Notes from the very first day of class until EXAM 1
Notes from the very first day of class until EXAM 1 PSY 350
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Angelika Bury on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 350 at Illinois State University taught by Kahn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
January 13 , 2016 Homework: Online lectures due by Wednesday NOTES Video: Danny’s phobia of dogs Symptoms: Increased heart rate, jumpiness, anxiety What might have caused it? When he was little a dog jumped up in his stroller, his mother might have been enabling him to it by protecting him every time a dog came How was the phobia treated? Behavioral treatment where they slowly exposed him to dogs until he got comfortable with them How do we know he was experiencing psychopathology? It was interfering with his daily life activities, his reactions were intense, and any type of dog scared him whether it be lying down or running around What is psychopathology? The scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. Psychopathology and abnormal psychology is the same thing. The purpose of this field is to find out what different abnormal behaviors are and explain what caused it and how to treat it. The Four D’s Deviance: something unusual, something very different from the norm, extreme Ex. Someone with schizophrenia or Danny and the dogs, left-handed (but not psychopathology) Distress: Unpleasant and upsetting to the person (We don’t always see it) Dysfunction: Interfering with the person’s ability to conduct daily activities Ex. can’t work or can’t get out of bed Dangerousness: Posing risk of harm Ex. Self-harm or suicide or psychopaths Friday lecture Stone Age Demonology: work of evil spirits Getting demon out of body by exorcism, bloodletting (cutting the person and letting their blood run) Romans had a medical view =samatogensis, the Hippocrates believed in this Caused by physical reasons Psychogenesis: caused by psychological reason Treatments: warm baths and massages Middle Ages: Dark Age Psychopathology is between good and evil, kind of of coming back to that demonology Burning people who were believed to be witches. 1400’s -1700’s Renaissance Improvement and patient care, increased hospital facilities, decline in the demon views Asylum: prison or circus side show, a place where people with mental illnesses 1800’s History of psychopathology Finally the treatment patients deserve Fillip Panel: Paris hospital, patients were in chains and in awful conditions, he said get the chains off they need to be treated Dorothy Dix: campaigned for these patients Ben Rush: believed in more human treatment, signer of Declaration, he believed in older treatments like bloodletting or restraint chair (used for tranquilizing the maniacs, the arms were constrained in containers and the feet were strapped down) 20 thcentury Brought about changes -Rebirth of somatogenesis Emil Kraepelin: physical factors cause mental illnesses, first to describe schizophrenia Psychogenis perspective: psychology plays a role in symptoms Fraud studied hypnotism, offered treatment to patients who didn’t need to be hospitalized=outpatient therapy Psycho analytical approach: first have of the century, we don’t use too much today Video 2 (more recent treatments) Hydrotherapy: patients sprayed by water to stimulate them. The wet pack: wrapping patients in wet sheets, the bath was at 98 Hotbox: used to help relax patients Insulin therapy: more dangerous than effective: Manfred Sacko came up with this and used it on patients with schizophrenia Reaction was wet shock: profuse sweating, dry shock: full brain seizure Glucose was needed to bring them out of their insulin coma Lobotomy: cut nerves in the brain Trends 1960’s decrease in patients who were hospitalized, the reason is because there was community health centers =deinstitutionalization, bad part: there aren’t enough treatments, only 40% of patients receive treatment Another trend: more people can be treated through psychotropic medications: decrease anxiety, depression, increase mood. These medications were discovered in the 1950’s and more today. Clinical psychologist: diseases someone has Has doctorate, 5 years of grad schools PHD: doctor of philosophy Psy D: doctor of psychology: practice of it Counseling psychologist: focus on treatments of patients who have depression, family/relationships problems, view a person’s problem based on developmental stage, peer group Psychologist: cannot prescribe medication Psychiatrist: physician (doctor) goes through medical school They learn about brain behaviors They view psychopathology as a disease that needs to be treated with a medication Counselor: Three-year grad program Prepared to do therapy, assessments and intervention activities, work in community health centers January 20 , 2016 RECAP: Pre historical societies: Demonology Greeks and Romans: Bodily Humors Middle Ages in Europe: Religion over science and Demonology Renaissance (1400-1700): Asylums 19 Century (1790-18002): Dorothea Dix, moral treatment th Early 20 Century: Emil Kreapelin, hypnosis Late 20 /21 Century: Deinstitutionalization, Managed care (outpatient work and the care is managed by insurance companies) Research on Psychopathology -We want to find out about prevalence (how common is mental illness) - Comorbidity of disorders (having two disorders at the same time, perhaps one causing the other) - Characteristics of disorders (What happens? What symptoms?) -Etiology of mental illnesses (Causes) -Treatments (What can work?) How should psychopathology symptoms be conceptualized and organized? Symptoms: The observable things that people have. Major Depressive Disorder: Sad moods, lack of interest, sleep problems, etc. How do we organize them? Ex. Thinking about if you have a cold or not? When you have a sore throat that’s a symptom but it doesn’t mean you have it. The cold is the syndrome and they are called latent entities. Latent entities mean that it can’t be tested. EX. Someone has depression, you can’t draw blood and conduct a test, doctors just assume because of symptoms. MODELS 1.Mutually Exclusive: two disorders that do not interfere with one another 2.Higher Order factor: people who in general are very distressed and that causes something. Distressed=may cause anxiety or depression or both 3.One symptom contributes to another system S4: sadness = S5: thoughts of suicide 4.Sideeffect of symptom. Example: Someone has a panic attack and that can causes a person to become discouraged. The symptom is not directly from DSM. Ex. Runny nose and then you get a blister under your nose, it was indirectly caused by the cold. 5. A symptom potentiates the disorder. The symptom causes the disorder. Ex. Schizophrenia: Symptom (lack of pleasure) leads to schizophrenia Research can be done in two ways. 1. Specific on a disorder 2. Transdiagnostic: study of many disorders. Reasons or symptoms on why someone might have more than one disease. Three main methods of investigation: -Case study: look at one treatment/one person in a highly detailed way. Case studies are limited. Cause and effect relations unknown=low internal validity Little basis for generalization=low external validity -Correlational method -Experimental method Friday lecture Correlational Research Have the goal of making generalization about a population based on a sample Population= everyone we are trying to make the statement about Ex: all college students at ISU We don’t sample the entire population though, just a small part. Different types of studies Epidemiological studies: concerned with the presence of disease and spread of it In psychopathology, these studies reveal prevalence and incident of a disorder in a given population. How common are eating disorders in the US and other countries? Interested in two numbers. Incidence: Number of new cases. EX. The flu. Flu season: how many new cases of the flu developed? How many people get the flu for the first time during a certain month? Prevalence: Bigger number. Total number of cases not just the new. Is the prevalence number larger or smaller than last year? Example ¾ said they were too fat and only 25% were overweight and 35% were underweight =1984 Body Image: Prevalence and the generalization are limited because not all the women read glamour magazines True correlational studies They assess people as they are. Whether two or more variables covary each other. If one variable exists does another one come along Depression? Do you think they experience symptoms in anxiety too? Yes So they covary =positive correlation High depression= low happiness = negative correlation True Correlation studies show us whether one variable changes another variable but it does not cause another variable. For example. Anxiety does not cause depression Correlation Coefficient (r) -1 to +1. The rather from zero, the stronger the correlation. Example: Sexual abuse and eating disorders. We use correlation study to figure out what this is about. Used three different assessments to figure out results. They found that people who were emotionally abused were more likely to have eating disorders. Regression analysis: lets us know if one variable changes another External Validity: results tend to generalize to broader population Critical if you draw inferences from a study Internal Validity: confidence that one variable causes another. We do not know that though, so correlational studies lack this. Longitudinal Studies - Change over time - Look at same individuals on different occasions - Ex. Symptoms when teenager and when they are an adult - Whether one variable changes over time. Ex. How do symptoms of schizophrenia change over time? - One variable at time 1 predicts a different variable at time 2. (Prospective study: looking into the future) Ex. Loneliness at time 1 might cause depressive symptoms in time 2 Genetic Studies: correlational studies but looking at pairs (doesn’t have to be twins, it can be a parent and a child) -Whether there is a genetic change due to disorder Concordance: One person has a disorder, so does the other one have it. Ex. Twins Monozygotic Twins: share 100% of genetic material Dizygotic Twins share 50% of genetic material Concordance is 2x for monozygotic twins Monday January 25 , 2016h Benefit of correlational research: look at prevalence and look at if two variables are related. Experimental method: a look at what affect one variable has on another. Looks at cause and effect. Independent variable: Dependent variable: outcomes Confound: something that might have an effect on the dependent variable but we don’t see it. Researchers must eliminate all confounds -Control group: group that doesn’t have any kind of treatment but is similar to the experimental group -Random Assignment: do not arrange people into specific groups -Blind (or double-blind design): the subject does not know whether she is in the control group or experimental. Double blind: the researcher and participant both do not know what group they are in. Internal Validity is very high in experimental studies ************** Psychotherapy and placebo: you can have someone come in and they will think they are receiving treatment but in general they are just talking to the therapist about how they are doing not any therapeutic interventions. Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT’s): tests the efficacy of treatment. These happen in medications or any interventions delivered. Evaluating the effectiveness of one experimental group versus the control group. Empirically supported treatment: has evidence from a randomized clinical trial saying that the treatment is effective. This is beneficial because if you have a mood disorder, the therapist will already have something that works, and you don’t want them to say well let me try something new. EXAMPLE How might we do a randomized clinical trial? Counting sheep with effective treatment for insomnia. Random Assignment We need a control group: they do nothing, just try to fall asleep. Experimental group: counting sheep No comorbidity Outcome variable. Dependent variable: increased amount of sleep, how fast they fall asleep. Quasi-experimental design: Experimental study where we can’t do random assignment, we can manipulate the variable though. Example: two therapists who are happy to do a study for us, one therapist is an expert in cognitive therapy and the other one is an expert in psychodynamic therapy. We can’t randomly assign patients because of the therapist’s knowledge and skills to a specific population. Natural experiments: When nature manipulates the independent variable. Example: A tornado has devastated a town, how has PTSD affected that. Analogue experiments: Experiments in recreating things. Not really in therapy because a study is done online. Ex: Show a video to patients with one strict therapist and another kind therapist and ask the patients whom they would prefer. Single-subject experiments (ABAB): Participant is assessed and then does an intervention and sees how the person has done. Common with educational studies. Correlational: does not cause causation Experimental: Cause and effect January 27 , 2016 Perspectives used to explain events = models/paradigms Biological Psychological abnormality is an illness brought about by malfunctioning parts of the organism Brain anatomy: composed of billions of neurons (cells) in our nerve system. They form brain regions to fulfill some common function. Many are in the cerebral cortex (thinking), the old part of the brain = hippocampus (memory), Amygdala (emotions) Ventricles: people with schizophrenia have bigger ventricles, so their brain is smaller. Neurons: communicate with each other through electrical impulses. It travels down the axon and releases neurotransmitters (chemical messages) and then move to another neuron onto the receptor. Neurotransmitters: way in which things are communicated Some drugs block neurotransmitters and won’t allow them to bind to the receptors Psychotropic Medications: work against the neurotransmitter o Antianxiety, Antidepressant, Antibipolar, Antipsychotic Electroconvulsive therapy: procedure that induces seizures in a hospital. Psychosurgery: not commonly done anymore, if there is a problem with brain functions, they can cut it out. Psychodynamic Behavior is determined by underlying dynamic psychological forces of which he/she is not aware. Ex. Should I or should I not? Abnormal symptoms are the result of conflict among these forces Freud describes the structure of the psychodynamic model o ID: pleasure principle, have this from birth, Brain says: I want it and I want it now. Walking by a plate of cookies. o EGO: reality principle develops around age 2. Brain says: I want it, but not something I can have right now. o SUPEREGO: morality principle develops around age 6. What kind of treatment? o Psychoanalysis (psychodynamic therapies/therapist): free association-talking about whatever comes to your mind, even if it is not relevant, therapist interpretation, catharsis- emotional expressions-fit of crying or anger o Resistance: client will start to shut down because they are getting too close to painful conversations Humanistic/Existential Humanistic: Focus is on drive to self-actualization. How do I become better and successful? Existentialist: Emphasis on self-determination, choice, and responsibility. We are responsible for our own choices. Somatogenic/Biological = back to the greeks Freud: Psychodynamic Model
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