Bio 160: Animal Biology- Microscopes, Chapters 1-3 (In class notes)
Bio 160: Animal Biology- Microscopes, Chapters 1-3 (In class notes) Bio 160 Sec 5-7
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This 46 page Bundle was uploaded by Maria Vann on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 160 Sec 5-7 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Bill Konieczki in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Animal Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Maria!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Biology 160 Sec 5-‐7 Microscopes, Chapters 1-‐3 By Maria Vann Microscopes-‐ 3 Basic Types • Simple Microscope-‐ one lens, uses light – 1670’s Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was given the most credit for developing the microscope, he just improved the original. – First person to observe living cells, using pond water cont. • Electron Microscopes-‐ Stream of electrons instead of light – Focused by magnets, capable of very high magniﬁca▯ons – Two types: • Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) • Developed late 30’s-‐Early 40’s • Produces a 2D image • Very useful in studies of cell structures • Provides mags. Of 500,000x or more Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) • Developed 50’s-‐60’s • Produces a 3D Image • Very useful in examining anatomy of small plant or animal structures • Provides mags. of 300,000x or more Advantages and Disadvantages of Electron Microscopes • Both types capable of extremely high mags. • Both provide images of near-‐perfect focus • Specimins only visible in black and white • Only dead specimens can be observed and must be placed in a vacuum chamber • Very Expensive > $250,000 and more. . . cont. microscopes • Compound Microscopes-‐ more than one lens – Work on the principle of REFRACTION, or the “bending” of light as it passes through glass – Provides mags up to 500x • 1000 x possible w/ special lens and oil VOCAB! • Total Magniﬁca▯on: Found by mul▯plying power of eye piece (10x) and power of objec▯ve lens (10x, 20x, 40x) • Resolu▯on: clarity of image – as magniﬁca▯on increases, resolu▯on of light microscopes decrease. **Images will be inverted (upside down) and backwards due to refrac▯on by the lens.** Chapter 1-‐ Living Things • Biology: The study of living things. • Zoology: The scien▯ﬁc study of animal life. Explora▯on of the animal world depends on asking ques▯ons, observa▯on, and data analysis Animals originated in the Precambrian seas over 600 million years ago Characteris▯cs of Animals (7) 1. Eukaryo▯c: Cells contain membrane-‐enclosed nuclei and organelles 2. Heterotrophic: NOT capable of manufacturing their own food; rely on external food souces 3. Lack cell walls: Cell membranes only 4. Mul▯cellular 5. Capable of some kind of Movement cont. 6. Usually some form of nervous system 7. 95% of known species are invertebrates Life Forms Arranged into 3 Domains • Bacteria: Single-‐celled, prokaryotes • Archeae: Similar, but dis▯nc▯ve gene▯c and structural diﬀerences. Many Archeae thrive in places other life forms cannot exist-‐ due to extremely salty, hot or devoided places of oxygen); also prokaryotes • Eukaryotes: Everything else-‐ algae, protozoa, fungi, mul▯cellular plants and animals. General Proper▯es of Living Systems • Chemical Uniqueness: has a unique and complex molecular organiza▯on – Small molecules are assembled into macromolecules: 1. Nucleic Acids-‐ carry gene▯c info 2. Proteins-‐ structure & func▯on 3. Carbohydrates-‐ provides energy (glucose) 4. Lipids-‐ fats, waxes, steroids & Vitamin D Life Exists in a Hierarchy of Organiza▯ons Atoms > Molecule > Macromolecule > Organelle > Cell > Tissue > Organ (Muscle) > Organ System > Organism > Popula▯on > Community > Ecosystem > Biosphere * ( > ) means “makes”, “which a group of – blank-‐ makes a” * cont. general proper▯es • Reproduc▯on: Living system reproducing themselves. – Genes replicate to produce new genes – Cells dividing, producing new cells – Organisms reproduce, sexually or asexually – Popula▯ons fragment to produce new popula▯ons – Species split to make new species cont. • Possession of a Gene▯c Program: A gene▯c program provides ﬁdelity of inheritance; – Nucleic Acids: Code for the speciﬁc protein molecules needed for proper development and func▯oning – DNA: Long, linear, chain of molecules called nucleo▯des; stores gene▯c informa▯on cont. • Metabolism: The chemical reac▯on that builds and maintains living things . . . Processes include – Diges▯on – Energy Produc▯on (cellular respira▯on) – Synthesis of required molecules and structures by organisms – Excre▯on, Secre▯on • Development: All organisms pass through a life cycle – Metamorphosis; simple, gradual or complex • Environmental Interac▯on: All animals interact with their environments. – Ecology: The study of interac▯ons with organisms – Irritability: Organisms respond to environmental s▯muli • Movement: Movement at the cellular and organ level are required for the organism to: – Reproduce – Grow/Develop – Respond to s▯muli On a larger scale, Individuals/Popula▯ons or species may disperse from place to place over ▯me. Zoology and Research Info gained from one group o▯en provides insights to other groups as well. Charles Darwin-‐ Theories of Evolu▯on • On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selec▯on: 1. All living things are undergoing measurable changes over▯me 2. All forms of life descended from common ancestors 3. New species are formed by spli▯ng of older ones (gene▯c varia▯on) 4. Gradualism: many small gene▯c varia▯ons accumulate over ▯me 5. Natural Selec▯on: varia▯ons among oﬀspring allow certain individuals to survive and reproduce be▯er than others. (adapta▯on) Process of Scien▯ﬁc Inquiry 1. Pick a study topic (Observa▯on) 2. Collect info on a topic (Research) 3. Form a hypothesis 4. Conduct a controlled experiment 5. Record data and draw conclusions 6. Publish results *This is AKA: Hypothe▯co-‐deduc▯ve Method Chapter 2-‐ Molecules • Life on earth is carbon-‐based (organic) • Almost all molecules of living things are combina▯ons of carbon atoms and other elements. • Polymers-‐ long chains of smaller molecules Four Main Types of Molecules Carbohydrates-‐ main source of energy for living things – (fructose, glucose) > Can exist as monosaccharides . . . > Disaccharides-‐ two single molecules bonded together >Polysaccharides-‐ Mono & disaccharides; long chains of glucose, starch, cellulose, or glycogen. Lipids-‐ A large group of compounds that do not dissolve in water >Fats-‐ important in long-‐term energy storage, cushions vital organs, insula▯on >Phospholipids-‐ major component of cell membranes -‐phosphate molecules on the outside of membrane; ﬂagella-‐looking legs are lipids >Steroids-‐ cholesterol is found in cell membrane and is building block of sex hormones Proteins-‐ Very elaborate and complex >Made up of amino acids >Found in enzymes, hair, tendons, ligaments, collagen, an▯bodies, hormones, chemical receptors, food storage, hemoglobin . . . >When in doubt, answer “proteins” >Prions-‐ abnormally shaped proteins; can infect healthy ▯ssue, causing host proteins to become contorted, resul▯ng in serious neurological diseases: mad cow, CWD, and scrapie Nucleic Acids-‐ DNA; RNA > Gene▯c Material of all cells > Control ALL of a cell’s ac▯vi▯es by direc▯ng produc▯on of proteins Not All Fat Is Bad! • Fats are mostly energy storage molecules. • Saturated Fats: animal fats like beef, bu▯er; solid at room temp. • Unsaturated Fats: corn oil, vegetable oil, olive oil-‐ liquid at room temp. – Bent shape prevents hem from solidifying • Monounsaturated fats-‐ one double bond • Polyunsaturated fats-‐ several double bonds Why are unsaturated fats be▯er? • Found in nuts, plant oils and ﬁsh are good • Protects against heart disease-‐ less plaque • Trans fat: Unsaturated fats that convert to saturated fats (increases LDL) – Converts liquid fat to solid (hydrogenated), easier to use, increases storage life, be▯er taste, be▯er texture of food. Chapter 3-‐ Cells: Structure & Func▯on THE CELL THEORY 1. All living things are made of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and func▯on in living things. 3. New cells are produced from exis▯ng cells. Division of Cells • Prokaryotes-‐ smaller and simpler cells that DO NOT CONTAIN nuclei (Ex: all bacteria cells.) • Eukaryotes-‐ contain nuclei and organelles, single-‐celled or mul▯cellular. (Ex: plants and animals.) Basic Cell Structures 1. Cell Membrane(plasma membrane)-‐ thin, ﬂexible barrier around a cell; Regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protec▯on and support. *Fluid Mosaic Model* -‐ The plasma membrane consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules, with the phosphate components facing outward and the lipid por▯ons facing inward. -‐ Numerous protein molecules are imbedded into the membrane. -‐ Various carbohydrates form chains that a▯ack to these proteins. -‐ “Mosaic” due to so many diﬀerent molecules contained in the structure. 2. Cell Wall-‐ found in plants, algae, fungi, and nearly all prokaryotes. Main func▯on is to provide support and protec▯on 3. Nucleus-‐ Controls most cells processes and contains DNA. *Chroma▯n: granular material visible within the nucleus. It is DNA bound to protein. 4. Cytoplasm-‐ the ﬂuid inside of the cell; made mostly up of water. Also contains sugars, ions, and proteins. Within the cytoplasm are organelles. Organelles 1. Ribosomes-‐ small par▯cles of RNA and protein. Func▯on: Synthesis of proteins 2. Endoplasmic Re▯culum-‐ an internal membrane system which produces lipids, stores calcium ions and secretes many enzymes. >Rough and Smooth ER: “Rough has Ribosomes” 3. Golgi Apparatus-‐ contains enzymes that a▯ach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins. From G.A., proteins are sent to their ﬁnal des▯na▯on 4. Lysosomes-‐ small organelles ﬁlled with enzymes whose func▯on is to break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins from food into par▯cles that can be used by the rest of the cell. 5. Vacuoles-‐ saclike structures in the cells that store water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates *helps provide structure for plants and leaves 6. Chloroplasts-‐ found in plants and other organisms. They use the energy from the sun to make energy-‐rich food molecules in a process called photosynthesis. 7. Mitochondria-‐ “The Powerhouse of the Cell”; organelles that use energy from food to make high-‐energy compounds that the cell can use to power growth, development, and movement. 8. Cytoskeleton-‐ very thin structures of proteins; support and maintain cell shape. Assists in movement of molecules and organelles in the cell. Composed of: 1-‐Microﬁlaments: muscle contrac▯on and cell movement 2-‐ Microtubules: moves chromosomes during cell /division; also found in cilia and ﬂagella 3-‐ Collagen: made up of proteins, produced by animals. Binds cells and is made up of 40% of all animal protein in the body Organelle DNA • Chloroplasts and Mitochondria contain their own DNA that is essen▯al for the normal func▯on of both organelles. • Mitochondria in humans come from the cytoplasm of the egg cell-‐ Mom! • Many biologists believe that both of these organelles came from ancient prokaryotes, and this DNA can be used to trace inheritance of families for many genera▯ons. Comparing Cells Structure Prokaryo▯c -‐Eukaryo▯c (Animal Plant) Cells-‐ Cell Membrane Yes Yes Yes Cell Wall Yes NO Yes Nucleus NO Yes Yes Ribosomes Yes Yes Yes E.R. NO Yes Yes Golgi Apparatus NO Yes Yes Lysosomes NO Yes NO Vacuoles NO NONE or small Yes Mitochondria NO Yes YES Chloroplasts NO NO YES Cytoskeleton NO Yes Yes Movement Through The Cell Membrane A) Diﬀusion: molecules move from an area of high concentra▯on to low concentra▯on un▯l equilibrium is reached. Cell membrane regulates these movements B) Osmosis: diﬀusion of water through a semi-‐ permeable membrane. Water moves from a region of high to low concentra▯on. *concentra▯on gradient: what water move by C) Isotonic: When 2 solu▯ons are the same concentra▯on on either side of the membrane D) Hypertonic: “Above Strength” (when there is more concentra▯on outside the membrane) E) Hypotonic: “Below Strength” (when there is less concentra▯on inside the membrane, less water in the cell) >Osmo▯c Pressure-‐ water moving into a cell; has poten▯al to burst. (Our cells are isotonic) *Plant’s cell walls protect against O.P. and other organisms have contrac▯le vacuoles to pump out excess water. F) Passive Transport: Process of transpor▯ng molecules which requires no energy. >Facilitated Diﬀusion: protein channels assist large molecules across the membrane. G) Ac▯ve Transport: When molecules move from low to high concentra▯on, against the gradient, and require energy called ATP. H) Endocytosis: taking materials into the cell by the cell membrane. Large molecules, clumps of food, and whole cells can be taken in through the process called phagocytosis. J) Exocytosis: taking materials out of the cell through vacuoles which surrounds it and then forces it out. Mul▯cellular Organisms • Cell Specializa▯on-‐ cells in mul▯cellular organisms are specialized to perform par▯cular func▯ons in the organism. – Ex: Pancrea▯c Cells: func▯on is to produce protein enzymes to digest food. Unspecialized Cells-‐ Stem Cells Stem Cells: Body’s master cells. Can renew themselves. Can make a variety of other cells too. Summary of Microscopes& Ch.1-‐3 1. There are 3 microscopes: Simple, TEM and SEM. 2. Knowing the many func▯ons of living things such as being eukaryo▯c or prokaryo▯c, their hierarchy, how the interact with their environment from beginning to end. 3. What are molecules, the four types, and how to diﬀeren▯ate the fats 4. Knowing the cell theory, parts of a cell, what they do, the movement through a cell and the diﬀerent types.
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