HIST 202 Notes (1865-1876)
HIST 202 Notes (1865-1876) HIST 202-01
Popular in United States History Since 1865
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by i_carley on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIST 202-01 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Sarah Bridger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see United States History Since 1865 in History at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Cotton Monoculture/Slavery Writers of the constitution thought slavery would wither away because slavery was mainly used to produce tobacco (not a stable crop) o Had no idea cotton would take of Invention of cotton gin changes everything o Cultivation is much easier o Production through slavery increases especially in the south Expansion of cotton=expansion of slavery 1793: 5 million lbs. of cotton produced 1820: 170 million lbs. of cotton produced 1790: slave population=697,624 1820: slave population=1,538,022 1840: slave population=2,487,355 1860: slave population=3,953,760 Cotton mills also popped up in the North (N/S interdependent) Paternalism o Slave owners being responsible for the slaves o Father/child relationship o Deliberately creating dependence o Hypocritical rules o Preventing slaves from contact with others Fear of rebellion o Restrictions of slave families (marriage) “Positive good” (written by George Fitzhugh) o slavery is not flawed, it was the best/superior system o didn’t need to be defended, others should emulate it o north is competitive and selfish; south is more peaceful Arguments for slavery o Paternalism o Racism Jefersonian view: Refuting the positive good o Parents don’t beat children (that much) o Slaves are clearly not happy enough to stay o Society filled with violence does not equal peace Not many people like abolitionists (in North/South) o Abolitionists were a small, marginal group “Free labor ideology” o diferent angle on Jefersonian ideas o economy in the North o upset with industrial economy o self-sufficient artisans are Jefersonian (i.e. shoe-maker) o North is drifting towards factory work Opposite of Jeferson’s ideas o Work in the factory, save up money, then go out west and become self-sufficient Always an available option for factory workers Politics in the West are contested over o Slavery or no slavery? o White workers in the north don’t want slavery Extreme social class (no middle class) Prevents them from living out Jefersonian ideals Anti-slavery o Centrality of free labor o Resentment of southern political power o Moral revulsion Pro-Slavery o Economic desire for cotton production o Refusal to recognize it as inferior o Political desires to maintain balance of pro-slavery politicians in the federal government Free soil: o Don’t extend slavery, but let it be in the South (Lincoln) The Civil War and Emancipation Should slavery be extended into the new territories? Anti-slavery o Belief in the centrality of free labor, especially in the territories o Resentment of southern political power Federalists-supported the constitution Anti-federalists-didn’t support the constitution Federalists: o Federalist Party (Hamilton) Whigs Interdependent economy Strong central government No coherent program for slavery o Democratic-Republicans (Jeferson) Democrats Free-soil partyrepublican party (1850’s) o Concerned with the issue of the day o Not abolitionist, no slavery in territories Democrats o Pro-slavery Death of Whig party o Kansas-Nebraska agreement Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) ruling: o African Americans have no legal rights and are not citizens o Slavery is legal in all territories o Chief Justice Roger B. Taney Jeferson argues for Dred Scott 1860 Republican party o many diferent nominees o Lincoln was every group’s 2 ndchoice, so he won Won election with no southern support Extreme outrage from South about Lincoln’s win o Southern states start to secede from the Union South Carolina is first James Buchanan pretty much did nothing about seceding slave states Lincoln tried to keep remaining slave states Jeferson Davis fires on Fort SumpterCivil War begins o 4 more slave states join the Confederacy What is the Civil War really about? War and Emancipation 1863-Battle of Gettysburg o Union narrowly wins o Shifts the tide of the war in favor of the Union Confederacy had to defend itself Union had to conquer the Confederacy (successfully) Technological changes o Rifles replace muskets o Trench warfare o Enormously high death toll o Photography Major outcome of war: emancipation Top-down emancipation Bottom-up emancipation o Did slaves free themselves? o Slaves took advantage of war disruption to free themselves o Helpful to union (loss of labor in the south) Ofered to assist the Union however they could st 1 Policy: o slaves were treated as seized property 2nd Policy: o slaves were seen as people. They could serve as soldiers Emancipation Proclamation o Only freed slaves in rebellious states, but couldn’t be enforced until the Union Army was in control o Every Union victory will result in freed slaves Changes what people are fighting for Top-Down Emancipation o Emancipation Proclamation made emancipation a war aim, and encouraged further slave resistance and plantation desertion 1864: William Sherman says we should set aside some land and divide it up so freed slaves can have land. The Union Army also donated some older mules. “40 acres and a mule” o attempts to create an inter-racial democracy Slavery isn’t referenced explicitly in the Constitution until the 13h Amendment What did both sides mean by the word “liberty”? o South: secede from the Union o South: slavery is natural o North: war for all people (after Emancipation Proclamation) o North: saving the Union (before Emancipation Proclamation) Victory of the War=equality (separate but equal) o Absence of slavery Slaves are free, but have little resources (like education) Reconstruction “What rights should slaves get?” “Colloquy with Colored Ministers” o They want: land ownership Live in their own colonies Government representation Jefersonian ideas Amendment of the Constitution was required to grant former slaves their rights o Also required land redistribution o Also required some sort of enforcement Radical Republicans o Pre-war: abolitionists o Post-war: won over more people to their side “The South would never be free until the land was worked by free people” o destroy high social class Freedman’s bureaus o Created by radical republicans o Provided resources for former slaves (healthcare, education, etc.) White confederates after the war o Some want forgiveness o Don’t want to lose their land or labor Want to restart cotton production o Opposed to Freedman’s bureaus and land distribution o Came up with black codes Black Codes o Restrictions on activities for Black population o Had to have valid labor contracts o Denied many civic duties (i.e. voting, serving on juries) o Attempted to push labor back to plantations Women in the U.S. o Demand rights, but don’t win Phases of Reconstruction 1865: Sherman’s Special Order 15 (40 Acres and a Mule) o Freedman’s bureaus established o Black Codes 1865-1867: Presidential Reconstruction (Johnson) o Failure of land redistribution (1865-1866) 1867-1877: Radical Reconstruction o 1868: Impeachment of Andrew Johnson; 14 Amendment is ratified o 1870: 15 Amendment is ratified 1877: Compromise and withdrawal Lincoln: o 10% plan Johnson: o More lenient towards confederates o Took back land and gave it to plantation owners o Pardoned confederates o Caused many conflicts with congress o Allowed black codes to pass Congress o Tried to overthrow Black Codes o Impeached Johnson o Able to override Johnson’s vetoes Freeman’s Bureaus become efective again 15 Amendment-Black men can vote th 14 Amendment-defines citizenship of U.S. (anyone who was born or naturalized here) o state vs. federal authority o no state can deny citizens equal protection of laws o applies Bill of Rights to the States o separate but eqthl th Enforcement of 14 and 15 Amendment o Union troops stay in the South o Interracial elections o Massive Southern resistance Creation of KKK Practice of sharecropping (or tenant farmers) Sharecroppers are almost entirely in debt Debt peonage: people who don’t get out of debt Black/poor former slaves 1876 Presidential Election o Sam Tilden should’ve won electoral vote o Hayes creates compromise; gets electoral votes from South in return, Union troops are removed from the South No more enforcement Interracial elections go away using literacy tests, poll taxes, and other methods Difficult to elect radical republicans in the south
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