Weeks 1-3 Notes
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Biological Psychology WEEK 1 NOTES 0 The global issues of biological psychology Psychobiology new and fascinating 0 Elements 0 Anatomy Biochemistry Biology Endocrinology Neurology 0 Psychopharmacology Psychobiology Nervous system 0 Sensor and motor processes 0 Motivation and emotion OOOO Names for psychobiology 0 Physiological psychology 0 Biological psychology 0 Neuropsychology o Biopsychology Relationships between behavior and the nervous system Underlying the basic assumption in all elds of psychobiology is the belief that a great deal of abnormal behavior can ultimately be traced to our neuroanatomy and biochemistry For every behavioral event every action feeling and thought there is a corresponding physical event or events taking place in the body ultimately involving the chemical and electrical properties of the nervous system Psychobiology is a behavioral science 0 The emphasis on behavior is important because it serves to differentiate the psych biologists from scientists working in such elds as physiology biology and biochemistry Exploring the mind and body brain problem 0 The notion that unexplainable invisible spirits are the controlling forces of life animism souls o It took a very long time for scienti c principles to replace the animistic view of the mind 0 The principal theory pneuma theory to emerge during the rise of the Greek Civilization Attributed the function of mind to invisible spirts known as pneuma the Spirit of God Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that the brain was the controlling mechanism of all mental and emotional faculties Greek physician Galen severed the nerves leading to a pig s larynx and offered the pig s inability to vocalize as proof of a relationship between the nervous system and behavior Both did not use their ndings to challenge the pneuma theory Dualism people view the mind and body in dualistic terms with the mind traditionally seen as an entity distinct from the physical world of matter and governed by an entirely separate set of principles Greek philosopher Anaxagoras states that all living organisms possess a power called nous mind or intellect 0 Mind with although distinct from the body is an in nite selfruling entity that exercises complete control of the life processes Plato maintained that the mind because of its spiritual nature cannot be governed by the same physical laws that rule the body Contrary to Plato s conception it is now generally believed that mental events are governed not by separate laws but by the same basic laws that apply to physical events a way of thinking known as monism The impact of Descartes interactionism Considered the father of physiological psychology and was a 17th century French philosopher and mathematician He rejected the notion that the mind and body operated in separate unrelated spheres and theorized that many behaviors formerly thought to be investigation could be explained mechanistically He thus made the rst true break from dualism but he never really attacked the pneuma theory directly nor did he ever propose that all human behavior could be reduced entirely to mechanics His view of the mind and body is called the interactionism The nature and nurture issues British empiricists John Locke David Hume and George Berkeley were responsible for taking the study of mindbody relationships completely from the realm of the metaphysical and the religions into the mainstream of experimental scienti c inquiry Rene Descartes and Immanuel Kant believed that we are born with a priori knowledge 0 A set of innate ideas that exists at birth and develops naturally as we mature o This is called the nativism that emphasizes the importance of gene cs John Locke believed that at birth a human is nothing more than a tabula rasa a blank slate on which life experiences make their marks this is called the empiricism that emphasizes the in uences of environmental factors Nature genetics Human behavior or action is a complex interaction of nature and nurture l Genes make proteins which make enzymes which are catalysts that get molecules to interact o PKU missing a speci c gene missing an enzyme which makes you unable to digest certain things changes some foods to an acid which kills brain cells and causes mental retardation o This is an effect of NATURE but can be controlled by NURTURE not eating certain foods The current view of nature and nurture issues is that human behavior is a result of a complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors The study of brain relations Franz Joseph Gall linked the sizes of different parts of brains which he determined by measuring bumps protuberances along the surface of the skull with personality traits This is called the phrenology Whether speci c areas in the brain control speci c behavior events known as the speci clocalization thesis or whether the brain operates more of less as a whole in its control of behavior known as the doctrine of antilocalization Paul Broca surgeon and anthropologist performed an autopsy on a dead mute patient and found damage to a section of the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere Broca s area motor speech and concluded that Broca s area controls speech it supports the speci clocalization thesis as Gall did Later Karl Wernicke found an area in the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere Wernike s area sensory speech Wernicke s aphasia is a condition marked by poor language comprehension and great dif culty remembering the names of objects Wernicke opposed the notion of speci clocalization thesis Brain parts have to work together to achieve a goal 0 Motor and sensory speech areas you need both to listen respond and understand properly 0 Localization and the amount of tissue that is damaged able to test what you are affecting speech memory etc o Localization memory and learning work together 0 Karl Lashley refuted the localization view 0 First he trained rats to learn their way through a maze then damaged speci c parts of the rat s brain and observed the behavior consequences 0 He found that a rat s ability to learn and remember depended on how large an area was affected and not the location of the damage 0 He concluded that while there are localized portions of the brain that control sensory and motor behaviors the control of higherorder behaviors such as learning and memory are not localized but is controlled by the brain as a unit WEEK 2 NOTES Both Wernicke and Lashley supported the doctrine of antilocalization The modern view of how the brain operates to control behavior is really a combination of the antilocalization and localization views 0 That is speci c behaviors are controlled more by one area than by others but no behavior is exclusively controlled by any one area 0 2 supporters of localization one part of the brain controls one thing not true 2 people against speci c localization Center means localized In the early 1960 s the Spanish ScientistJose Delgado entered a bull ring with a cape and a radio transmitter to tame a raging bull by stimulating a part of the bull s brain 0 Studies of electrical stimulation of the brain provide strong evidence that the brain is responsible for mental activity 0 Sometimes it is hard to imagine how evolution might have favored the behavior such as altruistic behavior kin selection theory The ethics of animal experimentation has become controversial 0 l VMH ventral bottom medial middle hypothalamus o Satiety center 0 Stimulation feel full 0 Damage never feel full over eating 0 l LH lateral side hypothalamus o Hunger and thirst center 0 Stimulation always hungry o Damage never hungry 0 There are 4 kinds of explanations of an observed phenomenon such as bird song Why do birds sing Among songbirds adult males generally do most of the singing they sing vigorously in spring and early summer Why do particular kinds of birds sing at the particular times as they do A physiological explanation of bird song 0 Bird song depends on two areas of the brain the caudal nucleus of the hyperstriatum ventrale and the robust nucleus of the archistriatum 0 These two areas are well developed in songbirds such as sparrows and nches 0 They are small or absent in birds with only simple vocalizations such as chickens and pigeons If the testes are surgically removed from a male songbird his testosterone level drops the two brain areas decrease in size and he does not sing A functional explanation of bird song The song of a male bird serves two functions o It attracts females for mating and it defends its territory Mendelian genetics Gregor Mendel is the father of genetics Before 2001 scientists estimated 100000 genes in each human being Between 2001 and 2004 the estimate was about 30000 After October 2004 the new estimate is 20000 to 25000 genes By comparison C elegans a dirt worm that is a favorite research subject has around 19500 genes Another lab favorite a mustard plant called Arabidopsis has about 27000 genes So how can humans be so complex with relative few genes In comparison to similar organisms humans bene t more from genes Each gene manufactures multiple proteins 310 possible more rather than one like a fruit y The proteins from human genes are far more complex and do more than one job 0 l Recessive and dominant genes l Autosomes chromosomes 122 Sexlinked chromosome 23 l Chromosomes genes Human genes are responsible to produce proteins amino acids proteins make enzymes I We have complex proteins 0000 O 0 Homozygous dominant having two dominant alleles of the same gene Homozygous recessive having two recessive alleles of the same gene Heterozygous possessing two different forms of a particular gene one inherited from each parent Every normal human has 23 pairs of chromosomes 23 from mother and 23 from father 0 Extra 21st chromosome will cause Down s Syndrome Mongolism 1700 0 A disorder includes mental retardation heart defects and other physical abnormalities 0 Genes do two things 0 They instruct cells on how to produce enzymes to sustain life 0 They pass these instructions to the next generation to reproduce life Genes are chemicals found in the nuclei of cells that determine traits Every living organism has genes and genes by the hundreds of thousands are linked together in every human being to form chromosomes Alleles are the different forms of a gene Some genes are dominant and some genes are recessive There are two possible states of a gene for a diploid organism Each gene is made up of two representative alleles one inherited from the maternal source mother and the other inherited from the parental source father WEEK 3 NOTES 0 Homozygous dominant having two dominant alleles of the same gene Homozygous recessive having two recessive alleles of the same gene 0 Heterozygous possessing two different forms of a particular gene one inherited from each parent 0 Every normal human has 23 pairs of chromosomes 0 23 from mother and 23 from father 0 Extra 21st chromosome will cause Down s Syndrome Mongolism 1700 0 A disorder includes mental retardation heart defects and other physical abnormalities 0 Genes on the rst 22 chromosomes autosomes are called autosomal genes and genes on the 23rd chromosomes sex chromosomes either X or Y are called sexlinked genes 0 The Y chromosome is small in humans it has genes for only 27 proteins However the Y chromosome also has many sites that in uence the functioning of genes on other chromosomes The X chromosome has genes for about 1500 proteins Thus when biologists speak of sexlinked genes they usually mean X linked genes Females have two X s and makes have one X and one Y Generally on autosomal chromosomes but active mainly in one sex activated by sex hormones Examples include the genes that control the amount of chest hair in men or breast size in women Since typically the X chromosome is longer it bears a lot of genes not found on the Y chromosome Thus most sexlinked genes are Xlinked genes One example of a sexlinked gene is color blindness Genes change in several ways one way is by mutation a heritable change in a DNA molecu The human FOXP2 gene differs from the chimpanzee version of that gene in just two babes but those two mutations modi ed the human brain and vocal apparatus in several ways that facilitate language development Another kind of mutation is a duplication microduplication or deletion microdeletion some tiny part of a chromosome during the process of reproduction Many researches believe that microduplications and microdeletions of brainrelevant genes are a possible explanation without modi cation of the DNA sequence Rat pups with a low depress of maternal care early in life after the expression of certain genes in the brain are called hippocampus resulting in high vulnerability to emotional stress reactions later in life Changes in gene expression are also central to learning and memory and to brain changes resulting from drug addiction Epigenetics is a new growing eld that will almost certainly play an increasing important role in our understanding of behavior For example when monozygotic twins differ in the psychiatric or other medical conditions epigenetics differences are a likely explanation Experiences act by altering the activity of genes interaction between nature and nurture Chemical substance that makes up the gene is called deoxyribonucleic acid DNA DNA is make up chemically of 4 nucleotide bases A adenine T thymine G guanine and C cytosine James Watson and Francis Crick suggested that DNA consists of long linear strands of chemicals twisted together in the approximate form of a helix For every trait in every species there is a speci c sequence of nucleotide bases along the helical strand It is this helical arrangement of DNA that confers on genes their 2 funcUons o 1 reproduction o 2 the production of enzymes chemicals of life The DNA in an existing cell separates or unzips down the middle and each half attracts the appropriate chemical bases from its environment to form a new DNA chain AT and CG Thus each of the two new double chains is identical to the original Estimated base pairs in human homo sapiens is 35 billion Fruit y has 4 pairs of chromosomes 13338 genes and has 61 of coding genes shared with humans There are two types of cell division 0 Mitosis occurs in nearly all cells 0 Meiosis is reserved for organisms that engage in sexual reproduction and it takes place only in reproductive cells gametes eggs and sperms A zygote is formed from a fertilization of an egg by a sperm and grows into a new organism Errors in mitotic division known as nondisjunction frequently result in abnormal behavior including a form of mental retardation Down s Syndrome Genes regulate enzyme production by regulating the way in which amino acids align to form different proteins Genes DNA act in the nucleus but enzymes are produced in the cytoplasm so an intermediary is needed That intermediary is messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA RNA resembles DNA but it consists of a single strand of nucleotide babes and contains the nucleotide base U uracil instead ofT thymine DNA determines the sequence of nucleotide bases in RNA UA and C G The new RNA then travels to the cytoplasm where it regulates the production of enzymes by determining the alignment of their amino acids NH2 There are 22 2021 kinds of amino acids A typical protein may contain as many as 200 amino acids linked together in a speci c sequence Sometimes the makeup of a gene is altered causing a mutant form This error in duplication is thought to occur in DNA after it upzips during reproduction Mutations may cause 0 LeschNyhan syndrome de ciency in the enzyme guanine monophosphate pyrophasphorylase GMP as it causes self mutilating behavior biting off nger tips and others 0 Phenylketonuria PKU 110000 to 120000 the lack of a speci c enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase it may cause mental retardation the basis of PKU lies in the metabolism of an amino acid called phenylalanine under normal conditions this enzyme is taken into the body through the diet and broken down into another amino acid known as tyrosine this breakdown calls for a speci c enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase If that enzyme is missing as in PKU the phenylalanine is converted to phenylpyruvic acid an odorous toxin rather than tyrosine The acid may cause neural damage and produce mental retardation PKU can be detected in the urine of newborns Every state now screens the blood phenylalanine level of all newborns at about 3 days of age Usually a few drops of blood are obtained by a small prick of heel placed on a card and then sent for measurement Newborn screening allows early identi cation and early implementation of treatment The goal of PKU treatment is to maintain the blood level of phenylalanine between 2 and 10 mgdl Some phenylalanine is needed for normal growth This requires a diet that has some phenylalanine but in much lower amounts than normal Many biologists contend that we human beings are the products of millions and millions of mutations that began at the foot of the evolutionary ladder with the primitive singlecelled organism Charles Darwin stated that if a species becomes too xed in its genetic makeup it cannot adjust to environmental change He used the term natural selection to describe the process that results in the survival of individuals or groups best adjusted to the environment survival of the ttest Two factors are constantly at work in most species to produce and maintain genetic variation mutation and sexual reproduction evolution The environment indirectly but substantially affects the makeup of the gene pool Chinese One Child Policy has a negative impact on Chinese evolution because of the stagnation of the gene pool Evolution requires reproduction Nerve Cells and Nerve lmpulses All organisms are built of the same biological materials cells Cells are powered by the same biological processes 0 The production of energy and o The regulation of this cellular activity through the genes Humans interact with their environment and this interaction must be adavae Adaptive behavior is composed of 3 elements 0 The detection of stimuli in the environment 0 The responses we make to these stimuli o The ability to coordinate responses with stimuli in an adaptive manner Structure of a cell a typical cell is composed of protoplasm an all encompassing term that refers to a variety of intricately organized substances proteins fats sugars and inorganic salts in a 95 water solution The protoplasm is separated from the environment by the cell membrane plasma membrane which is composed of 2 layers of lipids fat molecules and proteins The cell membrane has two basic functions 0 To act as a passive mold to give the protoplasm form 0 To regulate the ow of energyrich material into the cell and of waste material out of the cell Inside the cells is a second membrane called the nuclear membrane that separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell cytoplasm Red blood cells don t have a nucleus so red blood cells contain no genes The nucleus is comprised primarily of chromosomes whose purpose is to regulate two functions 0 The reproduction of the cell and o The activity of the cytoplasm The cytoplasm contains a number of different structures known collectively as organelles cell organs most of which help to process nutrients into energy A complex system of membranes endoplasmic reticulum form a network of tubules thin tubes that course across the cytoplasm to link the outer cell membrane with the inner nuclear membrane The endoplasmic reticulum performs two jobs o It functions both as a passive skeleton to give the cytoplasm some structural organization and 0 As a transport system carrying energyrick material from the external environment to points within the cytoplasm and nucleus Ribosomes are the sites at which the cell synthesizes new protein molecules Ribosomes attach to endoplasmic reticulum Lysosomes contain enzymes Golgi complex Golgi apparatus is a network of vesicles preparing hormones and other products for secretion The energyprocessing cyce within each cell begins outside it in the suanht Through the process of photosynthesis the energy of sunlight is captured by green plants in the form of chemical bonds that gold carbon and hydrogen atoms together within organic compounds As this state the energy is in stored form In order for an animal to make use of this energy it must not only eat the plant but also convert the stored energy into an active form which involved the cellular process known as respiration Respiration is the process by which energy entering the cell in the form carbon bond is broken down and packaged in a form that can be utilized by the cell Respiration is accomplished mainly by the mitochondrion which is the power plant of the cell the place where energy is extracted from nutrients and converted into a form of suitable use by the cell ADP P E ATP in the mitochondrion Adenosine diphosphate ADP Adenosine triphosphate ATP ATP leaves the mitochondrion ATP ADP P E release E to do work and ADP returns to the mitochondrion and the energy cyce renews Energy cannot be released randomly In order to be used it must be released at very speci c sites within the cells Energy must reach the cell nucleus for reproduction of cells Must reach the cytoplasm to build new proteins Must reach the mitochondrion to spur the formation of ATP Enzymes the chemicals of life channel energy to the appropriate areas of the cell The human nervous system consists of as many as 200 billion working parts all of them so interconnected that the number of combinations approaches in nity In humans and other animals the nervous system is divided into 2 major parts o The central nervous system CNS 0 The peripheral nervous system PNS The neuron is the basic unit of the nervous system and is also called the nerve cell 0 There may be as many as 150 billion neurons in the human nervous system 0 The majority about 70100 billion of them are located in the brain the rest are distributed throughout the spinal cord and PNS Each neuron is connected functionally not physically with others often with thousands of others 0 There are nonneural cells in the nervous system known as glial cells of glia neuroglial cells Glial cells are not directly involved in the transmission of information 0 They hold neurons in place and regulate the ow of energyrelated materials to the neuron and of waste matter out of them Glia play a crucial role in guiding the growth of neurons during embryonic development and during their regeneration after they have been damaged Gila are the chief source of tumors and other forms of disease in the nervous system 0 Such as multiple sclerosis MS 0 The term of glia is derived from a Greek word meaning glue 0 The size of a glial cell is about 110 of that or a neuron but there are about 10 times as many as neurons as the result that glia and neurons occupy the equal space in the nervous system 0 In general glia cells can be divided into 2 major groups 0 Those found in the CNS The oligodendrocytes from myelin sheath The astrocytes astroglia radial glia from part of the blood brain barrier 0 Those found in the PNS The Schwann cells from the myelin sheath The satellite cells mechanical support omz1n
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