Management Unmeant gestures when minor unintentional acts give rise to an undesirable impression Inopportune intrusion the situation when we cannot remove the intruder Faux pas occurs when a performer destroys his own team39s image by making an intentional contribution incidents disruptions that are forms of performance disruption unmeant gestures inopportune intrusions faux pas and scenes in order to prevent incidents and embarrassment it39s necessary for all participants in interaction to have 1 defensive 2 protective and 3 R measures Defensive Attributes dramaturgical loyalty discipline and circumspection Dramaturgical loyalty must not exploit their presence to stage their own show must not use their performance time to denounce their team must be willing to accept minor parts with grace Dramaturgical discipline remembers his part has discretion can cover up on the spur of the moment for behavior on the part of teammates has self control can suppress spontaneous feelings Dramaturgical circumspection selects audience that will give least trouble exercise foresight and design to determine in advance how best to stage a show Two strategies regarding tact with respect to tact 1 performer must be sensitive to hints and ready to take them 2 if he is to misrepresent the facts he must do so with etiquette Impression management changing your behavior to conform to a situation the self that the actor is trying to project Face work maintaining a face through management or correction takes effort of you and of others a collective effort to savemaintain a face Back stage a place where you can be more free not conforming to in uences from people Line a pattern of verbalnonverbal actions through which one expresses their view of situation and evaluates the participants including themselves action that delivers the impressions you hope to convey Mark Snyder When Belief Creates Reality The physically attractive may come to behave in a friendly likeable manner not because they necessarily possess these traits but because the behavior of others elicits maintains behaviors taken to be manifestations of such traits Consequences of social stereotypes first impressions based on cultural stereotypes about attractiveness channeled the unfolding dynamics of interaction in ways that made those impressions come true Self fulfilling prophecy it is in the beginning a false definition of the situation evoking a new behavior which makes the originally false conception come true WEEK 5 Intersectionality and the Construction of Difference Class Race and Ethnicity and Gender David M Newman Sociology Ch 10 False consciousness situation in which people in lower classes come to accept a belief system that harms them means by which powerful classes prevent protest Stratification ranking system for groups that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances Caste system stratification system based on heredity with little movement allowed across Estate system stratification system in which high status groups own land and have power based on noble birth Marxian class model 2 classes 0 Capitalists own means of production purchase others labor 0 Workers sell their own labor to survive Weber39s model of stratification two dimensions 1 status and 2 power prestige Paul Fussell Class Ch 1 Certain limits have been placed on people39s capacity to ascend socially by irrelevancies as heredity early environment and social class of their forebears Even instruments have hierarchy strings woodwinds brass percussion Ch 2 Style and taste and awareness are as important as money in defining classes The way people have their money is what matters the source matters not the amount 9 classes Top out of sight upper upper middle middle high proletarian mid proletarian low proletarian destitute bottom out of sight Top out of sight class lives on inherited capital Upper class 0 inherits but also earns money too unlike top out of sight is visible Ex White House residents are upper class The house is too showy a would be impressive facade visible from the street Having streets named after you is a signal Speaking French uently is a sign Not smoking at all is upper class Coming and going of houseguests Refrain from uttering compliments Devotion to horses Imperviousness to ideas and total lack of interest in them 0 Wear old clothes Upper middle o Involved in medicine oil shipping real estate House with more rooms than needed Chastity abstinence from in sexual display Like to show off their costly educations Have controlled precise movements Women wear gray annel skirt Stuart plaid or khaki a navy blue cardigan white blouse hair in a barrette NAVY lots of layering o Tweed jacket Middle 0 Terrified of what others think of them 0 Obsessed with doing things right OOOOO OOOOOOOOO Table manners are important Experience anxieties when meeting upper middle class people status panic likes to imitate upper middle class snobs make birth or wealth the sole criterion of worth the desire to belong by purchasing something white shirts dark suits V neck sweater invest money in furniture of good taste to display in house 0 rather than words on clothes there are emblems understatement compared to lower classes Lower middle class 0 Tend to swing their arms out High proles working class Have pride ofindependence Feel contempt for those who have not made it as far as they have Spend money on elaborate color TVs stereos Ride in sedans Arrive punctually at events Wallets always bulge High respect for brand names Keep yourself updated and knowledgeable Mid and low proles Feel bitter about their work because they are supervised PURPLE in their wardrobe Wear legible clothing hats Wear clothes excessively new or neat and clean 0 Wear jewelry with colors picked out in rhinestones Destitute 0 Live on welfare never have seasonal work 0 Stand in public places lecturing about their grievances OOOO OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO Ch 3 The more smiling the lower the class Classy people are seldom short and squat The three prole classes get fat Robert Granfield Making it by Faking It Stigma management discreditable individuals control info about themselves so as to manage their social identity idea by Goffman Stigma a mark of disgrace associated with a person Stigma limits one s opportunities to participate in social life as a complete citizen A person39s adjustment to second class citizenship is accomplished through either role engulfment in which a person accepts a spoiled identity or through direct confrontation where assignment of secondary status is itself challenged Concealment allowed working class students to better participate in culture of eminence in law school and reap available rewards Identity ambivalence result of students trying to manage their stigma those who sought to exit their class background could neither embrace their group nor let it go Overcoming a stigma is an individual not a collective effort Herbert Gans Positive Functions of the Undeserving Poor Stigma a set of negative and unfair beliefs that a society or group have about something Positive functions of undeserving poor 1 Microsocial I Risk reduction I Labelers protect themselves from having to associate with them I Scapegoating and displacement I Being weak to object they may be accused of having caused social problems 2 Economic I Banishment I The undeserving poor can be banished from the formal labor market I Supplying illegal goods I Once banished from other jobs they39re eligible for work in sale ofillegal goods I Job creation I Their presence creates jobs for better off population 3 Normative I Moral legitimation I This is given to institutions that exclude the undeserving I Norm reinforcement I By violating mainstream patterns the poor help reaffirm the virtues of these patterns I Supplying popular culture villains I They allow people to reinforce norms and satisfy demands for revenge 4 Political I Institutionalized scapegoating I Institutions mistreat them I Conservative power shifting I They lose whatever political in uence they had before being stigmatized I Spatial purification I underclass areas can be torn down and inhabitants moved 5 Macrosocial I Reproduction of stigma I Politices are set up to help poor economically but which actually prevent them from being freed of stigma I Extermination of surplus I Social forces combine to do away with some who have become surplus labor and are no longer needed by economy I Solutions eliminate poverty extend equality to punishment of crimes David M Newman Sociology Ch 11 I Ethnicity sense of community derived from the cultural heritage shared by a category of people with common ancestry I Race category of people labeled and treated as similar because of allegedly common biological traits like skin color hair texture eye shape Brent Staples Black Men and Public Space I Alienation of blacks that comes of being ever the suspect a fearsome entity Charles A Gallagher In between racial status mobility and promise of assimilation I Racial ideology socializes individuals to internalize the belief that race based categories are discrete nonoverlapping and appear part of a natural biologically based social order I Core belief in a racial hierarchy is that one group is superior to the other I Irish and Italian immigrants occupied an identity that could be seen as being an intermediate racial category that didn39t fit neatly into the preexisting categories in the racial hierarchy I Dominant white establishment used ethnocentrism in ways similar to racism to discriminate I Today Latino and Asian populations face assimilation in ways that mirror racism I Asian and Latino Americans who are light skinned and have high economic status may gain entry into white race today I Dilemma is what does it mean for dark skinned people Michael Shermer Why People Believe Weird Things Pigeonholes I Any species that adopts patterns of behavior contrary to governing forces of universe is doomed to decline until it undergoes reselection and readaptation or is subjected to extinction I Problem of race classification is that within group variability is greater than between group variability I Variation is the most nearly universal of all biologic principles I Hope for cultural evolution depends on recognition of variation and individualism I How can we pigeonhole blacks as permissive or whites as intelligent when such categories are described as a continuum a set of elements such that between any two of them there is a third element not a pigeonhole a small compartment WEEK 6 cont Pearl Fuyo Gaskins Me Introduction Check One Box I Americans viewed interracial relationships as unnatural and wrong 0 Race is an optical illusion it39s a way in which we confer identity upon ourselves One drop rule if you have just one African forebear you are going to be identified as African American Erica Chito Childs What s class got to do with it 0 Class and race impact people39s experiences choices and beliefs 0 Interracial relationships were seen by blacks as a symbol of devaluation of black people 0 Interracial relationships are not widely shown in media 0 When it is the person of color involved is presented as an exceptional person who is removed from their racial community and is usually wealthy educated and attractive 0 Films geared to white audiences reinforce same messages of race and class 0 Films geared to blacks use interracial relationships for comedic effect 0 Whites equate it with possibility of a decline a loss of status and problems 0 This view stems from beliefs about inferiority of blacks Melissa R Herman and Maria L Castilla Appearance and social class 0 Ethnic identity the set of roles and behaviors a person chooses to exhibit his connection with a particular culture 0 Racial identification the group a person uses to identify himself racially Racial ancestry the geno phenotypical racial group which makes up a person39s biological family tree 0 Identity is developed by indirect experiences of the self through the views of others 0 Factors associated with identifying as Hispanic socioeconomic status phenotype name generation of immigration Spanish speaking ability family Hispanicity school Hispanicity neighborhood Hispanicity Phenotype matters more for part blacks than part Hispanics Peer group interaction and phenotype as well as socioeconomic status SES are important 0 Lower SES part Hispanic multiracial youth are more likely to identify as Hispanic 0 Multiracial Hispanic youth associate themselves as white if part of higher SES 0 They developed racial identity re ective of their social circumstances Jenifer Bratter The One Drop Rule 0 The leaders of labeling children as black instead of multiracial are households where the other parent is multiracial 0 A shared racial background between parents elevates the likelihood that they will identify their child as that race Social class and family income in uence how parents racially classify their children 0 Can multiracial parents be considered agents of racial change or racial convention 0 While multiracial individuals are more apt to break with racial conventions than their single race counterparts they are not entirely free of these conventions either 0 Parents represent a source of self identified multiracial children further challenging idea that people must fit into only one single race category 0 These patterns reveal that the one drop rule and multiracialness are not incompatible ways of identifying race but rather that individuals apply both lenses when declaring their race and race of their children Ingrid Dineen Wimberly and Paul Spickard It s not that simple Typologies classifications for understanding racial hierarchy and social class 0 Typology 1 by Susan Graham Newt Gingrich etc o Multiraciality is a good thing since it constitutes a move toward a postracial social order 0 A step toward a non racial future 0 Typology 2 by Gilberto Freyre 0 Brazilian model of mulatto upward mobility and racial harmony 0 Typology 3 0 Mexican and Central American model of mestizaje o The cosmic race 0 Typology 4 o The US racial order is moving to a two category BlacknonBlack division 0 Typology 5 o Posits a reconfiguration of American society a 3 part hierarchical division into white honorary white and collective Black Film La Haine WEEK 7 cont David M Newman Sociology Ch 12 Matriarchy female dominated society that gives higher prestige and value to women than to men 0 Patriarchy male dominated society in which cultural beliefs and values give higher prestige to men Kate Bornstein Gender Outlaw 0 Gender attribution depends on these cues physical behavioral textual mythic power dynamics sexual orientation biological gender Gender Terms 0 Sex the biological components of maleness and femaleness What is ascribed by biology anatomy hormones physiology Gender The psychological social and cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness An achieved status 0 Gender Identity YOUR answer to what are you and to what group do you want to belong What you feel you are 0 Gender Role Identity How much a person approves of and participates in feelings and behaviors which are seen as appropriate for his her gender 0 Gender Assignment The gender they say you are at birth culture says This is what you are 0 Gender Attribution Where we say what someone else s gender is we attribute a gender to that person 0 Gender Role A set of expectations about what behaviors are appropriate for people of one gender More simply put the gender part you play 0 Sexual Orientation The deceptively simple version who you want to engage in sexual activity with 0 Transsexual Someone who has a sex change The genitals are surgically altered usually going along with the use of hormones Although a biologically normal person they have the conviction of being a member ofthe opposite sex 0 Transvestite Someone who cross dresses Their gender identity corresponds to herhis assignment nevertheless 0 Role a set of prescriptions and proscriptions for behavior expectations about what is appropriate for a person holding a particular position within a particular context 0 Stereotype a set of beliefs about the characteristics of the occupants of a role not necessarily based on fact but applied to each role occupant regardless of circumstances The Natural Attitude about Gender Harold Garfinkel 1967 There are two and only two genders female and male One s gender is invariant If you are femalemale you always were such and you always will be Genitals are the essential sign of gender A female has a vagina a male has a penis Any exceptions to two genders are not to be taken seriously They must be jokes pathology etc There are no transfers from one gender to another except ceremonial ones masquerades etc Everyone must be classified as a member of one gender or another There are no cases where gender is not attributed The malefemale dichotomy is a natural one Membership in one s gender or another is natural No one decides your gender 9 lS7 SJquotl S Lorber Night to His Day Gender is constantly re created out of human interaction social life It is a social institution by which humans organize their lives of creating distinguishable social statuses for the assignment of rights and responsibilities 0 Gender s building blocks are socially constructed statuses Hermaphrodites born with chromosomes and genitalia not clearly female or male As a process creates the social differences defining woman and man 0 As part of a stratification system ranks men above women of same race class As a structure divides work in home and in economic production legitimates those in authority organizes sexuality and emotional life Suzanne Kessler and Wendy McKenna Gender An Ethnomethodological Approach 0 Role a set of prescriptions and proscriptions for behavior 0 Stereotype a set of beliefs about the characteristics of the occupants of a role applied to each role occupant regardless of circumstances 0 No one piece ofinfo about a component of gender is sufficient for making a gender attribution 0 Whether someone is a man or woman is determined in course ofinteracting WEEK 8 Media Self and Society ean Kilbourne Deadly Persuasion Ch 1 3 of the 4 TV programs that draw largest audiences yearly are football games 0 Advertising is the most important aspect of mass media 0 It supports more than 60 of magazinenewspaper production and 100 of electronic media 0 Nothing puts people in the mood to buy like a newspaper Younger people are being targeted because the earlier you get them the sooner you imprint the brand name to develop their brand loyalty Emphasis on the wealthy since the poor are invisible in society 0 Ethnic minorities are increasingly important to advertisers Minorities are underrepresented in ads and advertising agencies 0 As their spending power increases so does marketing segmentation 0 Children are easily in uenced they can39t tell the difference between shows and commercials Kidola a TV marketing strategy in which toy companies promise to buy blocks of commercial time if a local broadcast station airs programs associated with their toys Schools and women drinkers are targeted Advertising s in uence on media content is exerted in 2 major ways 1 via the supporession of info that would harm or offend the sponsor and 2 via the inclusion of editorial content that is advertiser friendly that creates an environment in which the ads look good 0 The line between advertising and editorial content is blurred by advertorials product placement in TV programs and the use ofvideo news releases Americans rely on media for health information which is distorted 0 Advertising co opts our attempts at resistance and rebellion Ch 2 0 Advertising is our environment and we can39t escape it 0 It39s inside our intimate relationships our homes our hearts our heads 0 It makes up 70 ofnewspapers and 40 of mail 0 We are powerfully in uenced mostly on an unconscious level by the experience of being immersed in an advertising culture in which all institutions are increasingly for sale to the highest bidder We are not in uenced We are skeptical cynical but ignorant 0 Advertising is familiar but not known We are not educated about it nor do we understand it 0 Advertisers want us to believe that we are not in uenced by ads 0 Anti advertising a trend in which advertisers atter us by insinuating that we are far too smart to be taken in by advertising 0 Viral communications used by advertisers to reach teenagers alienated from traditional forms of advertising they use posters on construction sites sidewalk markings and e mail to infiltrate youth culture and cultivate the perception that their product is hot 0 Cynicism one of worst effects of advertising it often carries over to other aspects of life it affects how we define our problems and envision their solutions 0 Many people exposed to much advertising both distrust every possible solution and expect a quick fix 0 Advertising does more than re ect cultural attitudes and values it is an effective and pervasive medium of in uence and persuasion 0 Advertising is both a creator and perpetuator of the dominant attitudes values and ideology of the culture the social norms and myths by which most people govern their behavior 0 Advertising is both our physical and spiritual environment 0 Advertising and religion share a belief in transformation and transcendence but most religions believe this requires work and sacrifice In world of advertising enlightenment is achieved instantly by purchasing material goods 0 Advertising promotes core belief of American culture that we can re create ourselves transform ourselves instantly e ortlessly 0 One of advertising s purposes is to create an aura for a product so that others will be impressed thus its in uence goes beyond the target audience and includes those who could never afford the product 0 An image is all that advertising has to sell 0 In 19th century advertising began its job to produce consumers 0 Advertising relies entirely on IMAGE this image often pollutes cultural environment 0 The unintended effects of advertising are far more important and more difficult to measure than those effects that are intended 0 Advertising sells more than products it sells values images and concepts of love and sexuality romance success and most important normalcy 0 It tells us who we are and who we should be we use brand names to create our identities 0 It creates a worldview based upon cynicism dissatisfaction and craving Jerry Mander FourArgumentsfor Elimination ofTV Value added the transformation that creates economic benefits for the transformers it derives from all the processes that alter a raw material from something which has no intrinsic economic value to something which does Elements in creation of commercial value 1 productivity in act of converting natural into the artificial something with no inherent economic value becomes productive 2 scarcity the separation of people from whatever they might want or need when basic necessities are not scarce economic value can only be applied to new items Goal is to convert the internal human wilderness into a form that desires to accumulate the commodities The conversion process is directed at experience feeling perception behavior and desire these must be catalogued defined and reshaped Confinement the removal of a creature from its natural habitat into a rearranged world where its ordinary techniques for survival and satisfaction are no longer operative it causes 1 The creature becomes dependent for survival upon whoever controls the new environment 2 The creature becomes focused upon addicted to whatever experiences remain available in new environment 3 The creature reduces its own mental and physical expectations to fit what can be gotten We have had to re create ourselves to fit to succeed in today39s world to make the best of a situation that seems inevitable and ubiquitous Advertising has role of keeping us commodity people always buying and working to get money Advertising disconnects us from natural environment and replugs us into a new consumer environment It furthers the movement of humans into artificial environments by narrowing the conception of diversity to fit the framework of commodities while unifying people within this conception It exists only to purvey what people don39t need it separates them from their needs Things that are advertised processed food whiteness sterility sudsiness a cosmetic factor and brand The goal of advertising is discontent or an internal scarcity of contentment Its role is to create a world of mirrors in which people can obtain new images of themselves that fit the purposes of the overall system it makes the human into a spectator of his her own life alienation to the max TV is best form of media that is the delivery system advertising requires it has 9 advantages 1 TV is itself a commodity and is physically consistent with prevalent reality 2 TV changes the nature of artificial environments from passive to active it enters us our homes our bodies our minds 3 TV is an experience that can be had by everyone at same time 4 once diversity of experience is reduced to TV a handful of people can control everyone s awareness 5 TV is unique in that it smooths out any furrows in commodity system 6 TV is more like a time out than experience it dulls human sensibility and dims awareness of world 7 by focusing people on events well outside their lives TV encourages passivity and inaction discourages self awareness 8 by speaking in images TV adds a dimension to mirror image process it implants internal movies available for self comparison 9 TV encourages separation people from community people from each other people from themselves etc Film Killing Us Softly IV MediaSociety Industries Images and Audiences Equipment that provides access to electronic media radio and TV cell phone computer MP3 player game console e book reader tablet Our media and our society are fused If media was gone nothing would be the same entertainment would be different We would spend more time interacting with others Government would operate differently education religion would be different politicians behavior would be different media is plural of medium reader or user are used rather than receiver or audience because we want to highlight role of audiences in interpreting messages and in generating media content of their own social construction of reality process of actively creating meaning in a way that different readers interpret the media product in different ways this means that while reality exists we must negotiate the meaning of that reality audiences are also users of media they contribute content to the platforms created by media companies mass media media that reach a relatively large audience of usually anonymous readers mass media producers have no way of knowing who or how many people will read their book watch their program buy their CD The Print Medium 0 Was the only means for reaching a wide audience for several centuries but the need for physical distribution limited its products Sound Recording and Film Medium 0 Thomas Edison invented phonograph which marked beginning of the first new mass medium since print 0 Invention of cinematograph led to moving pictures Broadcast Media 0 Radio was first broadcast medium 0 No longer did media producers have to physically distribute their products 0 Invention of TV digital broadcasting began The Internet 0 Narrowcasting process of moving away from the mass broadcast audience toward smaller more specialized niche populations Socialization process whereby we learn and internalize the values beliefs norms of our culture and develop a sense of self Through this we learn to perform social roles We realize the learned taken for granted nature of our beliefs values only when someone calls them into question or contradicts them Mass media are bound up with the process of social relations media affect how we learn about our world and interact with others Sociological perspective aka sociological imagination enables us to see the connections between private troubles and public issues suggests that we can understand condition of individual only by situating that person in the larger context of society Individual is a product of social relations Looking glass self we develop an identity by imagining how others see us In considering mass media we look at 3 types of social relations 1 relationships btwn institutions ex btwn media industry and gov 2 relationships within an institution which involve interaction of ppl 3 relationships btwn institutions and individuals Media are often controversial because different groups expect it to play different roles Sociologists link social relations to 1 structure and 2 agency Social structure describes any recurring pattern of social behavior suggests constraint on human action Agency intentional and undetermined human action indicates independent action 0 Structural constraint the regulations and norms of the educational system 3 levels of analysis about structural constraint and agency 1 relationships btwn institutions 0 We can39t understand media industry without considering socialeconomicpolitical context in which it exists 2 relationships within an institution 0 To understand the decisions of journalists writers producers we must understand the context in which they labor 3 relationships btwn an institution and the public 0 occurs when the media deliver messages to readers readers of media products must actively interpret media messages interaction between speakers helps promote mutual understanding about the messages being communicated 4 components ofa sociological perspective on media 1 readers or audience may be in uenced by media messages they see must actively interpret meaning from messages 2 technology its direction is affected by how readers choose to use it 3 media industry the entire organizational structure that makes up media affected by changes in technology key in in uencing application of technology it39s the producer of the media message or product 4 media message or product social world is in the center of the model and also surrounds it this is all the social elements not included in the above four Martin Marger The Mass Media as a Power Institution the two major institutions of power government and economy must be joined by a third mass media mass media are of two types 1 print books magazines newspapers and 2 electronic radio TV films mass media because their communicative realm is broad functions of mass media are agents of socialization instruct people in norms and values of society they are sources of info for citizens function as propaganda mechanisms through which gov and economy seek to persuade the public 0 serve as agents of legitimacy generating mass belief in dominant political economic institutions three queries in examining mass media39s power in societies 1 their control and accessibility who owns or controls mass media 0 This is determined by economic context within which media function and by their place in political economy 0 The mass media are huge corporations whose objective is to maximize profits 0 As privately owned enterprises the media cater to those who can pay to put their views on air the major corporations 0 Neither government nor media can function without the other 2 their content what do media present to public 0 Mass media have the role as gatekeepers of politicaleconomicsocial info9 news 0 Media have become a source of reality itself 0 Since media operate as business enterprises the media elite must take into account interests of dominant economic groups the large corporations when making decisions 0 These decisions must be weighed against the interests of political elites due to their reliance on gov 0 Info presented by media is framed by dominant values and shaped by power elites 3 the effects of mass media on public opinion and political awareness Reality shaping function 0 Primary organs of political communication 0 minimal effects view the new perspective that held that viewers and readers were not to be seen as a mass but rather as individual consumers whose interpretations of media presentations were modified by social class ethnicity religion unlike previous view that media has a direct in uence agenda setting function idea ofthe impact of mass media on creating a public awareness of issues TV doesn39t tell us what to think but rather what and whom to think about 0 Priming a kind of media power that goes one step beyond agenda setting refers to changes in the standards that people use in making political choices and judgments 0 Ability of media to propagate dominant values is NOT ABSOLUTE NOT CONSUMMATE O O O O C Wright Mills The Power Elite The experience of meanings might serve as a basis for resistance to mass media not an experience of raw events The more genuine competition there is among media the more resistance we can command Do people compare reports on events playing one medium s content against another No 1 people tend to select those media which carry contents with which they already agree selection on basis of prior opinions 2 idea of playing one medium against another assumes that media really have varying contents it assumes competition which is not widely true Media provide us with new identities o the media tell the man in the mass who he is give him identity 0 media tell him what he wants to be give him new aspirations 0 media tell him how to get that way give him technique 0 media tell him how to feel that he is that way even when he isn t give him escape primary public the live and immediate social context in which people live and which exerts a steady expectation upon them authority power that is explicit and voluntarily obeyed manipulation the secret exercise of power unknown to those who are in uenced becomes a problems wherever men have power that is concentrated and willful but do not have authority or when they do not wise to use their power openly life adjustment an ideology that encourages happy acceptance of mass ways of life rather than the struggle for individual and public transcendence the idea of a mass society suggests the idea of an elite of power the idea of the public in contrast suggests the liberal tradition of a society without any power elite Film Manufacturing Consent Noam Chomsky and the Media
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