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OCN 150 2/2/2016 Marine Sediments Notes

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by: Lyda Walker

OCN 150 2/2/2016 Marine Sediments Notes OCN 150 - 001

Marketplace > University of North Carolina - Wilmington > Oceanography > OCN 150 - 001 > OCN 150 2 2 2016 Marine Sediments Notes
Lyda Walker

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These are the end of the marine sediments notes. These will be on the upcoming test Thursday 2/4/2016.
Introduction to Oceanography
Dr. Sharon Hoffman
Introduction To Oceanography
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Lyda Walker on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to OCN 150 - 001 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. Sharon Hoffman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Oceanography in Oceanography at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
OCN 150 February 2, 2016 Marine Sediments Marine Sediment Classification Classified by origin  Lithogenous - derived from land  Hydrogenous - derived from water (made in place)  Biogenous - derived from organisms  Cosmogenous - derived from outer space Biogenous Sediment Hard remains of once-living organisms Two major types:  Macroscopic o Visible to naked eye o Shells, bones, teeth  Microscopic o Tiny shells or tests o Biogenic ooze Mainly algae and protozoans Biogenous Sediment Composition 2 most common chemical compounds: Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) and Silica (SiO2) Classifying Biogenous Sediments Sediment with a biogenous component less than 30% is called calcareous or siliceous clay Called calcareous or siliceous 'oozes' if biogenous component is greater than 30% Silica in Biogenous Sediments Diatoms  Photosynthetic algae  Diatomaceous earth  Can be found everywhere  Produce oxygen we breathe  Industrial applications (toothpaste)  Surface ocean more often than deep ocean  When die shells sink tobottom Radiolarians  Protozoans o Animals not plants  Make beautiful shells  Fine detailed and structured Distribution of Biogenous Sediments Depends on the process  Productivity - more food = increase in populations and thus more shells produced  Dilution - relative decrease due to more input from another source o 30% clays o 70% shells o Vs o 30% shells o 70% clays  Dissolution - do the shells dissolve or stay on the seafloor? Siliceous Oozes Primarily diatom oozes Cover 15% of the ocean floor  Regions of high biological productivity  Diatom oozes common at high lattitudes and places where the nutrient-rich water is at the surface (the poles)  Radiolarian oozes more common in equatorial regions Calcium Carbonate in Biogenic Sediments Coccolithophores  Also called nannoplankton  Photosynthetic algae  Coccoliths - individual plates from dead organisms  Rock chalk o Lithified coccolith-rich ooze  Foraminifera o Protozoans (animals) o Shells are a tenth of a milliliter across o Single celled o Look like popcorn o Live all over ocean o Shells are usually easily preserved o Look at chemistry of shells to tell past environment o Look at the different species o Changes in sea level  Hugely important tools to understand the past ocean o Fossil species o Shell chemistry o Tells us about ancient environmental conditions Calcareous Ooze and the CCD Warm, shallow ocean saturated with CaCO3  Easiest to preserve CaCO3 at  Above Lysocline Cool, deep ocean unsaturated with CaCO3  Usually less or no CaCO3 because it dissolves from temperature and pressure  Below Lysocline Shells form in surface waters, sink to deep Lysocline - depth at which a significant amount of CaCO3 begins to dissolve rapidly (lies above CCD) CCD - Calcite compensation depth  Depth where CaCO3 readily dissolves  Where the rate of supply (shells sinking from surface) = rate at which the shells dissolve  Lowest level of ocean CaCO3 is at, absolutely no CaCO3 because its dissolving at the same rate the CaCO3 is sinking down at Carbonate Compensation Depth "Snowline" - Above It, Carbonate Can Be Deposited On The Seafloor In todays ocean the CCD depth varies between 3-5 km Carbonate Compensation Depth - CCD CCD ~ 4500 m  (or deeper in regions where there's lots of organisms growing at the surface and thus a higher supply of carbonate falling to the bottom) Depths above CCD:  Plenty of CO2 3- ions in the water  CaCO3 doesn't dissolve  CaCO3 oozes more common than SiO2 oozes Depths Below CCD:  Seawater undersaturated in CaCO3 9not many CO2 3- ions)  Chemical properties of deep water dissolve calcite  CaCO3 oozes less common than SiO2 oozes Hydrogenous Marine Sediments Minerals precipitate directly from seawater  Manganese nodules  Phosphates  Carbonates  Metal sulfides Small proportion of marine sediments Distributed in diverse environments Manganese Nodules Fist-sized lumps of manganese, iron, and other metals Many commercial uses like making steel Grow very slowly, in quiet areas where sediments accumulate slowly Phosphates and Carbonates Phosphates  Phosphorous bearing  Occur beneath areas in surface ocean of very high biological productivity  Economically used as fertilizer Carbonates  Aragonite and calcite  Oolites Metal Sulfides  Contain: o Iron o Nickel o Copper o Zinc o Silver o Gold o Other metals o Generally along mid-ocean ridges  Associated with hydrothermal vents o Spots at mid-ocean ridges where superheated water comes out of cracks in the crust Evaporites Minerals that form when seawater evaporates Restricted open ocean circulation High evaporation rates Halite (common table salt) and gypsum Cosmogenous Marine Sediments Microscopic iron-nickel and silicate spherules  Small globular masses  Tektites  Space dust Overall, insignificant proportion of marine sediments Cosmogenous Sediments:  Sediments derived from extraterrestrial materials  Micrometeorites and tektites  Tektites result from collisions with extraterrestrial materials o Fragments of earth's crust melt and spray outward from impact crater o Crustal material re-melts as it falls back through the atmosphere o Forms 'glassy' tektites Resources from Marine Sediments Energy resources  Petroleum o Mainly from continental shelves  Gas hydrates Sand and gravel  Including tin, gold, etc. Evaporative salts Phosphorite Manganese nodules and crusts


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