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Biology 110 Griffard Study Guides

by: Nadeera Mohamed

Biology 110 Griffard Study Guides Biol 110

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > Biology > Biol 110 > Biology 110 Griffard Study Guides
Nadeera Mohamed
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

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These are the four study guides for the exams in Griffards class. The bold parts are what she whats you guys to focus more of your attention on, but don't just skip the non-bold parts.
Intro to biological sciences
Dr. Phyllis Griffard
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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Nadeera Mohamed on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Biol 110 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Phyllis Griffard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see Intro to biological sciences in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 02/02/16
Exam 1 Study Guide These are the textbook objectives in bold that I emphasize in the course. You should be able to answer them on an exam and apply them to everyday life. Chapter 1: An Introduction to Biology 1.1 Principles of Biology and the Levels of Biological Organization 1. Describe the principles of biology. 2. Explain how life can be viewed at different levels of biological complexity. 1.2 Unity and Diversity of Life 1. Explain the two basic mechanisms by which evolutionary change occurs: vertical descent with mutation and horizontal gene transfer. 2. Outline how organisms are classified (taxonomy). 3. Describe how changes in genomes and proteomes underlie evolutionary changes. 1.3 Biology as a Scientific Discipline 1. Explain how researchers study biology at different levels, ranging from molecules to ecosystems. 2. Distinguish between discovery-based science and hypothesis testing, and describe the steps of the scientific method. Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water 2.1 Atoms 1. Describe the general structure of atoms and their constituent particles. 2. Discuss the way electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom within discrete energy levels. 3. Relate atomic structure to the periodic table of the elements. 4. Quantify atomic mass using units such as daltons and moles. 5. Explain how a single element may exist in more than one form, called isotopes, and how certain isotopes have importance in human medicine. 6. List the elements that make up most of the mass of all living organisms. 2.2 Chemical Bonds and Molecules 1. Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules. 2. Explain the concept of electronegativity and how it contributes to the formation of polar and nonpolar covalent bonds. 3. Describe how a molecule's shape is important for its ability to interact with other molecules. 4. Relate the concepts of a chemical reaction and chemical equilibrium. 2.3 Properties of Water 1. Describe how hydrogen bonding determines many properties of water. 2. List the properties of water that make it a valuable solvent, and distinguish between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. 3. Explain how the molarity of a solution—the number of moles of a solute per liter of solution—is used to measure the concentration of solutes in solution. 4. Discuss the properties of water that are critical for the survival of living organisms. – 5. Explain how water has the ability to ionize into hydroxide ions (OH ) and into hydrogen ions (H ), and how the H concentration is expressed as a solution's pH. 6. Give examples of how buffers maintain a stable environment in an animal's body fluids. Chapter 3: The Chemical Basis of Life II: Organic Molecules 3.1 The Carbon Atom and the Study of Organic Molecules 1. Explain the properties of carbon that make it the chemical basis of all life. 2. Describe the variety and chemical characteristics of common functional groups of organic compounds. 3. Compare and contrast the different types of isomeric compounds. 3.2 Formation of Organic Molecules and Macromolecules 1. Diagram how small molecules may be assembled into larger ones by dehydration reactions and how hydrolysis reactions can reverse this process. 2. List the four major classes of organic molecules and macromolecules found in living organisms. 3.3 Carbohydrates 1. Distinguish among different forms of carbohydrate molecules, including monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. 2. Relate the functions of plant and animal polysaccharides to their structure. 3.4 Lipids 1. List the several different classes of lipid molecules important in living organisms. 2. Diagram the structure of a triglyceride and explain how it is affected by the presence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. 3. Explain why some fats are solid at room temperature, and others are liquid. 4. Discuss how fats function as energy-storage molecules. 5. Apply knowledge of the structure of phospholipids to the formation of cellular membranes. 6. Describe the chemical nature of steroids and give an example of their biological importance. 3.5 Proteins 1. Give examples of the general types of functions that are carried out in cells by different types of proteins. 2. Explain how amino acids are joined to form a polypeptide, and distinguish between a polypeptide and protein. 3. Describe the levels of protein structure and the factors that determine them. 4. Outline the bonding forces important in determining protein shape and function. 5. Explain what domains are and their importance in proteins. 3.6 Nucleic Acids 1. Describe the three components of nucleotides. 2. Distinguish between the structures of DNA and RNA. 3. Describe how certain bases pair with others in DNA and RNA. Chapter 4: General Features of Cells 4.1 Microscopy 1. Explain the three important parameters in microscopy: resolution, contrast, and magnification. 2. Compare and contrast the different types of light and electron microscopes and their uses. 4.2 Overview of Cell Structure 1. Compare and contrast the general structural features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 2. Explain how the proteome underlies the structure and function of cells. 3. Analyze how cell size and shape affect the surface area/volume ratio. 4.3 The Cytosol 1. Identify the location of the cytosol in a eukaryotic cell and list its general functions. 2. Describe the three types of protein filaments that make up the cytoskeleton. 3. Explain how motor proteins interact with microtubules or actin filaments to promote cellular movement. 4.4 The Nucleus and Endomembrane System 1. Describe the structure and organization of the cell nucleus. 2. Outline the structures and general functions of the components of the endomembrane system. 3. Distinguish between the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 4. Identify three important functions of the plasma membrane. 4.5 Semiautonomous Organelles 1. Outline the structures and general functions of mitochondria and chloroplasts. 2. Discuss the evidence for the endosymbiosis theory. 4.6 Protein Sorting to Organelles 1. List which categories of proteins are sorted cotranslationally and which are sorted post- translationally. 2. Describe the steps that occur during the cotranslational sorting of proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. 3. Explain how proteins are moved via vesicles through the endomembrane system. 4. Outline the steps of post-translational sorting of proteins to mitochondria. 4.7 Systems Biology of Cells: A Summary 1. Outline the differences in complexity among bacteria, animal, and plant cells. 2. Describe how a eukaryotic cell can be viewed as four interacting systems: the nucleus, cytosol, endomembrane system, and semiautonomous organelles. Chapter 5: Membrane Structure, Synthesis, and Transport 5.1 Membrane Structure 1. Describe the fluid-mosaic model of membrane structure. 2. Identify the three different types of membrane proteins. 3. Explain the technique of freeze-fracture electron microscopy. 5.2 Fluidity of Membranes 1. Describe the fluidity of membranes. 2. Analyze how membrane fluidity is affected by lipid composition. 5.3 Synthesis of Membrane Components in Eukaryotic Cells 1. Outline the synthesis of lipids at the ER membrane. 2. Explain how transmembrane proteins are inserted into the ER membrane. 3. Describe the process of glycosylation and its functional consequences. 5.4 Overview of Membrane Transport 1. Compare and contrast diffusion, facilitated diffusion, passive transport, and active transport. 2. Explain the process of osmosis and how it affects cell structure. 5.5 Transport Proteins 1. Outline the functional differences between channels and transporters. 2. Compare and contrast uniporters, symporters, and antiporters. 3. Explain the difference between primary active transport and secondary active transport. 4. Describe the structure and function of pumps. 5.6 Exocytosis and Endocytosis 1. Describe the steps in exocytosis and endocytosis. Chapter 40: Animal Bodies and Homeostasis 40.1 Organization of Animal Bodies 1. List the different categories of animal tissue, providing general functions and specific examples of each. 2. Name the various organ systems found in many animals, list the components of each, and describe their general functions. 3. Describe the movement of solutes and water between compartments. 40.2 The Relationship Between Form and Function 1. Provide an example of how the structure of an animal’s tissues or organs can help predict their function. 2. Describe the importance of the surface area/volume (SA/V) ratio to animal form and function. Exam 2 Study Guide The objectives in bold are the ones I emphasize in the course. You should be able to answer them on an exam and apply them to everyday life. Chapter 6: An Introduction to Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism 6.1 Energy and Chemical Reactions 1. Define energy and distinguish between potential and kinetic energy. 2. State the first and second laws of thermodynamics and discuss how they relate to living things. 3. Explain how the change in free energy determines the direction of a chemical reaction and how chemical reactions eventually reach a state of equilibrium. 4. Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions in terms of the energy of the reactants and products and the free energy change. 5. Describe how cells use the energy released by ATP hydrolysis to drive endergonic reactions. 6.2 Enzymes and Ribozymes 1. Explain how enzymes increase the rates of chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy. 2. Describe how enzymes bind their substrates with high specificity and undergo induced fit. 3. Analyze the velocity of chemical reactions and evaluate the effects of competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors. 4. Explain how additional factors, such as nonprotein molecules or ions, temperature, and pH, influence enzyme activity. 5. Identify the unique feature of ribozymes. 6.3 Overview of Metabolism 1. Describe the concept of a metabolic pathway and distinguish between catabolic and anabolic reactions. 2. Explain how catabolic reactions are used to generate building blocks to make larger molecules and to produce energy intermediates. 3. Define redox reaction. 4. Compare and contrast the three ways that metabolic pathways are regulated. 6.4 Recycling of Organic Molecules 1. Evaluate the relationship between the recycling of organic molecules and cellular efficiency. 2. Outline how the building blocks of mRNAs and proteins are recycled. 3. Describe how the components of cellular organelles are recycled via autophagy. Chapter 7: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation 7.1 Overview of Cellular Respiration 1. Describe the four metabolic pathways that are needed to break down glucose to CO2. 7.2 Glycolysis 1. Outline the three phases of glycolysis and the net products. 2. Describe the series of enzymatic reactions that constitute glycolysis. 3. Explain the underlying basis for detecting tumors using positron emission tomography. 7.3 Breakdown of Pyruvate 1. Describe how pyruvate is broken down and acetyl CoA is made. 7.4 Citric Acid Cycle 1. Discuss the concept of a metabolic cycle. 2. Describe how an acetyl group enters the citric acid cycle and identify the net products of the cycle. 7.5 Oxidative Phosphorylation 1. Describe how the electron transport chain produces an H+ electrochemical gradient. 2. Explain how ATP synthase utilizes the H+ electrochemical gradient to synthesize ATP. 3. Analyze the results of the experiment that showed that ATP synthase is a rotary machine. 7.6 Connections Among Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat Metabolism 1. Explain how carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism are interconnected. 7.7 Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation 1. Describe how certain microorganisms make ATP using a final electron acceptor of their electron transport chain that is not oxygen. 2. Explain how muscle and yeast cells use fermentation to synthesize ATP under anaerobic conditions. Chapter 40: Animal Bodies and Homeostasis 40.3 Homeostasis 1. Discuss the concept of homeostasis as it applies to the internal environment of animals. 2. Distinguish between conforming and regulating as strategies to maintain homeostasis. 3. List several variables that are regulated within a homeostatic range in vertebrate animals. 4. Name the four components of a homeostatic control system and describe the importance of each to the regulation of an animal's internal environment. 5. Describe how negative feedback, positive feedback, and feedforward regulation contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis in animals. 6. Explain the importance of paracrine and hormonal signaling to homeostasis and provide examples of each. Chapter 16: Simple Patterns of Inheritance 16.1 Mendel's Laws of Inheritance 1. List the advantages of using the garden pea to study inheritance. 2. Describe the difference between dominant and recessive traits. 3. Distinguish between genotype and phenotype. 4. Predict the outcome of genetic crosses using a Punnett square. 5. Define Mendel's law of segregation and law of independent assortment. 16.2 The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance 1. Outline the principles of the chromosome theory of inheritance. 2. Relate the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis to Mendel's laws of inheritance. 16.3 Pedigree Analysis of Human Traits 1. Apply pedigree analysis to deduce inheritance patterns in humans. 2. Distinguish between recessively inherited disorders and dominantly inherited disorders. 16.4 Sex Chromosomes and X-Linked Inheritance Patterns 1. Describe different systems of sex determination in animals and plants. 2. Predict the outcome of crosses when genes are located on sex chromosomes. 3. Explain why X-linked recessive traits are more likely to occur in males. 16.5 Variations in Inheritance Patterns and Their Molecular Basis 1. Relate dominant and recessive traits to protein function. 2. Describe pleiotropy and explain why it occurs. 3. Predict the outcome of crosses that exhibit incomplete dominance and codominance. 4. Discuss how the environment plays a critical role in determining the outcome of traits. 16.6 Genetics and Probability 1. Explain the concept of probability. 2. Apply the product rule and sum rule to problems involving genetic crosses. Exam 3 Study Guide These are the objectives in bold I emphasize in the course. You should be able to answer them on an exam and apply them to everyday life. Chapter 11: Nucleic Acid Structure, DNA Replication, and Chromosome Structure 11.1 Biochemical Identification of the Genetic Material 1. List the four key criteria that the genetic material must fulfill. 2. Analyze the results of the experiments that identified DNA as the genetic material. 11.2 Nucleic Acid Structure 1. Outline the structural features of DNA at five levels of complexity. 2. Describe the structure of nucleotides, a DNA strand, and the DNA double helix. 3. Discuss and interpret the work of Franklin; Chargaff; and Watson and Crick. 11.3 An Overview of DNA Replication 1. Discuss and interpret the experiments of Meselson and Stahl. 2. Describe the double-stranded structure of DNA and explain how the AT/GC rule underlies the ability of DNA to be replicated semiconservatively. 11.4 Molecular Mechanism of DNA Replication 1. Describe how the synthesis of new DNA strands begins at an origin of replication. 2. List the functions of helicase, topoisomerase, single-strand binding protein, primase, and DNA polymerase at the replication fork. 3. Outline the key differences between the synthesis of the leading and lagging strands. 4. List three reasons why DNA replication is very accurate. 5. Explain how DNA replication occurs at telomeres in eukaryotic chromosomes. 11.5 Molecular Structure of Eukaryotic Chromosomes 1. Describe the structure of nucleosomes and the 30-nm fiber, and how the 30-nm fiber forms radial loop domains. 2. Outline the various levels of compaction that lead to a metaphase chromosome. Chapter 12: Gene Expression at the Molecular Level 12.1 Overview of Gene Expression 1. Analyze the results of the experiments of Garrod and of Beadle and Tatum. 2. Outline the general steps of gene expression at the molecular level, which together constitute the central dogma. 3. Explain how proteins are largely responsible for determining an organism's characteristics. 12.2 Transcription 1. Describe how a gene is an organization of DNA sequences that can be transcribed into RNA. 2. Outline the three stages of transcription and the role of RNA polymerase in this process. 3. Explain how genes within the same chromosome vary in their direction of transcription. 4. Compare and contrast transcription in bacteria and eukaryotes. 12.3 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes 1. Explain the process of splicing that produces mature eukaryotic mRNA. 2. Describe the addition of the 5’ cap and 3’ poly A tail to eukaryotic mRNA. 12.4 Translation and the Genetic Code 1. Explain how the genetic code specifies the relationship between the sequence of codons in mRNA and the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. 2. Analyze the experiments of Nirenberg and Leder that led to the deciphering of the genetic code. 12.5 The Machinery of Translation 1. Describe the structure and function of tRNA. 2. Explain how aminoacyl-tRNA synthases attach amino acids to tRNAs. 3. Outline the structural features of bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes. 4. Analyze how ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is used to evaluate evolutionary relationships among different species. 12.6 The Stages of Translation 1. Describe the three stages of translation. 2. Summarize the similarities and differences between translation in bacteria and eukaryotes. Chapter 15: The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and Meiosis 15.1 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle 1. Describe the features of chromosomes and how sets of chromosomes are examined microscopically. 2. Outline the phases of the eukaryotic cell cycle. 3. Explain how cyclins and cdks work together to advance a cell through the eukaryotic cell cycle. 15.2 Mitotic Cell Division 1. Describe how the replication of eukaryotic chromosomes produces sister chromatids. 2. Explain the structure and function of the mitotic spindle. 3. Outline the key events that occur during the phases of mitosis. 15.3 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction 1. Describe the processes of synapsis and crossing over. 2. Outline the key events that occur during the phases of meiosis. 3. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis, focusing on key steps that account for the different outcomes of these two processes 4. Distinguish between the life cycles of diploid-dominant species, haploid-dominant species, and species that exhibit an alternation of generations. 15.4 Variation in Chromosome Structure and Number 1. Describe how chromosomes can vary in size, centromere location, and number. 2. Identify the four ways that the structure of a chromosome can be changed via mutation. 3. Compare and contrast changes in the number of sets of chromosomes and changes in the number of individual chromosomes. 4. Give examples of how changes in chromosome number affect the characteristics of animals and plants. Chapter 51: Animal Reproduction 51.1 Asexual and Sexual Reproduction 1. Describe several differences between asexual and sexual reproduction. 2. Classify the three types of asexual reproduction. 3. List the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction. 51.2 Gametogenesis and Fertilization 1. Outline the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis. 2. List the advantages that internal fertilization provides. 3. Describe the two different types of hermaphroditism. 4. Compare viviparity, oviparity, and ovoviviparity. 51.3 Mammalian Reproductive Structure and Function 1. Describe the structure of the human male reproductive tract. 2. Outline the process of hormonal control of the male reproductive system. 3. Describe the structure of the human female reproductive tract. 4. Diagram the events of the ovarian cycle. 5. Outline the process of hormonal control of the reproductive cycle of the human female. 6. Explain how maternal hormones prepare the uterus to accept the embryo. 51.4 Pregnancy and Birth in Mammals 1. Describe the major developmental events in the first trimester of pregnancy in mammals. 2. Explain the relationship between the fetal and maternal structures of the placenta. 3. Outline the hormonal control of the birth process. 4. Describe several mechanisms by which animals synchronize the production of offspring with favorable environmental conditions. 51.5 Impact on Public Health 1. Explain the most common causes of human infertility. 2. Compare the different types of birth control and their mechanisms of pregnancy prevention. Exam 4 Study Guide These are the objectives in bold I emphasize in the course. You should be able to answer them on an exam and apply them to everyday life. Chapter 41: Neuroscience I: Cells of the Nervous System 41.1 Cellular Components of Nervous Systems 1. Explain the difference between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). 2. List the cellular components of the nervous system and describe the function of each cell type. 3. Identify the different parts of a typical neuron. 4. Describe the functional relationships among sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. 5. Explain what a reflex is, and why reflexes are important in animals. 41.2 Electrical Properties of Neurons and the Resting Membrane Potential 1. Explain what a membrane potential is. 2. Describe how the resting potential is established and maintained. 3. Describe how an electrochemical gradient determines the direction in which an ion will move. 4. Define the Nernst equation and how it can be used to make predictions about the ways in which different ions move across a cell membrane. 41.3 Generation and Transmission of Electrical Signals Along Neurons 1. Distinguish between ligand-gated and voltage-gated ion channels. 2. Compare and contrast graded potentials and action potentials. 3. Describe the events in the conduction of an action potential. 4. Discuss how myelination influences the speed of an action potential. 41.4 Neurons Communicate Electrically or Chemically at Synapses 1. Describe the structural features of a synapse. 2. Distinguish between two types of potentials produced in postsynaptic cells: excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs). 3. Describe the difference between spatial summation and temporal summation. 4. List the classes of neurotransmitters and provide brief descriptions of their generalized functions. 5. Describe the two general types of postsynaptic membrane receptors. 41.5 Impact on Public Health 1. Describe how disorders of neurotransmission can affect human health. 2. List several “recreational” and illicit drugs and describe the corresponding effects these drugs have on the nervous system. 3. Give examples of disorders of neural conduction and how they arise. Chapter 42: Neuroscience II: Evolution, Structure, and Function of the Nervous System 42.1 The Evolution and Development of Nervous Systems 1. List the different types of nervous systems found in animals. 2. Describe the general anatomical organization of the brain in vertebrates. 3. Discuss the changes in brain complexity that accompanied the evolution of mammals. 42.2 Structure and Function of the Nervous Systems of Humans and Other Vertebrates 1. Outline the anatomical organization of the human nervous system. 2. Describe the organization of the peripheral nervous system. 3. Distinguish between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. 4. Briefly describe the major structures and functions of the human hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. 42.3 Cellular Basis of Learning and Memory 1. Define the terms learning and memory and describe their relationship to one another. 2. Discuss how memory is related to changes in the strength of connections between neurons. 3. Describe the evidence that shows the brain is capable of neurogenesis. 4. Discuss the similarities and differences in the technologies of CT, MRI, and fMRI. 42.4 Impact on Public Health 1. List the broad groups of diseases affecting the human nervous system. 2. Discuss the impact of meningitis and Alzheimer disease on public health. Chapter 43: Neuroscience III: Sensory Systems 43.1 An Introduction to Sensory Receptors 1. Describe the relationship between sensation and perception. 2. Discuss how sensory receptors pass along the intensity of a stimulus. 3. List the classes of sensory receptors and the stimuli to which they respond. 43.2 Mechanoreception 1. List the types of mechanoreceptors that detect touch, stretch, or movement and how this relates to hearing and balance. 2. Describe the structure of the mammalian ear and how mechanical forces move through it. 3. Give examples of adaptations for hearing in animals that inhabit different environments. 4. Describe how body position and movement are detected by sense organs. 43.3 Thermoreception and Nociception 1. Explain how thermoreception and nociception are vital to the safety and survival of an animal. 43.4 Electromagnetic Reception 1. Identify ways that animals use electromagnetic receptors to sense their environments. 43.5 Photoreception 1. Describe the structure of invertebrate visual organs. 2. Describe the structure of the vertebrate (single-lens) eye and how it forms images. 3. Compare and contrast the structure and function of rods and cones. 4. Explain the mechanisms by which photoreceptors respond to light in a single-lens eye. 5. Outline the neural pathway by which visual signals travel to reach the brain. 43.6 Chemoreception 1. Describe olfaction and gustation in insects. 2. Explain how olfactory receptors respond to the binding of odor molecules. 3. Outline how receptor cells within taste buds respond to the binding of food molecules. 43.7 Impact on Public Health 1. Identify common types of visual and hearing deficits in humans and the causes of each. Chapter 44: Muscular-Skeletal Systems and Locomotion 44.1 Types of Animal Skeletons 1. Distinguish among hydrostatic skeletons, exoskeletons, and endoskeletons. 2. List the advantages and disadvantages of an exoskeleton. 44.2 The Vertebrate Skeleton 1. List the major functions of the vertebrate skeleton. 2. Describe the composition of vertebrate bone. 44.3 Skeletal Muscle Structure and the Mechanism of Force Generation 1. List the three types of muscle found in vertebrates and where they are found in the body. 2. Identify the structural components of a muscle down to the level of the sarcomere. 3. Explain the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction. 4. Explain how tropomyosin and troponin help regulate muscle contraction. 5. Describe how electrical excitation and muscle contraction are linked. 6. Describe the structural features of a neuromuscular junction and the role of acetylcholine in mediating skeletal muscle excitation. 44.4 Skeletal Muscle Function 1. Outline the general characteristics of the three types of skeletal muscle fibers. 2. Explain how muscles adapt to exercise. 3. Describe how antagonistic muscles work at a joint. 44.5 Animal Locomotion 1. Explain the mechanisms of animal locomotion in water, on land, and in air. 2. Compare the relative energy costs of swimming, running, and flying. 3. Explain how evolution has shaped the structures used for locomotion. 44.6 Impact on Public Health 1. Describe the impact of the bone diseases rickets and osteoporosis on human health. 2. Distinguish between the muscle diseases myasthenia gravis and muscular dystrophy.


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