Popular in media and politics
Popular in History
This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Marisa Trant on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to POS3931 at University of South Florida taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see media and politics in History at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Study Guide (3) Media & Politics Winning With The News Media Networks (p. 309318) 1. How have networks proliferated? Networks have proliferated by creating roundtheclock newscasts and have broadcast networks scattered across the world. People continue to refer to television for breaking stories or to see what is happening around the world. 2. What is a “broadcast” network? A broadcast network delivers its programs by “broadcasting” through the air, using a network of local stations to transmit those shows. 3. What is the “cable must carry” rule and why was it created? To keep broadcasters competitive, the Congress and FCC made a rule that their signals must also be transmitted by cable systems in their local communities. This is called the “mustcarry.” 4. What was the major impact of the 1996 Telecommunications Act? The 1996 law eliminated national ownership limits for radio stations and allowed companies to own up to 20 per cent of the radio stations in the same city. 5. What time is considered “prime time”? How has it changed in its impact on viewers? Prime time television was from eight to 11p.m. This is when the most amount of people would be tuned in and watching TV, after people researched and calculated this was the best time to display news, there was a fight over who would fill this slot. People also rely on radio and the internet to get their information now, so TV is not watched as frequently and has begun to head in a downward spiral. 6. Why did new local stations want to become network affiliates? Why were independents formed? They wanted to become affiliates to strengthen the network and to create diversity. Local stations also did not have the manpower to produce their own news and to make enough revenue so they would join bigger networks and pay them to broadcast their stations. 7. What advantages does cable have over broadcast TV? More people bought into cable and they could broadcast news from all around the world and could still reach their audiences. Cable became a huge market and was the main source for people to get their news from. 8. What is the FCC definition of a broadcast network? 1 This means that they must broadcast to the needs and wants of America as a whole. 9. Where do local TV stations get most of their revenue from? How are they paid for national ads? Local TV gets most of their money from the bigger networks who they are working for. The networks are making money off of the local advertising slots that are filled by the smaller stations and are then broadcasted from the larger stations. 10. How did Fox News Channel expand so rapidly? Fox News grew so rapidly because they began to buy up small local agencies like A&E, The Discovery Channel and others and paid them $10 for being on their network. After a few years, Fox News began to take off. A lot of the money came from local advertising slots. 11. How do network news organizations and local affiliates cooperate? Who pays for what? Network news organizations tend to pay local companies to work for them so that they can have more diversity and more channels. The after awhile, Americans began to pay to have cable installed in their house in order to watch these channels. 12. What are “O and Os”? Why have they proliferated since 1985? TV stations are owned and operated by one of the national TV networks. In 1985, one company could own as may as 12 stations, which was around 25 percent of the national audience. However, the rules have changed and now a company can own as many stations as they want expect they cannot control over 39 percent of the national audience. 13. Why has there been more rapid consolidation of radio station ownership than of any other medium? In 1996, radio stations were allowed companies to own up to 20 per cent of radio stations in a given town. Therefore, there was a rapid consolidation of radio station ownership. 14. What is “convergence,” why has it emerged, and what problems is it creating? Convergence has emerged because there have been several laws allowing companies to own other news stations and they have bought them up in order to create more channels and revenue for their own companies. Newscast (p. 319330) 1. What is the “news hole” and how long is it for TV and radio? It is the space set aside for news stories. The “news hole” is about 30 to 60 minutes long depending on the story for TV and 10 to 15 seconds long for the radio. 2. Why do younger and older viewers see cuts differently? 2 Younger people can see the cuts because they have been watching television since they were very young but older people cannot. It is necessary to keep the audiences attention so a young person’s point of view is more important. 3. How has technology affected viewers’ attention span? Viewers cannot stay focused for more than 20 to 30 seconds. Most people are used to things changing relatively quickly and get bored and wonder after the same story or commercial is on for longer than 30 seconds. Stories need to be interesting and concise. 4. What is the length of a typical sound bite and why? They are normally about 10 seconds long. There is a rule to never let someone talk on air for more than 10 seconds because they become very boring to the audience. 5. How are TV anchors selected and why? TV anchors are usually very good looking and are easy to listen to. Usually an anchor team will be a man and a woman because they tend to provide both sides of the spectrum and satisfy both male and female viewers. 6. What is meant by “pacing the newscast”? A long or important story needs to be planned out. The anchor will sometimes read the story and then a picture of the event will be portrayed behind them. You have to take your time and speak at different levels in order for the audience to stay focused. 7. What is meant by a “voiceover” (V/O) story? That means that while the anchor is telling the story, the controller will switch over to the video of what the anchor is explaining and all you will hear is their voice. 8. What is meant by “V/O to SOV”? This is when the anchor is reading and the story is put on the television and then the anchor stops speaking and the sound of the video is played. 9. What is the purpose of a “leadin”? The anchor copy is the leadin. It is a headline that will tell you what the story is about and will grab your attention. 3
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