History 3560 - Italian Renaissance - Semester Notes
History 3560 - Italian Renaissance - Semester Notes 3560
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This 70 page Bundle was uploaded by Anna Martz on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 3560 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Clouse in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see The Italian Renaissance in History at Ohio University.
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Italian Renaissance Why Italy? Idea, people – start of modern art, cultural persuits - naturalism, realism, linear perspective, mixing own paint, mediums, duelmo patroned by medici family, city of Florence, break of medieval world to - rebirth of classical antiquity , engage in new ideas Renaissance – French word – rebirth – why are we o tied to the renaissance as the beginning of modernity and how do you sum it up I. Why Italy? Early modern period Western Europe – centralized power – france, rome th No central power in Italy – as a nation does not exist until the 19 century – sometimes extension of the holy roman empire – is a group of citiy states and subsidies – The Pope attempts to be the king/authoritative figure Did not think of themselves as a nation – united as landmass but also politically distinct II. Medieval background – urban revolution & importance of geography • Population explosion by 12 c. th o Consumer culture – gives rise to renaissance § Double in population – grows more in Italy than any other nation § Benefits from geography – birth of long distance trade • East west axis of trade o Major importer coming from east – silk, spices, glass, ceramics, textiles, tea, medicinal herbs/spices 12 century onward o Ability to navigate well o Fortunes as middlemen o Venetians ran pepper empire o Crusades – 11 -13thc. Western christian Europeans fighting muslins to take back cities --- - Italy best stopping point – trade – constant trade benefit & profitable § need for safer living conditions, and agriculture and food ----- first city • Italy has more cities than any other place in Europe • The happening place – people coming to / becoming more urban • Provide jobs – allow marketable labor to help people be remade • Sanitation problem • City associated with sin – too many opportunities for trouble • Birth of money economy - Cities where money minted – consistent production of money and use of money to pay for things - beginning of urban economic revolution o Bankers/traders – able to control how money was spent, made people use their banking systems to access goods § Bardi, Peruzzi, Medici Families § Major Italian banking family in every major city • Challenge to society of Order o Medieval Three Orders • Triparti division of orders o Clergy o Nobility - Soldier, nobleman, o Laborers - laborer/peasant/everyone else § clergy and soldier talking – other man just listening o clergy and nobility make up 5% - laborers 95% o born to class • 4 order – those who made money o 40% of laborers 95% o usury – charging interest on money lent – central to banking - condemned in the bible – highly Christianized society – (banned because as a Christian you should do something for the good of others – not ok to benefit off of the others needs) o pursuit of money lending as a career was condemning – church passed law saying one could not charge interest on money lent to other Christians – Medici family/other major families employed Jews to lend money for them – they weren’t directly breaking the law § women not part of society – among 4 order they have a greater chance in the system – behind the scenes - Florence – gold florin – Italy now distinct – geography drives history , because of lack of political system a structure known as the commune emerges – as early as the 11 century, many small city Same ordering across Italy – church higher among Italians becaue rome is the center of for the church Pope created empire from all of Germany to Italy – protect the interest of the pope and the interests of the papal states – germans not happy with german empire and Italians not happy with Communes that evolve into farthest away from the kingdom center – br III. Birth(Age/Era) of the communes – political rights • Commune – self government – imerges – no allegiance to holy roman empire, local nobility, bishop – no taxes paid except to church • function in the city o Consuls – executive, judicial, legislative control – only male citizens could serve – decide everything – trade, war, alliances – contstant attempt to one up because of violence o Cities now free – slave ended by living escaping to city and living for a year and one day o Pecking order decided by people with most money o Citizenship restricted to those who were free, with money o Somewhat democratic in a republican type of way – still backdoor dealings in ways – sometimes major families came to rule city o Council was dangerous because of external and internal • Political power – communes & self – government o Consuls – executive, judicial, legislative control o Podesta – professional why offered his services to the highest bidder to straighten out the city – usually has military experience – when things out of control in city – professional problem fixer - only stays until problem is resolved/threat is passed ----sometimes stayed as tyrants o Contado – countryside where city must make enough food to support its people § Agriculture necessary to sustain city – some places importend, but predominantly done by self § Ex. – around arno river – city states fighting for control of the land and waterway – small citystates going to join together and pick sides – make much larger force – protection, need access to agricultural land and river – § Constant pressure on city states to make and remake allies § Where word city-state comes from – greek word Polis – city head and surrounding countryside § Money lenders often leased agricultural rights to city and moved into city Signoria – married nobility with fourth order • Lorenzetti , Effects of Good and Bad government o Murals painted to remind city-state that they are to provide people based on trust, honesty, good relationships , have and maintain ----- happy city // terrible city Economic power – Trade guilds Guide system – economic rights Trade Guilds – • Social & economic organization - provided an extended family in which you were organized around a trade (doctor, tailor, fisherman) – mirroring social hierarchy: distinct order • Social & economic organization o Masters – shop owners, train journeymen and apprentices, mastermen meant citizen – usually meant they could serve on council o Journeymen – travel around for years doing work o Apprentices - serve for 7-8 years – can begin at age 7 – do all dirty work • Social functions for members o Some guilds allowed women o Controlled who could come into city – monopoly – early equivalent of trade union – allowed for reasonable supply – never too many in city o Monetary care for orphans and widows o Promised apprenticeship to family members o Allowed neighborhood watch – no state/city police – protected interests o Normally neighborhood church o Intermarried and provided home away from home in city • Florentine guild system – highly stratified – 2 groups o 7 art maggiori (great guilds) o arti minori (lesser guilds) o systems that existed regulated city – how people could rise ---- social mobility • each guild had a center hall representing importance Geo-Political Landscape part II: Chaos in the Cities Communal government & social stratification o Communal government § Based on Republican model from Rome § Consuls- city council members who ran the city § General assembly of all citizens (voting power) § Numerous subcommittees – choose by lot • “Twelve Good Men,”- civil “Forty of Justice,”- civil Eight of War,“-war Commissioners of the Salt Tax”-tax & “Gentlemen of the Night”-nightwatch & regulated prostitution (prostitution illegal but generated a lot of money for the city – Rome made the most money taxing prostitution) ---- purpose/task meant to maintain city • many people had a say – all had voting power – almost everyone could serve on committees (often same people over and over) § Artisan, popolo minute, foreigners, prostitutes, beggars, the poor …. NO political voice o Socio-economic make-up § 4 groups: • Grandi-lords or magnates o Wealthy, noble blood, landowners o Sell land to city and move into city or rent land to city and move into city th • Popolo grosso – patricians (4 order, wealthiest) o “fat people” o urban aristocracy, wealthiest citizens o often intermarry with grandi to give solid family name and money • artisans – middle rank of craftsmen • popolo minuto o “little people” o urban poor, day laborors, servants Towers of power – political turmoil • Trouble in the Cities o Social diversity = urban disruption o Nobles and traditional identity § Conflicting values in urban environment • Meant to fight – keep nobility, earn more land, keep honor – cant do that in the city • Consorteria (40 to 50 members - only males) o Family units, controlled marriage, patriarchal o All decisions made regarding family – how they will work, marriage, etc.. • Towers of power: 2 functions o Military posts – defensive o Symbols of power and influence o Built in heart of the neighborhood o Urban castle – represented nobility within the cities interests o Asinelli Tower – 350 ft. talest • Chaos in the city states o Objective to tear down other families towers --- war within the cities – carrying on the traditional practices of fighting o War above city but the fighting ran into the city o Disruptive to economy, spirit, and republican values • Impact on the Communes o Chaos in the cities left communes weak & ender threat of invasion o Increasing warfare between cities § Economic expansion § Territorial expansion – rich contado – agriculturally feed city § Geography – need a sea port – trade is key to economic success New political responses to urban chaos • Popular response to Chaos o Guilds emerge – dominated by artisans and merchants o Heirarcy – masters, journeymen, apprentices o Functions & duties in urban environment § Standardized craft, production, wages, costs § Social services for members & their families § Political voice (maters) § Armed neighborhood watch • Rebellion of the Popolo o Tension between city magnates (grandi & popolo grosso)and guild members o Violence used to subdue guilds o Rebellion in Florence – 1250 § Est. Peoples Republic § Government more inclusive § Magnates w/ help of Siena back in 1260 § Second People’s Republic est. 1268-1494 • Ordinences of Justice – guilds take over o Exiled unruly magnates, denied grandi access to gov. councils, destroyed private towers of the grandi Film: The City: Building Reputations 1. How did economic growth in the twelfth and thirteenth century impact material, artistic and urban culture? 2. What were the main goal s of a city-state/ How did siena achieve those goals? 3. Explain the statement, “religion was woven into the fabric of life.” a. 4. What was a confraternity What purpose did it serve in a city? a. 5. Explain the significance of the cathedral (duomo) to citizens of Siena or Florence. a. Impressive domes which dominate skylines – cathedrals were competitive among city-states, show power & strength, offerings to Virgin Mary to continue prosperity - 6. Compare and contrast Byzantine painting to the naturalism and realism of early Renaissance works. a. Styalized, unemotional, 2D to take out the materialism b. Gold color of divinity and purple color of imperial power 7. Provide some examples of urban planning in thirteenth and fourteenth- century Siena. Why did the appearance of a city matter to its inhabitants? a. 1334 – paid 2 officals to oversee beauty of city b. Judge of streets – 3 helpers to ensure buildings do not encroach on street and that carts to not cause traffic c. Suilding manager to oversee new construction d. Town halls – formed second focal point in city (cathedral first) i. Open public square in front also – hold community events 8. What was the governing body of Siena? How did the Sienese curb corruption and tyranny in its political system? a. Council of 9 9. How did the Sienese regulate/police city life? Why did they do so? 10.Based on Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s Effects of Good and Bad Government: a. What was the purpose of the fresco? b. Which values was it meant to promote? c. Which vices was it meant to deter? Niccolo & Giovanni Pisano – sculpture -originated form Pisa- Ducio’s Maesta – most modern and largest alter piece of the time Center of life – farm – cities opening – new economics and job opportunities Florence and Siena rivals --- seen more as nations that city states Self-Fashioning Urban Organization: Era of Republics & Duchies #4 Frescos: from film Good & Bad Gov. • hung on city walls • remind the city officials • bring together the symbolic virtues of the Republic • Good – lady justice with scels weighing decisions – classical roman virtues o Bottom – persom holding court – different people and dress representing everyone o Violate the laws of republic then justice will prevail – also help the needy – medding out o No architechure – all level on 2 level • Bad – the devil with goat – ultimately the bad happens o Lady justice bound in ropes on bottom o Envy, gluttony, sins take over lady justice can do nothing o Creatures bound to earth and limited in their abilities o Architecture maybe city hall – offers/deals with devil for own best interest o Devil raised above al else o Sheep signifies the innocence of the people § Drawing from Christian imagery also – Christ and his flock as c=good shepherd • Early Renaissance Political Theory o Communal government required new theoretical framework § No divine right rule § “love justice you who govern the earth” § Political tension in Siena (film) § Communal gov’t. needs legitimacy § Birth of universities – law and medicine studied • Demand for educated men and the infrastructure to produce them o Jurists – sought answers to new political questions – practical contributions (lawyers trained in ancient Roman law) § New questions and new political theories • Contributes to regulations within cities • Over saw and contracting, people, business, peace treaties between city states, no king – divine right / sovereignty of king (kings power from god) • What technicaly was a state? o To what extent were city-states tied to church o To what extent were they subject to the empire § Were they independent actors – do they have right to create law? § All three – separation of church and state th § All emerged from complicated political state of Italy in 14 century § Marsilius of Padua (c. 1280-1343) • Defensor Pacis c.1320 –huge contributor, led way for political theory • Studied and taught in university of Paris • Pro-imperial – anti papal ideas – Ghibellines o Ideas about Rome’s independence from church and alignment with imperial interests o Problems the fault of the Pope – overstepping bounds – (anyone could rise up and take power) o Wrote in Latin – specific educated/elite audience o Equisiastical power – is the state free from churched interference o Defines the modern state that is and entity both autonomous and secular § Provided security and order for citizens § Ultimately the citizens were the source of power for the city state o Exiled from Italy § Bartolus of Sassoferato (c. 1313-1357) • Corpus iuris civilis (of Emp. Justinian 6 c) – commissioned jurists to go back through all roman Law books and clean it up (contradicting, repetitive law) • huge contributor – led the way for new political theory • University of Perugua – commentator on Roman Law books Corpus ^^ decided ideas/theories for the city states laws • Groups holding power neither monarchs not clerics • Best combinations of rule were prominent men not kings – oligarchy (council where men and their families are responsible for the rule of the city-state) not necessarily representative • Drew from political ideas of Aristotle and Augustine • Theoretical justification for self governing states and self sufficiency – not democratic government, but oligarchy § Dante – The Poet (c.1265-1321) • De Monarchia 1314 • Voice against expansion of papacy – separation of church and state • Ended up writing against the republican form of government – said it creates and environment of bribery and manipulation – advocate for monarchy • Political Change in Urban Organization o Chaotic environment - small city-states could not survive on own o City-state dominates 14 c-landscape o Regional dominance – varied political structure § Florence § Needs access to Arno R. & sea outlet for trade – not directly on the river – needed a sea outlet for trade § Wool and banking industries § Conquered Pisa 1406 & eventually Siena • Waged war on Pisa – annexed it as Florence city- state • Waged war on Siena – annexed o Florence ruled large area o Puts Florence on same level as Rome • Happens over and over again throughout the peninsula – handful of city states rules the peninsula § End of the commune? § Independent cities could not survive § Smaller city-states w/in sphere of influence of larger city- states o Oligarchy – 1 political model – almost naturally emerges o Form of government in which the power is restricted to a few men or families – no representation § Taddeo Pepoli (d.1347) – famous, old banking family – precursors to medici – he inherited the power and wealth – expelled from city because caught on wrong side of factualism (fighting between ghibillines and guelf) § Readmitted in 1336 – head of clan – him and 60 followers allowed to carry arms in the city – marched into city council and take over – he and his family committed to protecting commune from other exiled families § Many other cities supported based on trade agreements § Exiles main enemies § Bologna 1336-1337 – Pepoli controlled – legitimacy from power of people – killing off fellow citizens but for the better good of the other citizens – ruled by one cloaked by oligarchy § Gained validation & legitimacy from the pope § Papal victor – underneath extension § Siena & The Nine – true oligarchy § Oligarchy in Siena • Chaos of 13 c. o 1285-1355 ruled by The Nine § Nine Governors and Defenders of the Commune & People of Siena § 1355 – a revolt of the popolo and established the 12 later the 15 § Constant rivalry w/Florence meant acceptance of oligarchy § Deal with Visconti – invited in to control Siena – need powerful military source to defend them – give up the idea of a republic for a one man rule to keep freedom § Example of political strife w/in oligarchy o Signorie (despotism) – 2 political model § a state under the power of a signore (lord – Duke) § Milan & Gian Galeazzo Visconti (d.1402) § Milan – Gian Galeazzo Visconti (r.1378-1402) § Control over the Po Valley § Visconti’s approach & conquests – 21 independent cities from valley under his control – created dominance in the region § Killed uncle – bishop – making Milan a secular city state § Venice & Florence – key enemies • Conquered Bologna – buys control and acess to sea port in Pisa – welcomed into Siena • Played off the turmoil of Venice and Florence – deals made back and forth and kept those two on the verge of war § Holy Roman Emperor vs. Pope • Because of location – truly part of Holy Roman Empire – plays between pope and HRE too • Legitimacy from Holy Roman Empire o Milan becomes a duchy --- Duke 1395 o Very greedy and very ambitious o Rise of the Podestá – 3 model (mediator – comes in to resolve problems – original what Visconti were seen as) late 14 c. to early th 15 c. cities losing power to families – in effect they are Kingdoms • Ferrara – fell victim to its podestá o Este family dominated mid 14 c. th o Weakened control of city council and then establish a signoria – status of Duchy • Verona – Scaligeri family o Power of podesta ---- leads to amily take over • Florence – 1342 o Walter of Brienne (Duke of Athens) – foreign lord that took over and ruled the city – relied on the factualism – called in to resolve problem of the elite – had support of people (saw benefit of power by lordship instead of oligarchy) – eventually elite families band together and rise above Brienne • Charles of Anjou as podestá (son of French king & king of Naples) o Lucca (city) o Brescia & Allesandria (sister cities/territories of Lucca) o Never directly interfered – council to act on his behalf § Technically oligarchy – benefitted from him § Able to stay independent • Geo-Political Landscape of 15 c. (HANDOUT) o 5 major city-states dominate § Republic of Venice § Republic of Florence § Duchy of Milan § Papal States § Kingdom of Naples o Minor republics: Genoa, Lucca, Siena § Closest things to actual republics o Minor duchies: Ferrara, Mantua, Urbino § Ruled by Dukes o Outsiders: HRE, England, France & Spain • Papal States o Geography drives Italien history o Genoa – in competition with Venice for long distance traders – has good relationship with france and spain nd § Genoa – 2 tier republic – had enough outside support to sustain itself o Story ----- Roman emperor Constantine – granted the Pope control over Western half of the Empire – left church in control of the western half of the empire o 8 century – Donation of Constantine – used this idea to trick te French king – Donatino od Pepin – by right of conquest gained control over territories in Italy – gave them to Italian Church Humanism and Renaissance Notion of Man • Main characteristics of Humanism o Emerges in an urban format – Italy distinct from the rest of Europe --- men in Italy see that the education they receive in the cities is not sufficient to deal with everyday problems of urban cities § Creates demand for education/training – emphasize persuasion nad proper communication (Cola- great persuasion – importance of rederict) § Education to train men in society to be good leaders, irtuous and love justice • Petrarch and the Revival of the Classics (discovers classics • break with scholasticism to focus on • study of languages – revival of classical latin and later greek and Hebrew • emphasis on rhederic and disputation – live in political environment with commune – need to express ideas very clearly and persuade others to your cause • style of eloquent writing o Republic of letters – men who have all read the same things and can communicate effectivey • Purpose of education is to produce good citicens – to make more globaly aware and well rounded – make one more aware • Idea in mans ability to control environment o Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) § Church man § 1337 – first trip to Rome and dismayed by what he say – broken city § Same time as Cola § Love affair with books – passion for reading classics § Trained in law and theology – meant to work for church § Wanted to understand man and the world around him § Book hunting trips – all sources were in Italy in the monasteries – monasteries were literate and meant to keep the works – uses connections with church – uncovers classical antiquity in the process § Begined to share his love for the classics with others ----- Republic of letters § Wrote poetry, moral treateses and ‘letters to the dead’ § Modeled his style of writing after the great authors of past o Letters to the Dead – Cicero his model § Conversations with great authors – saying what he though antiquity had to offer – monks had destroyed beauty and corrupted the intent of the writings § All classical authors were pagan – Italy now Christian o Petrarch’s dilemma – problems in society resolved through proper education --- contemporary of Cola di Rienzo – points out that the classical virtues can change the society – model off of past o Solutions to common problems we face must be embedded in the texts fo past – within a generation with acess to knowledge the Italians will awake from this slumber of forgetfulness into this pure radiance of the past “middle ages dark ages – obscure the great light of the past” o Classical virtues – wisdom/justice/temperance/generosity – from antiquity § Superheros of the middle ages were the monks – the closest to god – now the pope is in france and seperates from people because they are growing in wealth but not giving back – lack of leadership – business ------ petrarca says we need new superheros § General political structure of ancient Roman times was a republic before and empire ---- now communes already starting so there is no divine right rule o Purpose of education – more suited to environment of Italy of early 14 and 15h century --- challenges the questions of man and god o Wrote in the vernacular to reacha very broad audience – Italians and classical latin o Understudies such and saluttati and brasolini mimic petrarchs ciseonial latin style of writing – if you wanted to be educated, you must write this was • A New Path to man’s virtue –Studia Humanitatis o If you want to truly understand what the classical world had to offer – we must get rid of the barbaric ways we approach it now – by 1440’s and 50’s able to do so o Challenging medieval scholasticism § teach what ancient men did and said o Problem w/Scholasticism § Scholastic method & Aristotle • Base on Aristotle’s logic and rhetoric – for law theology and medicine – any text given they needed to read and be able to argue pro and con --- no so much understanding, but able to memorize and persuade people to sides • Reconcile contradictions – anywhere conflict with Christian doctrine one could argue the conflict away with logic • Not so much think on own, but argue § 4 main criticisms by humanists • Scholasticism had promoted inferior barbarized Latin o If words synonyms they didn’t have much value – did not focus on word choice • Hindered new ideas – only argue for or against • Insufficiency in moral doctrines – did nothing to make you a better citizen – no guidance in solving Urban problems • Used rhetorical skills gained to create abstract arguments instead of applying to Urban environment o Rhetoric – cornerstone to the new learning – emphasized greatly building upon what they had and more effective use for skills – it does matter and word choice matters § Mimic the virtues and goals of roman and greek intellectuals • From that we will find virtuous examples of good behavior § New approach • Philological humanism – emphasizing the words themselves – important if there were discrepancies in texts • ad fonts – back to the source – fountain of information – no longer acceptable to use the texts in circulation – must get back to pure clean version of the classical text – why did Aristotle choose to use certain words instead of others o spawn massive hunt for books – boom in book trade – renewed emphasis on reading and understanding texts differently § private schools and tutoring available – everyone educated in the same form of ciseronin latin – making these texts accessable for everyone o Aristotle wrote 144 texts – only 4 available § New curriculum – studia humanitatis – path to morality & civility – most effective and important ways to create good citizens • Latin grammar – educated person during Renaissance – need foundation in ciseronian Latin – most men know by 7 or 8 – demand/requirement for Latin literacy --- would Cola be effective if he was born 100 years later? • Poetry – Virgil, & others --- works held in high regard – classical poety will reflect views of humanities views in ancient rome – medium to models of behavior in classical rome • Rhetoric – practical application in life – ability to persuade others successfully is escential to effective republic • History – learn from past mistakes and not make them again – models of appropriate behavior o Imitation – imitation – read both lives of successful and unsuccessful – what did some do and what not to do • Ethics/moral philosophy – anoter way to help man learn how to live and executie free will o Make citizens good and active – follow vita activa – if you had an education – you must do something with them – participate in community § Monks previously supposed to hide away and study to make them closer to god – waste of education § Purpose of humanism --- reinforce republican values – not rule by one, but rule by many(must be educated) – prepare men and women for active life in government • Renaissance notion of man – idea about the purpose of man has began to change what is renaissance and reformation o Medieval vs. Renaissance man § Renaissance – man is more that a reflection of the divine – not someone who can ever live up to the divine or reflect on sin – must be measured against something he cannot become § o Free will o Individualism – dignity of man § All humanists began to rething the relationship between man and god, the purpose of humanity and the idea of free will § No divine plan – god gave us free will as a gift – man must use his intellect his rational thought (one thing that distinguishes him from all other beasts) to act § Man needed to aspire to his greatest potential § Humanists – among all of great creations, men were the only ones who walked with his head in the clouds and his feet on the ground – man given a special dignity, therefore he must live up to it – proper execution of free will • Men constantly faced with greed, § o Giovanni Pico della Mirandola – father of individualism § Oration on the Dignity of Man § At age 10 sent to university of Padua § Best humanist education of the day § Extremely talented in language § At 23 he decide he came to understand and idea about free will, individuality – sought to rectify religions § Wanted international debate – offered to pay and created 900 thesis in the points of conveince of these ideas • Church upset with some points § Friends with eir to Medici throne § Debate never took place - 3 major religions of the day ---- always engaged in violence in the time - o Glorify God through man’s greatness § Instead of measuring man against greatness, god created us as special – we must live up to this – we are responsible for our choices - o Roof of Sistine chapel – God reaching to adam – in the crook of his arm is eve who god gives to adam as a gift ---- god is reaching to adam, now adam must rise ot greatest potential Cataclysm: The Black Death visits Tuscany • First decades of 1300s the major citiy states in the height of their power and wealth – major construction of • Florence and siena had waged war for 200 years but now at peace th o Siena expanding city walls for 4 time § Walls make forst impression – hight well maintained city walls show • 1260 Siena defeated Florence – built large cathedral o 1294 – Florence built bigger than Siena o 1334 – Siena makes addition – structure • mid 1300s everything crumbles – Sienese shift wealth to real estate • Florence builds enormouse debt on construction • Florence banks collapse because they lent to the Frence King to wage war o Bad loan --- takes down bank § This takes down the entire Florentine economy • Why does everything collapse? o Demographic – not enough food to feed everyone o Black Plague – bubonic plague – carried by flees on rats § People already worn down by famine --- that’s why it hit so hard • 1348 spring and summer – plague reaches Tuscany 1/3 to ½ of population is destroyed --- people abandoning family --- horrific to point that people believed it was the end of the world o Decameron – tale of wealthy young people who evade the plague outside of city – tell 100 stories • After plague Siena only built one structure – to thank the virgin mary for taking away the plague • Arcivio Distato – holds all documentations of everything – much less documentations during plague – funerary rights changed • Catastrophe of plague not understood through justice – people could not comprehend it and how it was spread – they used Jews as scapegoats – anti- Semitism --- jewetary practices used streams not wells – led to rumors that jews poisoned wells because they were Christian users – jews butchered and burnt • Vengeful angry old testament god • Fraternities to protect from plague – the flagulent – saw plague as punishment – punished themselves to avoid – image of Christ being whipped - highest form of flattery is imitation – whip selves saying to god how sorry they are for their sins – if willing to bear physical pain it shows their sorryness – groups went through towns whipping themselves for others sins – saw famine and disease as Gods judgement – lasted 33 days to mirror Christ’s 33 years on earth o Pope banned the flagulents • Expansion of Humanism - humanism able to be adapted to all people of all branches of society • Civic Humanism • Conflicting Values in Urban Environment (Italy before the rest of Western Europe) – in urban and communal values • At any point was Cola driven by these values • People could choose any value system they wanted • Investing in religious art was a way to reconcile the guilt of making money o Christian values – on should not enrich himself at the expense of his brother – Christ very poor, humble, simple lifestyle, shirt off back, did not seek to enrich himself or accumulate material goods, humility, charity, generosity --- middle ages man tries to model life after Christ § Many Christians, most of society in bad position – especially 4 th order o Feudal values – difficult for nobility, basic way of life was fighting in countryside for nobility to prove family honorable and respectable, fighting in cities --- emphasized honor, pride, glory, and physical prowess --- not in line with model of Christ § Grandi need to redefine themselves o Mercantile values – main goal to aquire life, want economic stability, expansion of business, collection and conspicuous display was important to show success, simipliar ideas for those in urban environment, private life is very important and public – how you do business § Economic environment allows for some people – especially bankers and merchants – to move up and distinguish themselves from the base level § Laws on dress – only certain people allowed to wear certain things/dye hair, government distinguish people for better identification o Communal/Civic values – idealy bring everyone together and promote well being for community – individual should screfice him or herself for the better of the community – justice, temperance, wisdom and generosity – expected that your economic success could allow you to share resources (beautification projects, etc.) ---- try to be the value system that brings people together • Expansion of Humanism and the New Learning o Studia Humanitatis – renewed emphasis of literacy particularly latin – humanism is in clash with christianisty – but men of church creating humanism --- extend their influence to elite ------ literacy necessary for negotiating, communicating effectively, city states require need for greater literacy due to amount of people in administration § Latin grammar § History § Poetry § Rhetoric § Ethics/moral philosophy – cornerstone of the vita active § Elite audience but literacy on the rise o Petrarch’s Dilemma § Vita activa vs. vita contemplative • “Chirst is my god, cisero is the prince of the language I use” --- whether he should follow the model for the comtemplative life (monk in study but no real wporld application) or the active life which is humanism where he contributes to the greater good • secular – but humanists not anti religious • vita active- people put this new information into play o Coluccio Salutati (r. 1375-1406) – chancellor of Florence 1375-1406 § Chosen to be chancellor § Petrarch’s intellectual dream realized – represents petrarch’s ideal • Applies this greatly – took petrarch’s revival of classical culture and his own resources to create one of the first public libraries § Public library – lend his own books then expanded collection - at death donates to city § History of Florence • Responsible for negotiating all diplomatic things in cities – if you wanted any influence, contact or negotiation had to go through him • Handled all correspondence • Maintained ambassadors • Responsible for negotiating and signing treaties • Managed to defend Florence from the viscontti • Has a gift for public relations which was an unusual literary skill • Recognized self as humanist – aways believed one must imitate antiquity not simply to reproduce it but to create something new • Connections with roman catholic church – debated issues of theological nature – assuage any difficulties with the new form of education ------ useful not a threat • Inspired a new generation of humanists – teacher to vergettio, bruni, • Wrote the classical history of the city of Florence ---- why they took path they did and why they are such a strong city • Helped to give birth to the next wave of humanist training and though o Greek language & culture introduced --- thanks to salutatti because of his library and MC – ushered in next wave of humanism § Manuel Chrysolaras (1397-1402) – Un. Of Florence ------ llived in Constantinople – invited to come and teach greek in Florence – stayed until death § Commissioned to bring classical texts – brought some of the first greek copies of Aristotle and plato – pure clean original s – ad fonte § Students traveled throughout Italy – brought anything they could to FLorence • Application of the New Learning o Civic Humanism – vita active – emergence § Duty/responsibility of citizens for the good of republic/city § Helped man reach his full potential – God’s grace o Spread of education § Gasparino Barizizza (1360-1430) • Universities, private tutoring, boarding school o Targeting the urban elite to catch at young age and train upward o Opened boarding school with 20 men to train for gov. o Established a new approach to education o University of Pavia – new boarding school o “selling social refashioning” – fraternity of like minded men who aspire to the same value system – forge a new generation o creating and sharing a new set of cultural values o bologna – university and private boarding school o move family up by putting kid in boarding school § Guarino Guarini (1374-1460) – his men go on to teach merchants • Boarding schools, private tutoring o Verona o Florence st o Venice -1 boarding school o Rome o Verona o Reputation for packing kids up and moving them to place where plague was not o Mainting continuity in students study is most important o 20s and 30s – established and most distinguished wave • Duchy of ferrara – educated the Este family • Taught montefurlo family that later intermarried with Este § Expand humanism but help to create and mold the next generation who believe in humanism – new way of culture • Triumph of Humanism by 1440 – timeline of man and his place in society doesn’t emerge until 1440 – skills valued by society in general – even before printing rd press – 3 most powerful Florence, Rome, Venice 1/3 of men literate • This new education helping to implement literacy o Popular demand for the studia Humanitatis § Huge demand for private tutoring o New schools founded & run by city govt. § Cities paid for teachers to come in § Scholarships for those recognized with talents – bank on them for return in city o Cities competed for best teachers o Limited opportunities for working-class boys § Scholarships – everyone basically able to participate and then contribute o Education for girls? § Opening to education – not in classics, but offered instruction in vernacular wives and daughters of wealthy – make them more attractive and useful – literacy required even if its 2 different literacies • Transformation of Culture o Barizizza and Guarini – spread and demand the new way of life – knew as masters of craft – great teachers of this first generation of civic minded o Fostered appreciation o fthe arts & encourages development of mind & body – infusing them into the culture o Paved the way for new ideas in politics, ethics, religion, painting, architectures, sculpture, science, medicine….. o Redrew social divisions – humanist but less famous taught elementary school – same in other guilds – who do you know and how does it affect you o Marginalized women o You know you have arrived when you are contracted to come in and tutor/work among a powerful family § Powerful clients = powerful patrons o Rebublic to tyrant to podesta to rebublic – if you have the right education you have the right to power Duke fo Urbino – guy on throne with kid standing at feet How has this changed? § knights helmet § popes hat – his power is above Dukes § book – literate § betterment of children – son will not have to put on armor – he is a perfect prince – will grow up in a world of humanism § honest portrait of man – from humble background – won position by sowrd but could not keep it just by that – had to do more in ways of literacy • idea – everyone aspired to this new cultural norm – desire to train his son in a new appreciation of the arts o son becomes most important patron of humanism Republic of Florence: Rise of the Medici Maintain republic - Political life within commune and political state will ultimately be an oligarchy – working facade of republicanism • Crisis in the late 14 c. o Black Death – took out about ½ of Florentine population – population now 50,000 – cities like siena did not fully recover, but Florence did § Economic rift and fault – let rise to powerful political family § Temporary collapse of families – people not buried, families fled cities, great instability § Golden age of wage earner – took out a lot of people – survivors are left with many opportunities § City needed rebuilt – didn’t always happen as seen with siena cathedral – Florence recovers o Economic lag (failure of Bardi & Peruzzi banks) – they collapse becusse of French kiing not paying back – families collapse – Florence does not fully collapse – Medici step up § Threat of invasion from Visconti o Revolt from own citizens and also revolt towards oligarchy § All educated Florentines invested in vita active – not idea of overall trust – factualism § Oligarchy seen as only answer o Ciompi Revolt, July 20-Sept 1, 1378 – Florance one of only places during Renaissance who has 2 tiered guild system § Wool guild workers rebel – wool staple textile for all clothing during this time – importing linen or silk great luxury • Florence center of wool manufacturing industry • Wool employed 1/3 of all working people in the city • Participants of wool industry took to plague and also very labor intensive process • Multiplicity of guilds in wool industry • Took hit with loss of workers and also clients because of plague – owners cut losses by limiting number of workers allowed to participate in the guilds • At top of guilds were people of popolo groso o Passed laws limiting wages o Taxing o Expense of manufacturing shifted to workers o Legislation restricting membership to guilds § Once master you were a political member – limiting people with voice § Revolt of the lower-level artisans & popolo – chompi start and others join – a few of the grandi (nobility) joined: access to wool industry, support from the people to gain power, ultimately overthrow Florentine government and held power for 5 weeks – successfully negotiated futer reforms • Angry with limitations and the problems with economic burden • If in guild, tied to rules • Saw other guilds flourishing but saw themselves basically not able to recover • Reforms: o Forced to supply enough work to earn decent living o Not able to manipulate the monetary aspect: fixed wages, texes, etc.. o Workers granted own guild and have access to governance of the city o Ruling families saw this as unacceptable and intolerable § Took advantage of people (leaders of some groups) and brought end to revolt § Play off and to different groups • Indicative of the uprisings and revolts from family to family and socializations of the time • Afforded opportunities and also created violence • Manipulation for own good • Workers overall faced exile but the grandi families only faces fine due to socioeconomic status o Oligarchy – Albizzi family seizes control – major uprising revolt and took advantage § Medici eventually took control § Medici rivals of Albizzi – Albizzi sided with the chompi and workers – had backing of everyone § Head of Medici is Giovanni • Rise of the Medici – champion of the “popolo” o Early Years § Giovanni de Medici, d. 1429 § Rural poverty to international banking entrepreneur – backstreet merchant • Internal critic of Albizzi – he is part of the working class which the Albizzi said to support • Maintained humility always • Once established he started to lend money to men like himself trying to get ahead § Opposed the Albizzi – rivaled § Importance of clients – loyalty • Tried to be very careful about courting certain client • Chose loyalty over money – people are the truest and best resource in life – choose clients well and maintain long lasting relationships § The gamble – Baldessare Cossa, John XXIII • Illiterate pirate • Ambitious man and took huge gamble in backing a man in the position for the popacy • Using financial acclaimin basically tried to manipulate the election of a pope • No high connectins in rome or with pope • Connections in Florence but not high yet • In return for they money lent – makes medici the head of the papal bank – the medici have arrived much to the despise of basically everyone § “God’s banker” o Medici as Masters of Florence § Cosimo de Medici (r. 1434 -1464) – father taught to Stay out of public eye, humble, never count successes • Now in position to rival the Albizzi § Trouble w/Albizzi, 1433-34 – public rivalry – exile for Medici (lost elections of 1433) – unsuccessful first attempt • In challenging their power they understood the consequences
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